(i) Air temperature(ii) Air pressure(iii) Wind Velocity(iv) Humidity(v) Precipitation (rain, snow hail etc.)(vi) Clouds(viii) Solar radiation
(i) Air temperatureThermometer thermometers measure the air temperature via theexpansion or contraction of a liquid or a metal as the airtemperature changes. Some thermometers containred-colored alcohol, others contain mercury, while stillothers have a bimetal coil attached to a gauge.Thermographs An instrument that recordstemperature on graphing paper.
BarometerTypes of barometer:o Mercury barometer----Barometers measurethe air pressure, which is sometimes referred to asbarometric pressure. The pressure of the air on thepool of mercury in the barometer causes themercury to rise in a tube. We measure the heightof mercury in the tube in inches. Aneroid barometers--- which dont contain mercury buthave a small box inside instead. The air pressure on thisbox causes it to change shape, moving a needle on agauge that indicates the air pressure. Normal airpressure readings vary from 28 to 31. Barographa recording barometer.
Wind Vane Indicates wind direction.Anemometer measures wind speed.Made of propeller cupswhich are rotated by thewind’s motion.aerovane Indicates both the winddirection and speed orsimply the ―wind velocity‖Anemographs Records the variations ofthe wind velocity.
Psychometer—measures humidityconsists of dry and wet-bulbthermometer Hair Hygrometer—uses human hair Hydrothermograph—records relativehumidity and temperatureon a graphingpaper.
Rain Gauge– a galvanized iron cylinderwhich is 20 cm in diameter.A rain gauge is a weather tool used tocollect rain. Using measurements on the side of therain gauge, you can see how manyinches it rained.
Ceiling Light Projector-- usesa searchlight to projectvertically anarrow beam of light ontoa cloud base.The height of the cloud base isdetermined by usinga clinometer, located at aknown distance from theceiling light, to measure theangle included by theilluminated spot on the cloud,the observer, and the ceilinglight.
Polar-Obtaining Satellites-- is an orbit inwhich a satellite passes above or nearlyabove both poles of the body beingorbited on each revolution. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite(GMS)---- satellites hovering over thesame spot on the equator. Pilot Balloon-- A small balloon used todetermine wind velocity. Theodolite-- An optical instrumentconsisting of a small mountedtelescope rotatable in horizontal andvertical planes, used to measure anglesin surveying, meteorology, andnavigation.