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09 Artificial Intelligence 2018 Part 2

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09 Artificial Intelligence 2018 Part 2

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09 Artificial Intelligence 2018 Part 2

  1. 1. 83 It was Herbert A. Simon, Nobel Prize of Economics (1978) who was the first to predict, in 1957, that computers would surpass humans in chess within “ten years”. It took 40 years for the prediction to be realized. Source: Wikipedia (2016). Herbert A. Simon, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_A._Simon, last accessed Feb 21, 2016. K winsK wins K loosesK wins K looses TieK wins K looses Tie TieK wins K looses Tie Tie TieK wins K looses K loosesTie Tie Tie Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  2. 2. 84 Excerpted from Desweef (Aug 15, 2007). Chess Robot The Turk, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdT4yG8wczQ, last accessed Feb 18, 2014. 0:3 5 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  3. 3. 85 The mechanical chess player that Wolfgang von Kempelen built in 1770 was one of the most famous automata of all time. The automaton could beat chess experts, European royals, and celebrities in live chess matches. The Lost Museum Archive (2017). Automaton Chess Player, 1770, https://lostmuseum.cuny.edu/archive/automaton-chess-player- 1770, last accessed Jan 20, 2017. Weak AI (Narrow AI) The mechanical chess player that Wolfgang von Kempelen built in 1770 was one of the most famous automata of all time. The automaton could beat chess experts, European royals, and celebrities in live chess matches. An 1837 newspaper revealed the presence of an assistant concealed inside the cabinet. A fire at the Chinese Museum in Philadelphia in 1854 destroyed the automaton chess player.
  4. 4. 86 The main body of the automaton was a large box topped with a chessboard, and standing at the cabinet was a life-size mannequin of a human, dressed in Turkish robes. Gajitz (n.d.). Chess Chicanery: Georgian-Era Hoax Gadget Fooled World, https://gajitz.com/chess-chicanery-georgian-era-hoax- gadget-fooled-world/, last accessed Jan 20, 2017. See more in Morton, E. (Aug 18, 2015). Object of Intrigue: The Turk, a Mechanical Chess Player that Unsettled the World, Atlas Obscura, https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/object-of-intrigue-the-turk, last accessed Jan 20, 2017. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  5. 5. 87 Source: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/mar/10/google-alphago-ai-wins-second-game-against-go-champion-lee-sedol Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  6. 6. 88 Johnson, G. (July 29, 1997). To Test a Powerful Computer, Play an Ancient Game, The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/29/science/to-test-a-powerful-computer-play-an-ancient-game.html, last accessed July 11, 2018. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  7. 7. 89 https://www.newscientist.com/article/2117920-poker-ai-competes-to-beat-top-players-in-no-limit-game/ Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  8. 8. 90 Harding, L. and Barden, L. (May 12, 2011). From the archive, 12 May 1997: Deep Blue win a giant step for computerkind Originally published in the Guardian on 12 May 1997, https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2011/may/12/deep-blue-beats- kasparov-1997, last accessed July 10, 2018. Deep Blue could analyze 200 million positions a second, sometimes 300 million, and can analyze 74 moves ahead. Deep Blue could analyze 200 million positions a second, sometimes 300 million, and can analyze 74 moves ahead, compared with chess masters who typically think 10 moves ahead. Weak AI (Narrow AI) In the case of chess…
  9. 9. 91 Yet… 1:35 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  10. 10. 92 Samay, N. (March 31, 2018). Funny Cat Jumping video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gfWpNCFjgfY, last accessed Mar 31, 2018. 0:14 Weak AI (Narrow AI) Computing?
  11. 11. 93 Do machines compute or do they think? Weak AI (Narrow AI) Every thought is a computation
  12. 12. 94 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  13. 13. 95 Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking about them. Albert North Whitehead in his An Introduction to Mathematics, Oxford Univ. Press. 1991. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  14. 14. 96 Weak AI (Narrow AI) 100 millions of MIPS
  15. 15. 97 Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking about them. Albert North Whitehead in his An Introduction to Mathematics, Oxford Univ. Press. 1991. It is according to Nick Bostrom, Professor of Philosophy at Oxford University, that the amount of computing power needed to match the human mind can be roughly estimated to 1014 operations per second for the entire human brain. Bostrom, N. (2003). Are you living in a computer simulation, Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No.211, pp. 243-255, can be found on https://www.simulation-argument.com/simulation.pdf, last accessed July 14, 2018. 100 millions of MIPS Weak AI (Narrow AI) It is according to Nick Bostrom, Professor of Philosophy at Oxford University, that the amount of computing power needed to match the human mind can be roughly estimated to 1014 operations per second for the entire human brain. An alternative estimate, based the number of synapses in the brain and their firing frequency, gives a figure of 1016 to 1017 operations per second (p. 4).
  16. 16. 98 • Structured decisions • Repetitive • Routine • Based on a procedure • Unstructured decisions • Novel • Infrequent Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  17. 17. 99 Human Knowledge Machine Knowledge Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  18. 18. 100 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  19. 19. 101 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  20. 20. 102 Excerpted from the movie Limitless directed by Neil Burger (2011) @ 9:42-9:50 0:0 9 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  21. 21. 103 Weak AI (Narrow AI) Excerpted from the movie Lucy by Luc Besson (2014). 0:0 8
  22. 22. 104 Weak AI (Narrow AI) The truth is: most people use most of their brain most of the time.
  23. 23. 105 In the last century, humans have landed a man on the moon, sequenced the genome, and created the Internet — but, surprisingly, we may be slowly evolving to be less intelligent than our ancestors. Source: Koebler, J. (2012). Dumb and Dumber: Study Says Humans Are Slowly Losing Their Smarts - Stanford geneticist says humans evolving into dumber species, November 13, U.S.News & World Report, http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2012/11/13/dumb-and-dumber-study-says-humans-are-slowly-losing-their-smarts, last accessed on Mar 12, 2013. The limitations of the human being – Limited rationality Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  24. 24. 106 The limitations of the human being – Limited rationality Fish, I. (12 June 2018). Young people really ARE getting more stupid: IQs have started to fall by seven points per generation in 'pretty worrying' trend, scientists discover, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5832789/Young-people-really-getting-stupid-IQs- falling-seven-points-generation.html, last accessed July 1, 2018. O'Neill, N. (12 June 2018). Millennial men are getting dumber by the year, https://nypost.com/2018/06/12/millennial-men-are-getting- dumber-by-the-year/, last accessed July 1, 2018. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  25. 25. 107 Bratsberg, B. and Rogeberg, O. (11 June 2018). Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2018/06/05/1718793115, last accessed July 1, 2018. Weak AI (Narrow AI) The limitations of the human being – Limited rationality-Framing effects Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  26. 26. 108 Excerpted from Youtube (Mar 31, 2013). ROBOT Vs HUMAN (Exciting Chess), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qS5EPbsmCXs, last accessed Jan 20, 2017: Russian Chess Player GM Grischuk Alexander Vs Germany's Made ROBOT(KUKA). 0:06 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  27. 27. 109 Strong AI (General AI) Strong AI is defined as machines that can use human intelligence in the activities that they perform without any external (human) help. Kerns, J. (Feb 15, 2017). What’s the Difference Between Weak and Strong AI? Machine Design, http://www.machinedesign.com/robotics/what-s-difference-between-weak-and-strong-ai, last accessed July 15, 2018 and Strong AI (General AI) Strong AI (General AI) Strong AI is defined as machines that can use human intelligence in the activities that they perform without any external (human) help. We also speak of “artificial general intelligence” (AGI) and superintelligence. Strong AI does not classify, but uses clustering and association to process data. For example, a machine might hear “good morning” and start to associate that with the coffee maker turning on.
  28. 28. 110 Kerns, J. (Feb 15, 2017). What’s the Difference Between Weak and Strong AI? Machine Design, http://www.machinedesign.com/robotics/what-s-difference-between-weak-and-strong-ai, last accessed July 15, 2018. Strong AI (General AI) Strong AI (General AI) (continued) In one example, an AI program taught itself to play 49 classic Atari games (next slide). When the program was instructed to obtain the highest score it could in the game Breakout, it was able to outperform humans in just 2.5 hours. Researchers let the program continue and to their surprise, the program developed a strategy that was not programmed into the system. Keep in mind that all that the computer does, is “see” a bunch of numbers. It knows what variables it controls, and how it is able to increase points based on how it controls the variables in relation to the other numbers.
  29. 29. 111 0:5 6 From the movie Do You Trust this Computer? by Chris Paine (April 5, 2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nEP02sreGpA, last accessed July 2, 2018. Strong AI (General AI)
  30. 30. 112 Are machines capable of learning? 1. Bradshaw, G. L., Langley, P. et Simon, H. A. (1983). Studying Scientific Discovery by Computer Simulation. Science, Vol. 222, No. 4627, pp. 971-975, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3a5b/21667703c5f79aa1049fb50d501196109d61.pdf, last accessed July Strong AI and Learning Are machines capable of learning? In the 1980s, Herb Simon and his colleagues1 created BACON, a computer program which, based on just three simple heuristic rules, could discover new knowledge. Are machines capable of learning? In the 1980s, Herb Simon and his colleagues1 created BACON, a computer program which, based on just three simple heuristic rules, could discover new knowledge. Starting from a two column matrix and data about the distance to the sun (D) as well as the duration of a rotation in terrestrial years of four planets (P), the program could « discover » the third law of Kepler (D3/P2).
  31. 31. 113 Bradshaw, G. L., Langley, P. et Simon, H. A. (1983). Studying Scientific Discovery by Computer Simulation. Science, Vol. 222, No. 4627, pp. 971-975, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3a5b/21667703c5f79aa1049fb50d501196109d61.pdf, last accessed July 10, Also, when provided with data about temperatures before and after two substances are brought into contact, the program infers the concept of specific heat and arrives at Black’s law of temperature equilibrium. In general, and this is in the early 1980s! BACON’s “inputs are data that may include both numerical and nominal values, while its outputs are empirical laws that summarize those data” (p. 972). Strong AI and Learning
  32. 32. 114 Also, when provided with data about temperatures before and after two substances are brought into contact, the program infers the concept of specific heat and arrives at Black’s law of temperature equilibrium. In general, and this is in the early 1980s! BACON’s “inputs are data that may include both numerical and nominal values, while its outputs are empirical laws that summarize those data” (p. 972). Bradshaw, G. L., Langley, P. et Simon, H. A. (1983). Studying Scientific Discovery by Computer Simulation. Science, Vol. 222, No. 4627, pp. 971-975, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3a5b/21667703c5f79aa1049fb50d501196109d61.pdf, last accessed July 10, trial and error? Strong AI and Learning
  33. 33. 115 What is the difference between the 1997 Deep Blue computer and today’s (Google) computers? From hardware To software Learn Learn to learn Strong AI and Learning
  34. 34. 116 The difference between the 1997 Deep Blue computer and today’s (Google) computers is that they can learn out of context. The difference between the 1997 Deep Blue computer and today’s (Google) computers is that they can learn out of context. In the case of Google Duplex, the context is focused: make a reservation at a restaurant or a hair salon. The difference between the 1997 Deep Blue computer and today’s (Google) computers is that they can learn out of context. In the case of Google Duplex, the context is focused: make a reservation at a restaurant or a hair salon. Question: did this AI pass the Turing test? Strong AI and Learning
  35. 35. 117 0:1 1 From the movie Ex machina by Alex Garland (Jan 21, 2015). Strong AI and Learning
  36. 36. 118 Alan Turing’s seminal 1950 paper It was Alan Turing, the British computer scientist, mathematician, and philosopher, who devised the test as a means of measuring whether a computer was capable of demonstrating intelligent behavior equivalent to or indistinguishable from that of a human. Strong AI and Learning
  37. 37. 119 www.steg.com.tn Signing up A CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) is trade mark of the Carnegie Mellon University referring to tests used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human. Strong AI and Learning
  38. 38. 120 Strong AI and Learning
  39. 39. 121 Sometimes it gets annoying (Tor), some other times just funny: Strong AI and Learning
  40. 40. 122 The Turing test was, however, reportedly passed by Eugene Goostman. See https://www.quora.com/How-can-I-chat-with-Eugene-Goostman-the-bot-that-passed-the-Turing-Test Strong AI and Learning The Turing test was, however, reportedly passed by Eugene Goostman. Eugene Goostman was a chatbot that was disguised as a 13-year-old from Ukraine. The Turing test was, however, reportedly passed by Eugene Goostman. Eugene Goostman was a chatbot that was disguised as a 13-year-old from Ukraine. In June 2014, it was purported to be the first program to pass the Turing Test.
  41. 41. 123 For example, Eugene’s answer to whether he has a girlfriend: Q. Do you have a girlfriend? A. I don’t have a girlfriend ‘cause I still can’t understand what a pleasure to spend my money on somebody else without an instant or delayed result. Amlen, D. (June 13, 2014). Our Interview with Turing Test Winner 'Eugene Goostman', Yahoo! FINANCE, https://finance.yahoo.com/news/our-interview-with-turing-test-winner-eugene-goostman-88482732919.html, last accessed July 6, Strong AI and Learning
  42. 42. 124 Q. What is your favorite subject in school? A. My friends and teachers say I am totally stupid and untalented, so I only like music lessons because music teacher tells me only that I’m tone-deaf and at least doesn’t call me stupid. Strong AI and Learning
  43. 43. 125 Are machines capable of learning? Krister Wolff and Peter Nordin, two Swedish scientists, designed a winged robot capable of learning how to fly. Sandhana, L. (Sept 5, 2002). A theory of evolution, for robots, Wired, https://www.wired.com/2002/09/a-theory-of-evolution-for- robots/, last accessed July 2018. consulté le 30 decembre 2003. Cheating (standing on its wings) was one of the first concepts the robot grasped. Strong AI and Learning
  44. 44. 126 Are machines capable of learning? Krister Wolff and Peter Nordin, two Swedish scientists, designed a winged robot capable of learning how to fly. Sandhana, L. (Sept 5, 2002). A theory of evolution, for robots, Wired, https://www.wired.com/2002/09/a-theory-of-evolution-for- robots/, last accessed July 2018. consulté le 30 decembre 2003. Cheating (standing on its wings) was one of the first concepts the robot grasped. Strong AI and Learning
  45. 45. 127 Are machines capable of learning? Krister Wolff and Peter Nordin, two Swedish scientists, designed a winged robot capable of learning how to fly. Sandhana, L. (Sept 5, 2002). A theory of evolution, for robots, Wired, https://www.wired.com/2002/09/a-theory-of-evolution-for- robots/, last accessed July 2018. consulté le 30 decembre 2003. Cheating (standing on its wings) was one of the first concepts the robot grasped. The robot also used a couple of books lying nearby to pull itself up. Strong AI and Learning
  46. 46. 128 Imagine two robots, Bob and Alice, having a secret conversation Bob Alice Eve Imagine two robots, Bob and Alice, having a secret conversation, and that another, Eve, tries to snoop on them. Strong AI and Learning
  47. 47. 129 Biggs, J. (Oct 28, 2016).Google’s AI creates its own inhuman encryption, https://techcrunch.com/2016/10/28/googles-ai-creates-its- own-inhuman-encryption/, last accessed Jan 11, 2017. With time, Bob and Alice had learned to communicate clearly using the shared key. Eve, on the other hand, found it increasingly hard to “understand” Bob and Alice’s communications. With time, Bob and Alice had learned to communicate clearly using the shared key. Eve, on the other hand, found it increasingly hard to “understand” Bob and Alice’s communications. The researchers concluded that non-human cryptographic schemes are better at encrypting than decrypting. So robots will be able to talk to each other in ways that we – or other robots – will not be able to crack. Strong AI and Learning
  48. 48. 130 This weak/strong AI categorization seems to be rooted in the difference between supervised and unsupervised programming. Kerns, J. (Feb 15, 2017). What’s the Difference Between Weak and Strong AI? Machine Design, http://www.machinedesign.com/robotics/what-s-difference-between-weak-and-strong-ai, last accessed July 15, 2018. Legend: GLM: General Linear Model, SVR: Support Vector Regression, GPR: Gaussian Process Regression Strong AI and Learning
  49. 49. 131 Others NLP Robotics Expert systems Learning VR replicates fully an environment that simulates a presence allowing a user to evolve in a world, real or imagined, while AR is a live view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory inputs such as sound, video, graphics, or GPS data. Vision systems AR / VRAR / VR Strong AI and Learning
  50. 50. 132 Excerpted from Bloomberg Technology (Oct 4, 2017). Google's Augmented- and Virtual-Reality Product Push, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqEqrFPZBrc, last accessed July 13, 2018. 0:0 8 AR / VR
  51. 51. 133 0:1 5 Wang, S. (July 18, 2017). This Startup Wants to Replace Your Office With 3D Holograms, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-07-18/this-startup-wants-to-replace-your-office-with-3d-holograms, last accessed AR / VR
  52. 52. 134 Virtual Reality (VR) is an environment in which the participant observer is totally immersed in, and able to interact with, a completely synthetic world. Augmented Reality (AR) refers to all cases in which the display of an otherwise real environment is augmented by means of virtual (computer graphic) objects. Milgram, P. and Kishino, F. (1994). A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays, IEICE Transactions on Information Systems, Vol E77-D, No.12, December, https://cs.gmu.edu/~zduric/cs499/Readings/r76JBo-Milgram_IEICE_1994.pdf, last accessed July 27, Real Environment Virtual Environment Augmented Virtuality Augmented Reality (AR) AR / VR Real Virtual
  53. 53. 135 These types of realities are distinguished on the basis of whether they are primarily video or computer graphics based, the real world is viewed directly or via some electronic display medium, the viewer is intended to feel part of the world or on the outside looking in, and the scale of the display is intended to map onto the real world. Milgram, P. and Kishino, F. (1994). A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays, IEICE Transactions on Information Systems, Vol E77-D, No.12, December, https://cs.gmu.edu/~zduric/cs499/Readings/r76JBo-Milgram_IEICE_1994.pdf, last accessed July 27, AR / VR
  54. 54. 136 Four French Fries (Jun 1, 2016). Illusion 3D Art Museum Kuala Lumpur - 03 - Traveller, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntE76Bpi4cQ, last accessed Mar 20, 2018 1:4 7 AR / VR
  55. 55. 137 In Iron Man 2; holograms are the basis for new UI: 0:3 6 From the movie Iron Man 2 by Jon Favreau (2010). AR / VR
  56. 56. 138 In 2017, the Last Scout: 0:3 0 From the movie The Last Scout by Simon Phillips (2017). AR / VR
  57. 57. 139 See http://fortune.com/2017/07/13/facebook-vr-wireless/ and https://www.wsj.com/articles/facebook-sets-goal-of-a-billion- virtual-reality-users-unveils-new-headset-1507764852 AR / VR
  58. 58. 140 Source: Parts 1-3: ASE Feigenbaum Lecture by Dr Partho Sengupta, July 1, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rGkyDkDmZts, consulté le 13 mars 2014. 0:1 AR / VR
  59. 59. 141 AR / VR
  60. 60. 142 Une brève histoire des TICAR / VR
  61. 61. 143 NLP Robotics Expert systems Others Learning AR / VR Definitions and classification inspired from Stair, R. and Reynolds, G. (2017). Principles of Information Systems, Course Technology, pp. 425ff. Vision systems Others: Chatbots Chatbots
  62. 62. 144 See https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/tay-tweets-microsoft-ai-chatbot-posts-racist-messages-about- loving-hitler-and-hating-jews-a6949926.html, last accessed July 13, 2018 Chatbots
  63. 63. 145 Tay went from “humans are super cool” to full Nazi, racist and sexist in 16 hours! Chatbots
  64. 64. 146 The chatter bot was called Tay, as in “thinking about you”. It was originally released on Twitter by Microsoft on March 23, 2016. In less than 24h, it started to post offensive tweets. As a result, Microsoft was forced to shut it down some 16 hours after its launch. See https://www.zo.ai/ Chatbots
  65. 65. 147 Chatbots
  66. 66. 148 Chatterbots Virtual agents Conversational Agents Automated Online Assistants They started being used, among others, by: Lloyds Banking Group Royal Bank of Scotland IKEA Aetna They are also called: Chatbots
  67. 67. 149 Chatbots
  68. 68. 150 Artificial Intelligence at Work, Cybertrend, Sandhills Publishing Co., Vol. 15, ISS. 08, August 2017, pp. 12-17 Mastercard partnered with Kasisto to develop Bot for Banks, a chatbot that employs AI, natural language processing, and other related technologies to make interactions between consumers and the bank more conversational. Chatbots
  69. 69. 151 Artificial Intelligence at Work, Cybertrend, Sandhills Publishing Co., Vol. 15, ISS. 08, August 2017, pp. 12-17 Mastercard partnered with Kasisto to develop Bot for Banks, a chatbot that employs AI, natural language processing, and other related technologies to make interactions between consumers and the bank more conversational. Chatbots
  70. 70. 152 0:0 5 From the movie The Invisible Boy by Herman Hoffman (1957), see https://archive.org/details/THEINVISIBLEBOY1957 last accessed July 17, 2018. From: Chatbots
  71. 71. 153 To Conclusion
  72. 72. 154 2:41 YouTube (Feb 23, 2016). Atlas, The Next Generation, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rVlhMGQgDkY last accessed Feb 26, 2016. Conclusion Boston Dynamics’ Robots
  73. 73. 155 Are jobs endangered, and if so, which? See http://www.businessinsider.fr/uk/novels-written-by-computers-2014-11/ Conclusion – Jobs
  74. 74. 156See https://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/japanese-ai-writes-novel-passes-first-round-nationanl-literary-prize/ Conclusion – Jobs
  75. 75. 157 See http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2016/10/23/artifically-intelligent-judge-developed-which-can-predict-court/ Conclusion – Jobs
  76. 76. 158 Conclusion – Jobs See https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/robot-doctors-come-step-closer-11542581
  77. 77. 159 See https://www.newsweek.com/robots-can-now-read-better-humans-putting-millions-jobs-risk-781393 Conclusion – Jobs
  78. 78. 160 See http://www.robotics.news/2018-06-05-future-mayor-of-tokyo-could-be-an-ai-robot.html Conclusion – Jobs
  79. 79. 161 Robot picture from: Sayej, N. (Apr 19, 2016) Vincent van Bot: the robots turning their hand to art, The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/apr/19/robot-art-competition-e-david-cloudpainter-bitpaintr, last accessed July 25, RobotArt is a global contest for art created by AI. This year (2018), 19 teams submitted over 100 works of art. Robot Art 2018 Award, May 30, 2018 Source: http://www.cloudpainter.com/. Conclusion – Jobs
  80. 80. 162 Inspirobot is an AI bot that generates inspirational posters a la “Live. Laugh. Love.”: Conclusion – Jobs
  81. 81. 163 IFR (Sep 29, 2016). World Robotics Report 2016, International Federation of Robotics (IFR), (Frankfurt), https://ifr.org/ifr-press- releases/news/world-robotics-report-2016, last accessed July 9, 2018. 4:5 4 Conclusion – Jobs
  82. 82. 164 Moreover, we would have to suspect that the posthumans running our simulation are themselves simulated beings; and their creators, in turn, may also be simulated beings (p. 12). Bostrom, N. (2003) Are you living in a computer simulation, Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No.211, pp. 243-255, can be found on https://www.simulation-argument.com/simulation.pdf, last accessed July 14, 2018. Moreover, we would have to suspect that the posthumans running our simulation are themselves simulated beings; and their creators, in turn, may also be simulated beings (p. 12). Summarizing: Bostrom, N. (2003) Are you living in a computer simulation, Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 53, No.211, pp. 243-255, can be found on https://www.simulation-argument.com/simulation.pdf, last accessed July 14, 2018. Conclusion
  83. 83. 165 T T H H A A N N K K S SSong: Extracted from the song 141120 TK music sn04.-27510, by Artist: Pleasure Park Music - Licensed by AdRev for Rights Holder (on behalf of Pleasure Park Music), https://soundcloud.com/zoxfox87/141120-tk-music-sn05-1, last accessed July 27, 2018.

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