Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

09 Artificial Intelligence 2018 Part 1

104 views

Published on

09 Artificial Intelligence 2018 Part 1

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

09 Artificial Intelligence 2018 Part 1

  1. 1. 1 Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer Artificial Intelligence Innovation & IT Management
  2. 2. 2 Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. Artificial intelligence is that activity devoted to making machines intelligent, and intelligence is that quality that enables an entity to function appropriately and with foresight in its environment. Nils J. Nilsson Definitions Nilsson, N.J. (2010). The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements, Cambridge University Press. See also Peter Stone, Rodney Brooks, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ryan Calo, Oren Etzioni, Greg Hager, Julia Hirschberg, Shivaram Kalyanakrishnan, Ece Kamar, Sarit Kraus, Kevin Leyton-Brown, David Parkes, William Press, AnnaLee Saxenian, Julie Shah, Milind Tambe, and Astro Teller. "Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030." One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence: Report of the 2015-2016 Study Panel, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, September 2016, http://ai100.stanford.edu/2016-report, last accessed July 14, 2018.
  3. 3. 3 According to the father of Artificial Intelligence, AI is “The science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”. John McCarthy A definition that is often used in conjunction with that of McCarthy adds the following: “Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently, in the similar manner the intelligent humans think”. Definitions
  4. 4. 4 Definitions Moor, J. (2006). The Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty Years, AI Magazine, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 87-91, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d486/9863b5da0fa4ff5707fa972c6e1dc92474f6.pdf, last accessed Mar 24, 2018. John McCarthy?
  5. 5. 5 Moor, J. (2006). The Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty Years, AI Magazine, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 87-91, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d486/9863b5da0fa4ff5707fa972c6e1dc92474f6.pdf, last accessed Mar 24, 2018. Definitions John McCarthy? Photographer: Joe Mehling
  6. 6. 6 Moor, J. (2006). The Dartmouth College Artificial Intelligence Conference: The Next Fifty Years, AI Magazine, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 87-91, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d486/9863b5da0fa4ff5707fa972c6e1dc92474f6.pdf, last accessed Mar 24, 2018. Definitions John McCarthy? Photographer: Joe Mehling Photographer: Joe Mehling
  7. 7. 7 Definitions
  8. 8. 8 Definitions
  9. 9. 9 Definitions
  10. 10. 10 When did it all start?When did it all start? Remember the Code of Hammurabi: circa 2000 B.C. Babylon
  11. 11. 11 The first systematic economic and commercial information management system that we know dates back to the times of Hammurabi (or Hammurapi, 1793-1750 B.C.). The code has 282 laws holding on 3600 lines inscribed on stone steles. When did it all start? Remember the Code of Hammurabi: circa 2000 B.C. Ex: §104 - If a merchant give an agent corn, wool, oil, or any other goods to transport, the agent shall give a receipt for the amount, and compensate the merchant therefor. Then he shall obtain a receipt from the merchant for the money that he gives the merchant.
  12. 12. 12 Source: Wikipedia (22 January 2014). Code of Ur-Nammu, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_Ur-Nammu, last accessed on Mar 4, 2014. At that time, most laws were arranged in casuistic form of IF (crime) THEN (punishment) - a format used in nearly all later codes. Lawrence Lessig When did it all start? Ancient codes
  13. 13. 13 • Structured decisions • Unstructured decisions• Repetitive • Routine • Based on a procedure • Unstructured decisions When did it all start? Ancient codes
  14. 14. 14 • Structured decisions • Unstructured decisions • Repetitive • Routine • Based on a procedure • Unstructured decisions Novel Infrequent When did it all start? Ancient codes
  15. 15. 15 • Structured decisions • Unstructured decisions• Unstructured decisions Situations where the procedures to follow when a decision is needed can be specified in advance Decision situations where it is not possible to specify in advance most of the decision procedures to follow When did it all start? Ancient codes
  16. 16. 16 When did it all start? And new code
  17. 17. 17 When did it all start? And new code
  18. 18. 18 • Structured decisions • Unstructured decisions • Repetitive • Routine • Based on a procedure • Unstructured decisions Novel Infrequent When did it all start?
  19. 19. 19 0:1 9 Extracted from “The Lie We live”, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNVZ0ZPfE8s, last accessed July 7, 2018. When did it all start?
  20. 20. 20 01:3 1:3 1 When did it all start?
  21. 21. 21 Chui, M., Manyika, J., and et Miremadi, M. (2015). Four fundamentals of workplace automation, McKinsey, November, http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Business_Technology/Four_fundamentals_of_workplace_automation, last accessed Jan 2, 2016. When did it all start? As many as 45% of the activities can be automated by adapting current technologies As many as 45% of the activities can be automated by adapting current technologies
  22. 22. 22 When did it all start? 60% of occupations could be automated up to 30%! 60% of occupations could be automated up to 30%! 60% of occupations could be automated up to 30%!
  23. 23. 23Chui, M., Manyika, J., and Miremadi, M. (November 2015). Four fundamentals of workplace automation, McKinsey http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Business_Technology/Four_fundamentals_of_workplace_automation, last accessed Nov 8, 2015. In other words, automation is likely to change the vast majority of occupations. This will necessitate significant job redefinition and a transformation of business processes. When did it all start? It was found that the benefits are between 3 and 10 times the cost. It was found that the benefits are between 3 and 10 times the cost. These benefits range from increased output, to higher quality and improved reliability, as well as the potential to perform some tasks at superhuman levels.
  24. 24. 24 In many cases, automation technology can already match, or even exceed, the median level of human performance required. For instance: Narrative Science’s AI system, Quill, analyzes raw data and generates natural language, writing reports in seconds that readers would assume were written by a human. Amazon’s fleet of Kiva robots is equipped with automation technologies that plan, navigate, and coordinate among individual robots to fulfill warehouse orders roughly 4 times faster than the company’s previous system. Chui, M., Manyika, J., and Miremadi, M. (November 2015). Four fundamentals of workplace automation, McKinsey http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/Business_Technology/Four_fundamentals_of_workplace_automation, last accessed Nov 8, 2015. In many cases, automation technology can already match, or even exceed, the median level of human performance required. For instance: Narrative Science’s AI system, Quill, analyzes raw data and generates natural language, writing reports in seconds that readers would assume were written by a human. Amazon’s fleet of Kiva robots is equipped with automation technologies that plan, navigate, and coordinate among individual robots to fulfill warehouse orders roughly 4 times faster than the company’s previous system. IBM’s Watson can suggest available treatments for specific ailments, drawing on the body of medical research for those diseases. When did it all start?
  25. 25. 25 2:00 When did it all start? Amazon’s Fulfillment Center
  26. 26. 26 Bush, Vannevar (1945). As We May Think, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 176, July, pp. 101-108, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/. MyLifeBits is a Microsoft Research project that was inspired by Vannevar Bush’s memex machine. When did it all start?
  27. 27. 27 When did it all start? Bush, Vannevar (1945). As We May Think, Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 176, July, pp. 101-108, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/. MyLifeBits is a Microsoft Research project that was inspired by Vannevar Bush’s memex machine.
  28. 28. 28 SheffieldLibraryGuy (Nov 18, 2009). Vannevar Bush, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAUC7Q8C6m8, last accessed July 10, 2018.; see also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fIsPFWSYf3c @3:43. 0:1 2 When did it all start?
  29. 29. 29 When did it all start?
  30. 30. 30 When did it all start? 2:2 1 SheffieldLibraryGuy (Nov 18, 2009). Memex animation - Vannevar Bush's diagrams made real, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c539cK58ees, last accessed July 10, 2018.
  31. 31. 31 MyLifeBits is a Microsoft Research project that was inspired by Vannevar Bush’s memex machine. When did it all start? MyLifeBits is a Microsoft Research project that was inspired by Vannevar Bush’s memex machine. Gordon Bell saves all his memories on an electronic medium: articles that he reads, Web sites that he visits, mail, phone calls, conferences that he attends, travels,… EVERYTHING. Voir http://research.microsoft.com/users/GBell/
  32. 32. 32 MyLifeBits is a Microsoft Research project that was inspired by Vannevar Bush’s memex machine. Gordon Bell saves all his memories on an electronic medium: articles that he reads, Web sites that he visits, mail, phone calls, conferences that he attends, travels,… EVERYTHING. Voir http://research.microsoft.com/users/GBell/ The SenseCam When did it all start?
  33. 33. 33 When did it all start? The MyLifeBits project
  34. 34. 34 The (automated) act of writing The King (May 31, 2017). Mechanical Marvels Clockwork Dreams – BBC Four Documentary (Duration 59:17), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcPA0jvp9IQ, last accessed Apr 26, 2014. @55:51. 0:23 “The Writer”’s greatest legacy is perhaps its ability to store memory and then reactivate it at will. All the information to recreate [the] picture is held in a complex stack of cams that guides the movements of the pencil.
  35. 35. 35 Artificial Memory
  36. 36. 36 Artificial Memory 1982 2017
  37. 37. 37 0:3 4 Excerpted from Blade Runner directed by Ridley Scott (1982). Artificial Memory
  38. 38. 38 Artificial Memory 1982 2017
  39. 39. 39 0:1 9 Excerpted [@1:19] from Blade Runner 2049 directed by Denis Villeneuve (2017). Artificial Memory
  40. 40. 40 Artificial Memory Swan, M. (Apr 2, 2016). Blockchain Thinking: The Brain as a DAC (Decentralized Autonomous Organization), BlockchainNews, http://www.melanieswan.com/documents/BlockchainThinking_SWAN.pdf , last accessed Feb 19, 2018.
  41. 41. 41 Vision systems Others NLP Learning Expert systems AR / VR Robotics Definitions and classification inspired from Stair, R. and Reynolds, G. (2017). Principles of Information Systems, Course Technology, pp. 425ff. Robotics Robotics involves developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision or are tedious or hazardous for humans. Robotics
  42. 42. 42 The first robot in the workplace was created in 1956. It was named “the Unimate”. Khan, E. (n.d.). 10 Countries With Most Robot Density, https://www.wonderslist.com/10-countries-robot-density/, last accessed July 9, 2018. The first robot in the workplace was created in 1956. It was named “the Unimate”. It is believed that it was the success of the Unimate that led to more development of robots for labor functions. Robotics
  43. 43. 43 Excerpted from the movie Forbidden Planet directed by Fred M. Wilcox (1956). 0:2 4 Robotics
  44. 44. 44 Robotics
  45. 45. 45 Robotics Source: https://ifr.org/img/uploads/Kawasaki_packaging_solution.jpg from IFR (Sep 29, 2016). World Robotics Report 2016, International Federation of Robotics (IFR), (Frankfurt), https://ifr.org/ifr-press-releases/news/world-robotics-report-2016, last Today:
  46. 46. 46 Robotics Source: https://ifr.org/img/uploads/Kuka_KR_QUANTEC_Boll_Automation__4__.JPG from IFR (Sep 29, 2016). World Robotics Report 2016, International Federation of Robotics (IFR), (Frankfurt), https://ifr.org/ifr-press-releases/news/world-robotics-report-2016, Today:
  47. 47. 47 0:11 Excerpted from WIRED (Jul 16, 2013). How the Tesla Model S is Made | Tesla Motors Part 1 (WIRED), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_lfxPI5ObM, last accessed Aug 31, 2014. Robotics
  48. 48. 48 Khan, E. (n.d.). 10 Countries With Most Robot Density, https://www.wonderslist.com/10-countries-robot-density/, last accessed July 9, 2018. The world robot population in 2016: 300,000 It is estimated that their population will grow to 414,000 by 2019. According to the International Federation of Robotics (IFR), there was a massive 43% increase in the number of multipurpose robots sold in the United States in 2011, while in the same year, in Canada, the number of robots in the workforce increased 72%. Robotics
  49. 49. 49 Robotics IFR (Sep 29, 2016). World Robotics Report 2016, International Federation of Robotics (IFR), (Frankfurt), https://ifr.org/ifr-press- releases/news/world-robotics-report-2016, last accessed July 9, 2018.
  50. 50. 50 Robotics By 2019, more than 1.4 million new industrial robots will be installed in factories around the world - that’s the latest forecast from the International Federation of Robotics (IFR). IFR (Sep 29, 2016). World Robotics Report 2016, International Federation of Robotics (IFR), (Frankfurt), https://ifr.org/ifr-press- releases/news/world-robotics-report-2016, last accessed July 9, 2018.
  51. 51. 51 Barack Obama plays football with a robot in Japan – video : AFP (Apr 24, 2014). Obama joue au foot avec un robot japonais, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m7MQvBTCRdM, last accessed Apr 25, 2014. 1:28 Robotics
  52. 52. 52 Robotics Gmoser, J. and Weller, C. (Oct. 26, 2017). A robot that once said it would 'destroy humans' just became the first robot citizen, http://www.businessinsider.com/sophia-humanoid-robot-ai-citizen-saudi-arabia-future-investment-initiative-interview-2017-10, last accessed October 30, 2017. 1:45
  53. 53. 53 0:2 4 From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iz3D3wpYjWg, last accessed Jan 10, 2018. Robotics
  54. 54. 54 Guess whom he chooses as a model? Robotics
  55. 55. 55 Excerpted from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tBuG8qi_Lg0, July 8, 2018. 0:2 3 Robotics
  56. 56. 56 See https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/meet-mark-1-50000-3d-printed-humanoid-robot-that-looks-eerily-like-scarlett-johansson-1552710, last accessed July 8, 2018 Robotics
  57. 57. 57 And for men… Han the robot (by Hanson Robotics): From the short film RISE: 5 Robot Technology 2016 | Awesome Robots | Military Robots, An AI SciFi Short film, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7FfIG5aSyc, last accessed July 9, 2018. 0:1 3 Robotics
  58. 58. 58 0:06 YouTube (2011). Ibn Sina Robot Compilation (HD), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EytxoK0ZI5Q, accessed June 4, 2014, A compilation of various videos of the Ibn Sina Robot - including the Robot on BBC TV, AFP TV, Netherlands, Verbal Interaction, Facial Robotics For the Arabs, the Ibn Sina robot,
  59. 59. 59 0:2 3 Dvorsky, G. (Apr 4, 2013). Human moves rat's tail with thoughts alone, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VaJjHgyHnEc, last accessed July 10, 2018. How far can it go?How far can it go? A human can move a rat’s tail with thoughts alone. Robotics
  60. 60. 60 BBC News (May 1, 2002). Here come the ratbots, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/1961798.stm, last accessed July 10, 2018. Robotics A rat remote controlled from a keyboard
  61. 61. 61 From http://sageratcentral.blogspot.com/2010/02/sage-rats-are-showing.html Robotics
  62. 62. 62 From the movie Do You Trust this Computer? by Chris Paine (April 5, 2018), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nEP02sreGpA, last accessed July 2, 2018. 0:0 4 Robotics
  63. 63. 63 Hérard, P. (June 16, 2018). Robots tueurs autonomes : malgré une mise en garde de l'ONU, leur développement continue, TV5Monde, https://information.tv5monde.com/info/robots-tueurs-autonomes-malgre-une-mise-en-garde-de-l-onu-leur- 0:2 6 Robotics
  64. 64. 64See https://www.cbc.ca/news/trending/hawking-musk-wozniak-warn-of-military-artificial-intelligence-arms-race-1.3169193 Robotics
  65. 65. 65 Others NLP Learning Expert systems AR / VR Robotics Natural Language Processing Natural language processing, or speech recognition, allows a computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a natural language. Definitions and classification inspired from Stair, R. and Reynolds, G. (2017). Principles of Information Systems, Course Technology, pp. 425ff. Vision systems Robotics
  66. 66. 66 1:0 5 Natural Language Processing
  67. 67. 67 The Amazon Echo Dot shows how compact voice-enabled devices have become, and it takes advantage of Amazon’s Alexa as virtual personal assistant. Natural Language Processing Amazon Echo Dot
  68. 68. 68 The Tech Chap (Jan 20, 2017). Google Home vs Amazon Echo - Which is Best? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAsZVQvjCt8, last accessed Mar 24, 2018 @2:58. 0:0 7 Natural Language Processing Google Home
  69. 69. 69 Natural Language Processing
  70. 70. 70 4:1 1 Grubb, J. (May 8, 2018). Google Duplex: A.I. Assistant Calls Local Businesses To Make Appointments, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5VN56jQMWM, last accessed May 10, 2018. Natural Language Processing Google Assistant
  71. 71. 71 Others NLP Learning Expert systems AR / VR Robotics Learning systems allow the computer to change how it functions or reacts to situations based on feedback it receives. Definitions and classification inspired from Stair, R. and Reynolds, G. (2017). Principles of Information Systems, Course Technology, pp. 425ff. Vision systems Learning Learning
  72. 72. 72 Kerns, J. (Feb 15, 2017). What’s the Difference Between Weak and Strong AI? Machine Design, http://www.machinedesign.com/robotics/what-s-difference-between-weak-and-strong-ai, last accessed July 15, 2018. Legend: GLM: General Linear Model, SVR: Support Vector Regression, GPR: Gaussian Process Regression Learning
  73. 73. 73 Weak AI (Narrow AI) Weak AI is focused on one narrow task. Most current AI systems are weak AI at most. Even advanced chess programs are considered weak AI. Weak AI looks for things similar to what it knows, and classifies them accordingly. Kerns, J. (Feb 15, 2017). What’s the Difference Between Weak and Strong AI? Machine Design, http://www.machinedesign.com/robotics/what-s-difference-between-weak-and-strong-ai, last accessed July 15, 2018 and Weak AI (Narrow AI) Weak AI (Narrow AI) Weak AI is focused on one narrow task. Most current AI systems are weak AI at most. Even advanced chess programs are considered weak AI. Weak AI looks for things similar to what it knows, and classifies them accordingly. Siri and Alexa, for example, are weak AI programs: if you ask Alexa to turn on the TV, it will understand words like “on” and “TV”. It will respond by turning on the TV, but it is only responding to its programming; it does not comprehend any of the meaning of what you said.
  74. 74. 74 Siri
  75. 75. 75 Weak AI (Narrow AI) Examples UBS (January 2016). Extreme automation and connectivity: The global, regional, and investment implications of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, UBS White Paper for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2016, https://www.ubs.com/global/en/about_ubs/follow_ubs/highlights/davos-2016.html, last accessed Mar 24, 2018. UBS (January 2016). Extreme automation and connectivity: The global, regional, and investment implications of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, UBS White Paper for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2016, https://www.ubs.com/global/en/about_ubs/follow_ubs/highlights/davos- 2016.html, last accessed Mar 24, 2018. Weak AI (Narrow AI) Examples: Driving a car Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  76. 76. 76 Hafner, J. (Feb. 27, 2018). California approves fully driverless cars on public roads for testing, USA TODAY NETWORK, https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/nation-now/2018/02/27/california-approves-fully-driverless-cars-public-roads-testing/378703002/, last accessed Mar 24, 2018. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  77. 77. 77 March-April 2018 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  78. 78. 78 0:0 3 KJZZ Phoenix (Mar 21, 2018). Tempe Police Release Video In Fatal Uber Vehicle Accident, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pO9iRUx5wmM, last accessed Mar 25, 2018. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  79. 79. 79 0:5 1 Excerpted from Future Trends (Jan 21, 2012). Robotic Surgery Demonstration Using Da Vinci Surgical System, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJ_3GJNz4fg, last accessed July 19, 2018 @0:51. Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  80. 80. 80 Weak AI (Narrow AI) Examples: Playing chess K winsK wins K loosesK wins K looses TieK wins K looses Tie TieK wins K looses Tie Tie TieK wins K looses K loosesTie Tie Tie Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  81. 81. 81 Weak AI (Narrow AI) Examples: Playing chess K winsK wins K loosesK wins K looses TieK wins K looses Tie TieK wins K looses Tie Tie TieK wins K looses K loosesTie Tie Tie Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  82. 82. 82 Weak AI (Narrow AI)
  83. 83. 83 It was Herbert A. Simon, Nobel Prize of Economics (1978) who was the first to predict, in 1957, that computers would surpass humans in chess within “ten years”. It took 40 years for the prediction to be realized. Source: Wikipedia (2016). Herbert A. Simon, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_A._Simon, last accessed Feb 21, 2016. K winsK wins K loosesK wins K looses TieK wins K looses Tie TieK wins K looses Tie Tie TieK wins K looses K loosesTie Tie Tie Weak AI (Narrow AI)

×