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07 Nanotechnology 2018

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07 Nanotechnology 2018

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07 Nanotechnology 2018

  1. 1. 1 Nanotechnology Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer Innovation & IT Management
  2. 2. 2 Metcalfe’s Law Kao’s Law Moore’s Law Three Laws Moore’s Law: Computing power doubles every 18 months Moore’s Law Three laws The number of transistors that can be placed on a chip has doubled approximately every 12 to 18 months. The trend has continued for more than half a century.
  3. 3. 3 0 1 1 1 Moore’s Law
  4. 4. 4 2300 transistors Moore’s Law In 2017, the largest transistor count in a traditional commercially available single-chip processor was 19.2 billion: AMD’s Ryzen- based Epyc.
  5. 5. 5Excerpted from Eames Office (Jul 23, 2013). 2ⁿ (1961), Part of the Mathematica Peep Shows, one of five films made to accompany the Mathematica: A World of Numbers and Beyond exhibition at the California Museum of Science and Industry and the Museum of 1:13 Moore’s Law
  6. 6. 6 Moore’s Law
  7. 7. 7 See: http://www.theverge.com/2016/6/20/11975356/chinese-supercomputer-worlds-fastes-taihulight, last accessed Jan 25, 2017. 10,649,600 computer cores China’s Sunway TaihuLight - The World's #1 Supercomputer
  8. 8. 8 Cray’s Titan 2:32
  9. 9. 9 Moore’s Law Three Laws Kao’s Law Metcalfe’s LawMetcalfe’s Law Three laws Metcalfe’s Law: The value of a network is proportional to the square of its nodes The value of a network grows as the square of its number of users: V ~N2
  10. 10. 10 Moore’s Law Three Laws Kao’s Law Metcalfe’s LawMetcalfe’s Law Three laws Metcalfe’s Law: The value of a network is proportional to the square of its nodes The value of a network grows as the square of its number of users: (in fact V=N(N-1)/2) Image: Bergman, M. (2009). The Law of Linked Data, October 11, http://www.mkbergman.com/837/the-law-of-linked-data/, last accessed Jan 20? 2013.
  11. 11. 11 Arthur, W.B. (1990). Positive Feedbacks in the Economy, Scientific American, Vol. 262, No.2, pp. 92-99, http://www.watsoninstitute.org/ge/scenarios/pubs/BrianArthuronincreasingreturnsSciAm1990.pdf, last accessed June 19, 2013. Metcalfe’s Law
  12. 12. 12 “The odd thing was that nobody seemed to like Microsoft’s products. By all accounts, Apple computers were better than PCs using Windows as their operating system. Yet the vast majority of desktop and laptop computers ran Windows. Why? Krugman, P. (2013). The Decline of E-Empires, The New York Times, Aug 25, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/26/opinion/krugman- the-decline-of-e-empires.html?_r=0, last accessed Aug 27, 2013. Metcalfe’s Law
  13. 13. 13 Disruption has been more about getting lucky than being good. Products: Worse is better. Especially in the IT industry! Christensen, C.M. and Raynor, M.E. (2003). The Innovator's Solution: Creating and Sustaining Successful Growth. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Metcalfe’s Law
  14. 14. 14 “The odd thing was that nobody seemed to like Microsoft’s products. By all accounts, Apple computers were better than PCs using Windows as their operating system. Yet the vast majority of desktop and laptop computers ran Windows. Why? Krugman, P. (2013). The Decline of E-Empires, The New York Times, Aug 25, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/26/opinion/krugman- the-decline-of-e-empires.html?_r=0, last accessed Aug 27, 2013. Metcalfe’s Law The answer, basically, is that everyone used Windows because everyone used Windows. If you had a Windows PC and wanted help, you could ask the guy in the next cubicle, or the tech people downstairs, and have a very good chance of getting the answer you needed.”
  15. 15. 15 “[…] Apple mistakenly believed that ordinary buyers would value its superior quality as much as its own people did. So it charged premium prices, and by the time it realized how many people were choosing cheaper machines that weren’t insanely great but did the job, Microsoft’s dominance was locked in.” Krugman, P. (2013). The Decline of E-Empires, The New York Times, Aug 25, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/26/opinion/krugman- the-decline-of-e-empires.html?_r=0, last accessed Aug 27, 2013. Metcalfe’s Law “The trouble for Microsoft came with the rise of new devices whose importance it famously failed to grasp. “There’s no chance,” declared Mr. Ballmer in 2007, “that the iPhone is going to get any significant market share.””
  16. 16. 16 Metcalfe’s Law “Not only do the costs of producing high-technology products fall as a company makes more of them, but the benefits of using them increase. Many items, such as computers or telecommunications equipment, work in networks that require compatibility; when one brand gains a significant market share, people have a strong incentive to buy more of the same product so as to be able to exchange information with those using it already.”1 1. Arthur, W.B. (1990). Positive Feedbacks in the Economy, Scientific American, Vol. 262, No.2, p. 93, http://www.watsoninstitute.org/ge/scenarios/pubs/BrianArthuronincreasingreturnsSciAm1990.pdf, last accessed June 19, 2013.
  17. 17. 17 If you have 50 friends on Facebook, you get 50 friends who can all contact you and vice versa. Source: Clark, J. (2011). Facebook, Google: Welcome to the new feudalism, September 10, http://www.zdnet.com/facebook-google- welcome-to-the-new-feudalism-3040093418/, last accessed Jan 20, 2013. Metcalfe’s Law If you have 50 friends on Facebook, you get 50 friends who can all contact you and vice versa. However, Facebook gets a network of some 1,225 possible combinations of one-to-one discussions between you and your peers If you have 50 friends on Facebook, you get 50 friends who can all contact you and vice versa. However, Facebook gets a network of some 1,225 possible combinations of one-to-one discussions between you and your peers, which makes money through advertising.
  18. 18. 18 Metcalfe’s Law Kao’s Law Moore’s Law Kao’s Law: The power of creativity rises exponentially with the diversity and divergence of those connected into a network Three Laws Kao’s Law Three laws 1 See Kao, J. (1996), ‘Jamming: The Art and Discipline of Corporate Creativity’, Harper Business, New York.
  19. 19. 19 The power of creativity rises exponentially with the diversity and divergence of those connected into a network. 1 See Kao, J. (1996), ‘Jamming: The Art and Discipline of Corporate Creativity’, Harper Business, New York. In other words, the capacity to innovate or create depends on dissonant and complementary ways of thinking, not on consensus. Kao’s Law Much creativity consists of a new combination of existing ideas.
  20. 20. 20 Both Metcalfe’s and Kao’s laws combined: Kao’s Law Behavioral sciences Political Sciences Computer Science Decision Sciences Quantitative Methods Economics Statistics Artificial Intelligence Philosophy Accounting Physics Psychology Strategy Mathematics
  21. 21. 21 Computer Science Telephony Scanners Lasers, etc. Mathematics Linguistics Psychology Neurology, etc. Biotechnology Nanoscience Nanotechnology Neuroscience Neuro-economics Cognitive technology Robotics etc. Biotechnology Nanoscience Nanotechnology Neuroscience Neuro-economics Cognitive technology Robotics etc. Nanotechnology Neurogastroenterology
  22. 22. 22 December 29, 1959: Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize in Physics, wonders: “Why can’t we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin?” Nanotechnology
  23. 23. 23 December 29, 1959: Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize in Physics, wonders: “Why can’t we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin?” 1. Read the entire talk on http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html His talk titled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” would become a roadmap for nanotechnology1. Nanotechnology
  24. 24. 24 Nanotechnology December 29, 1959: Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize in Physics, wonders: “Why can’t we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin?” 1. Read the entire talk on http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html His talk titled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom” would become a roadmap for nanotechnology1.
  25. 25. 25 1 centimeter : 100th of a meter Source: SwissNanoCube (n.d.). In the realm of the dwarfs, http://www.swissnanocube.ch/en/nano-basics/, last accessed Dec 1, 2016. Nanotechnology 1 centimeter : 100th of a meter 1 millimeter: 1,000th of a meter 1 centimeter : 100th of a meter 1 millimeter: 1,000th of a meter 1 micrometer: 1,000,000th of a meter (μ) 1 nanometer: 1,000,000,000th of a meter or 1 billionth of a meter
  26. 26. 26 01:16 Nanotechnology From “Nano, the Next Dimension”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCpkq_AeX50, last accessed July 10, 2013.
  27. 27. 27 Nanotechnology – Manipulating atoms and molecules 1:33 IBM (Apr 30, 2013). A Boy And His Atom_ The World's Smallest Movie, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oSCX78-8-q0, last accessed May 2, 2013.
  28. 28. 28 In 1985, three Nobel Prizes in Chemistry, discover the buckyballs (C60): molecules shaped like soccer balls and composed of 60 carbon atoms. Robert F. Curl Jr Harry Kroto Richard E. Smalley Nanotechnology
  29. 29. 29 These buckyballs are at the origins of buckytubes (or nanotubes). Sources: Kanellos, M. (2003). From cars to medicine, nanotubes may be miracle material, CNET News.com, 20 october, http://www.news.com/The-stuff-of-dreams/2009-1008_3-5091267.html?tag=st.nl, last accessed on Mar 4, 2008. Nanotechnology
  30. 30. 30 These buckyballs are at the origins of buckytubes (or nanotubes). Some of the most important carbon nanotubes’ properties are: • conduct electricity better than any other material 1. Krazit, T. (2003).Study: Carbon nanotubes make the best semiconductors Mobility of carbon nanotubes is about 70 times higher than that of currently used silicon, InfoWorld, http://www.infoworld.com/t/platforms/study-carbon-nanotubes-make-best- semiconductors-487, 2. IBM (2012). Made in IBM Labs: Researchers Demonstrate Initial Steps toward Commercial Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes as a Successor to Silicon, http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/39250.wss, 3. IBM (not dated).Carbon nanotubes, IBM Research, http://www.research.ibm.com/nanoscience/nanotubes.html, all accessed Jan 19, 2013. Nanotechnology • conduct electricity better than any other material • the potential to conduct digital computer signals 5 to 10 times the speed of conventional silicon chips • conduct electricity better than any other material • the potential to conduct digital computer signals 5 to 10 times the speed of conventional silicon chips • have a diameter that is 10,000 times smaller than a human hair (remember that 1 nano = 1 billionth) • conduct electricity better than any other material • the potential to conduct digital computer signals 5 to 10 times the speed of conventional silicon chips • have a diameter that is 10,000 times smaller than a human hair (remember that 1 nano = 1 billionth) • stronger and lighter than any other known material
  31. 31. 31 These buckyballs are at the origins of buckytubes (or nanotubes). Some of the most important carbon nanotubes’ properties are: • conduct electricity better than any other material 1. Krazit, T. (2003).Study: Carbon nanotubes make the best semiconductors Mobility of carbon nanotubes is about 70 times higher than that of currently used silicon, InfoWorld, http://www.infoworld.com/t/platforms/study-carbon-nanotubes-make-best- semiconductors-487, 2. IBM (2012). Made in IBM Labs: Researchers Demonstrate Initial Steps toward Commercial Fabrication of Carbon Nanotubes as a Successor to Silicon, http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/39250.wss, 3. IBM (not dated).Carbon nanotubes, IBM Research, http://www.research.ibm.com/nanoscience/nanotubes.html, all accessed Jan 19, 2013. Nanotechnology • conduct electricity better than any other material • the potential to conduct digital computer signals 5 to 10 times the speed of conventional silicon chips • conduct electricity better than any other material • the potential to conduct digital computer signals 5 to 10 times the speed of conventional silicon chips • have a diameter that is 10,000 times smaller than a human hair (remember that 1 nano = 1 billionth) • conduct electricity better than any other material • the potential to conduct digital computer signals 5 to 10 times the speed of conventional silicon chips • have a diameter that is 10,000 times smaller than a human hair (remember that 1 nano = 1 billionth) • stronger and lighter than any other known material
  32. 32. 32Excerpted from YouTube (May 20, 2012). Space Elevator Concept (NASA ANIMATION), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MkPDKVkVaj0, last accessed Aug 13, 2017. 1:16 Nanotechnology – The space elevator Excerpted from YouTube (May 20, 2012). Space Elevator Concept (NASA ANIMATION), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MkPDKVkVaj0, last accessed Aug 13, 2017.
  33. 33. 33 Nanotechnology – Logic circuits 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 and 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 or The AND logical circuit The OR logical circuit
  34. 34. 34 Input X Input Y Output Nanotechnology – Logic circuits
  35. 35. 35 Nanotechnology – Logic circuits 0:28
  36. 36. 36 The AND logical circuit The OR logical circuit Nanotechnology – Logic circuits
  37. 37. 37 0:30 Nanotechnology
  38. 38. 38 0:47Anthony, R.S. (2011). HzO Nanotechnology Seal Keeps Smartphones from Drowning, PCWorldNov 14, http://www.techhive.com/article/243827/hzo_nanotechnology_seal_keeps_smartphones_from_drowning.html, last accessed Jan 06, 2015. Nanotechnology
  39. 39. 39 Nanotechnology and Nanorobots Sanglap, R. (2012). Nanobots seek and destroy cancer cells, International Business Times, February 22, http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/302393/20120222/nanobots-seek-destroy-cancer-cells.htm#.VKuT8VVanIV, last accessed Jan 6, 2015.
  40. 40. 40 Nanotechnology and Nanorobots
  41. 41. 410:17 Nanotechnology and Nanorobots
  42. 42. 42See http://www.mcgill.ca/channels/news/legions-nanorobots-target-cancerous-tumours-precision-262058 Nanotechnology and Nanorobots
  43. 43. 43 Nanotechnology and Nanorobots
  44. 44. 44 0:12 Nanotechnology and Nanorobots
  45. 45. 45Inc. (Aug 22, 2013).'Undoubtedly Human Immortality Will Be Achieved, by Stephen Wolfram, http://www.inc.com/allison- fass/stephen-wolfram-immortality-humans-live-forever.html, last accessed July 2, 2016 (starting @5:50 till 7:10). 01:22 Will we become immortals?
  46. 46. 46 No one knows how the brain1 encodes information. Berger and his team (USC) stimulated rats’ brains with electrical signals, millions of times over, until they were able to determine which electrical input signals produce what output. This gave the team a mathematical model of the entire hippocampus, which they programmed onto a chip. The chip communicates with the brain through electrodes, placed on either side of the damaged area. 1. In its hippocampus. Graham-Rowe, D. (2003). World's first brain prosthesis revealed, Newscientist, March 12, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3488-worlds-first-brain-prosthesis-revealed.html#.Ue1GM41hCQk, last accessed January 5, 2004. Will we become immortals by 2045?
  47. 47. 47 Will we become immortals by 2045?
  48. 48. 48 Will we become immortals by 2045?
  49. 49. 49 Will we become immortals by 2045? 2300 transistors In 2017, the largest transistor count in a traditional commercially available single-chip processor was 19.2 billion: AMD’s Ryzen-based Epyc.
  50. 50. 50 Hans Moravec’s slide showing the evolution of computer power and cost, and the trajectory toward a thinking machine comparable to a human brain. MOCOM2020 (2009). Evolution of Computer Capacity and Costs, MOCOM2020 Team, May 22, http://www.mocom2020.com/2009/05/evolution-of-computer-capacity-and-costs/, last accessed July 22, 2013. Will we become immortals by 2045?
  51. 51. 51 2010 Robots with the intelligence of a lizard (automatic lawn mowers). 2020 Robots with the intelligence of a mouse (multi-function household robots, with arms and manipulators that might perform simple household chores). 2030 Robots with the intelligence of a chimpanzee (general-purpose household robots). 2050 Robots equal human intelligence. Atkinson, R. (2009). Transforming the World With Information Technology, Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, July 17, http://www.itif.org/files/20090717_Futurist_Final.pdf, last accessed Dec 22, 2012. Robots: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind, by Hans Moravec
  52. 52. 52 “The Writer” is a clockwork automaton created in the 1770s by the Swiss-born famous watchmaker Pierre Jaquet-Droz. The mechanism, designed to write words and sentences of up to 40 characters, still works perfectly after almost 240 years. The very concept of a machine that could mechanically reproduce the human act of writing was well ahead of its time. 2:44 The (automated) act of writing Text from narrated by Professor Simon Schaffer states in BBC Four’s documentary “Mechanical Marvels: Clockwork Dreams”, The Writer, as found on HotOddity (Jul 9, 2015). 240-Year-Old Writer Automaton is the Ancestor of Today’s Computer
  53. 53. 53 3:06 The (automated) act of writing A 240 year old doll that can write, a clockwork creation by Pierre Jaquet-Droz, a Swiss watchmaker. The King (May 31, 2017). Mechanical Marvels Clockwork Dreams – BBC Four Documentary (Duration 59:17), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcPA0jvp9IQ, last accessed Apr 26, 2014. @28:30.
  54. 54. 54 The Writer uses cam technology: as the cams move, the cam followers interpret their trajectory and move the boy’s arm accordingly. The Writer is “one of the most remarkable realizations of cam technology”. Another fascinating detail regarding the mechanism of the automaton is that it can write any word (and, therefore, any sentence) and follow the text with its eyes. The fact that it is “programmable” makes “The Writer” the ancestor of modern computers. The (automated) act of writing Text from narrated by Professor Simon Schaffer states in BBC Four’s documentary “Mechanical Marvels: Clockwork Dreams”, The Writer, as found on HotOddity (Jul 9, 2015). 240-Year-Old Writer Automaton is the Ancestor of Today’s Computer
  55. 55. 55 1:18 The King (May 31, 2017). Mechanical Marvels Clockwork Dreams – BBC Four Documentary (Duration 59:17), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcPA0jvp9IQ, last accessed Apr 26, 2014. @26:37. The (automated) act of writing The cams play an important part in the mechanism because they control not just the strokes of the pen, but also its pressure on the paper.
  56. 56. 56 Beforeitsnews (2013). We’ll Be Uploading Our Entire MINDS To Computers By 2045 And Our Bodies Will Be Replaced By Machines Within 90 years, Google Expert Claims, June 19, http://beforeitsnews.com/beyond-science/2013/06/well-be-uploading-our-entire- minds-to-computers-by-2045-and-our-bodies-will-be-replaced-by-machines-within-90-years-google-expert-claims-2442420.html, last accessed July 23, 2013. See also http://www.hangthebankers.com/tag/itskov/ Will we become immortals by 2045?
  57. 57. 57 Beforeitsnews (2013). We’ll Be Uploading Our Entire MINDS To Computers By 2045 And Our Bodies Will Be Replaced By Machines Within 90 years, Google Expert Claims, June 19, http://beforeitsnews.com/beyond-science/2013/06/well-be-uploading-our-entire- minds-to-computers-by-2045-and-our-bodies-will-be-replaced-by-machines-within-90-years-google-expert-claims-2442420.html, last accessed July 23, 2013. See also http://www.hangthebankers.com/tag/itskov/ Will we become immortals by 2045?
  58. 58. 58Kurzweil, R. (Mar 4, 2013). Immortality by 2045, 2045 Initiative, YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f28LPwR8BdY, last accessed July 5, 2013. 1:55 Will we become immortals by 2045?
  59. 59. 59 Human Machine Will we become immortals by 2045?
  60. 60. 60Digital Trends (2014). How one Russian millionaire wants to save the world … with immortal cyborgs, http://www.digitaltrends.com/cool-tech/dmitry-itskov-2045-initiative/#!zwvft, last accessed Mar 19, 2014. Will we become immortals by 2045? Dmitry Itskov on the Philosophy of Immortality
  61. 61. 61 Dmitry Itskov on the Philosophy of Immortality Voir Motherboard (2013). Dmitry Itskov on the Philosophy of Immortality, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dyJjGxZs4l8, consulté le 19 mars 2014. 0:21 Will we become immortals by 2045?
  62. 62. 62 This is all based on Moore’s law, and also on progress made in medicine to replace certain body parts by electronics. Today, we can affix an implant to allow a person to hear again. Source of image: Miche, H. (2013). L’immortalité est prévue pour 2045, vous pourrez télécharger l’intégralité de votre esprit dans un ordinateur, 29 juin, http://dailygeekshow.com/2013/06/29/limmortalite-est-prevue-pour-2045-vous-pourrez-telecharger-lintegralite-de- votre-esprit-dans-un-ordinateur/, last accessed July 5, 2013. Will we become immortals by 2045?
  63. 63. 63 Hardesty, L. (2012). Medical devices powered by the ear itself, MIT News Office, http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2012/biological- battery-1107.html, last accessed July 23, 2013. Will we become immortals by 2045?
  64. 64. 64 Will we become immortals by 2045? :26Excerpts from the movie Simple Creature directed by Andrew Finnigan (2016): @45:44-46:33.
  65. 65. 65 Will we become immortals by 2045?
  66. 66. 66 T T H H A A N N K K S SSong: Extracted from the song 141120 TK music sn04.-27510, by Artist: Pleasure Park Music - Licensed by AdRev for Rights Holder (on behalf of Pleasure Park Music), https://soundcloud.com/zoxfox87/141120-tk-music-sn05-1, last accessed July 27, 2018.

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