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06 Cloud Computing 2018

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06 Cloud Computing 2018

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06 Cloud Computing 2018

  1. 1. 1 Cloud Computing, IoT and Smart Cities Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer Innovation & IT Management
  2. 2. 2 IoT Smart Cities Cloud Computing New Technologies Cloud Computing Introduction Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) of the US Department of Commerce working definition of Cloud Computing (NIST Special Publication 800-145, p.2)1. http://www.nist.gov/itl/csd/cloud-102511.cfm 1. See Mell, P. and Grance, T. (2011). Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Special Publication 800-145, http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf, or https://cloudcomputingollusa.wikispaces.com/file/view/SP800-145.pdf/298443648/SP800-145.pdf, last accessed Feb 4, 2014.
  3. 3. 3 As written in the October 2008 issue of The Economist, “There will be many ways in which the cloud will change businesses and the economy, most of them hard to predict, but one theme is already emerging. Introduction Fingar, P. (2009). Cloud Computing: It’s about Management Innovation, http://www.bptrends.com/publicationfiles/12-09-COL- EXT%20Comp-Cloud%20ComputingtMgtInnovation-Fingar-final.pdf, last accessed Dec 21, 2012. “There will be many ways in which the cloud will change businesses and the economy, most of them hard to predict, but one theme is already emerging. Businesses are becoming more like the technology itself: more adaptable, more interwoven and more specialized. “There will be many ways in which the cloud will change businesses and the economy, most of them hard to predict, but one theme is already emerging. Businesses are becoming more like the technology itself: more adaptable, more interwoven and more specialized. These developments may not be new, but cloud computing will speed them up.”
  4. 4. 4 2008: Cloud Computing is mentioned the first time in Gartner’s Hype Cycle. It is cited as a technology of transformational importance expected to mature in 2-5 years. 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Introduction 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
  5. 5. 5 Introduction
  6. 6. 6 Before After The idea Water is now available 24h/24 7x7 You pay for what you use You rely on a trusted third-party (water) provider
  7. 7. 7 Before After John McCarthy once asserted that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility.” The idea Electricity is now available 24h/24 7x7 You pay for what you use You rely on a trusted third-party (electricity) provider
  8. 8. 8Carr, N. (2003). IT Doesn't Matter, Harvard Business Review, May, pp. 41-49. Nicholas Carr published an article in Harvard Business Review titled “IT Doesn’t Matter” Nicholas Carr published an article in Harvard Business Review titled “IT Doesn’t Matter” and followed up with a couple of books titled “Does IT Matter” and “The Big Switch”. The basic proposition of Carr’s work is that IT is becoming commoditized and becoming utility like electricity and water. The idea
  9. 9. 9 Many of the major suppliers of corporate IT, including Microsoft, IBM, Sun, are battling to position themselves as dominant suppliers of “Web services” – to turn themselves into utilities. The idea
  10. 10. 10 Many of the major suppliers of corporate IT, including Microsoft, IBM, Sun, are battling to position themselves as dominant suppliers of “Web services” – to turn themselves into utilities. Carr, N. (2003). IT Doesn't Matter, Harvard Business Review, May, pp. 41-49. The idea
  11. 11. 11 A new model slowly imposed itself: ASP or ASP = Application Service Provider Sometimes referred to as SaaS (Software as a Service) Application Service Providing
  12. 12. 12 Accounting Inventory SFA Payroll Production Purchasing CRM Billing Accounting Inventory SFA Payroll Production Purchasing CRM Billing Accounting Inventory SFA Payroll Production Purchasing CRM Billing Accounting Inventory SFA Payroll Production Purchasing CRM Billing Accounting Inventory SFA Payroll Production Purchasing CRM Billing Application Service Providing
  13. 13. 13 ENTREPRISE ENTREPRISE ENTREPRISE ENTREPRISE ASP Application Service Providing
  14. 14. 14 ENTREPRISE ENTREPRISE ENTREPRISE ENTREPRISE ASP Application Service Providing
  15. 15. 15 Application Service Providing
  16. 16. 16 The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) of the US Department of Commerce working definition of Cloud Computing (NIST Special Publication 800-145, p.2)1: http://www.nist.gov/itl/csd/cloud-102511.cfm 1. See Mell, P. and Grance, T. (2011). Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Special Publication 800-145, http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-145/SP800-145.pdf, or https://cloudcomputingollusa.wikispaces.com/file/view/SP800-145.pdf/298443648/SP800-145.pdf, last accessed Feb 4, 2014. “cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.” CC – Definitions
  17. 17. 17 1:45 CC – Definitions
  18. 18. 18Source: Karthik T.S. (not dated). A new model slowly imposed itself: ASP or ASP = Application Service Provider Sometimes referred to as SaaS (Software as a Service) From ASP to CC The word “cloud” is widely used as a metaphor for the Internet which is now the foundation of Cloud Computing.
  19. 19. 19 From ASP to CC
  20. 20. 20 Hardware Software Systems software Application software Systems software (Platform) Application software (Software) (Infrastructure) From ASP to CC
  21. 21. 21 Hardware Software Systems software Application software Systems software (Platform) Application software (Software) (Infrastructure) From ASP to CC Computing is now available 24h/24 7x7 You pay for what you use You rely on a trusted third-party (cloud) provider
  22. 22. 22 Hardware Software Systems software Application software Systems software (Platform) Application software (Software) (Infrastructure) From ASP to CC Computing is now available 24h/24 7x7 You pay for what you use You rely on a trusted third-party (cloud) provider
  23. 23. 23 The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices From ASP to CC
  24. 24. 24 From ASP to CC The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through either a thin client interface, such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email), or a program interface. through either a thin client interface, such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email), or a program interface. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user- specific application configuration settings.
  25. 25. 25 The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, From ASP to CC
  26. 26. 26 The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. From ASP to CC libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly configuration settings for the application-hosting environment.
  27. 27. 27 The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run From ASP to CC
  28. 28. 28 The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run From ASP to CC arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, and deployed applications; and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).
  29. 29. 29 A new model slowly imposed itself: ASP or ASP = Application Service Provider  Active Server Pages Now “simply” called Cloud Computing From ASP to CC
  30. 30. 30 Applications Thefirm Thecloud provider Thecloud provider Thecloud provider Thefirm From ASP to CC
  31. 31. 31 Shems FM (2013). Hammamet : lancement de la première école de Cloud Computing au monde, dec 16, http://www.shemsfm.net/fr/actualite/hammamet-lancement-de-la-premiere-ecole-de-cloud-computing-au-monde-68385, last accessed May 16, 2014. CC – In Tunisia Dec. 16, 2013 - Starting of a school in Hammamet entirely devoted to CC.
  32. 32. 32 Dec. 16, 2013 - Starting of a school in Hammamet entirely devoted to CC. Shems FM (2013). Hammamet : lancement de la première école de Cloud Computing au monde, dec 16, http://www.shemsfm.net/fr/actualite/hammamet-lancement-de-la-premiere-ecole-de-cloud-computing-au-monde-68385, last accessed May 16, 2014. CC – In Tunisia
  33. 33. 33 Dec. 16, 2013 - Starting of a school in Hammamet entirely devoted to CC. Feb 18, 2014, Tunisie Télécom develops its CC services and corporate offerings. Telecom Review (2014). Tunisie Télécom développe ses services de Cloud Computing et ses solutions professionnelles, http://www.telecomreview.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=650:tunisie-telecom-developpe-ses-services-de- cloud-computing-et-ses-solutions-professionnelles&catid=3:newsflash&Itemid=54, last accessed June 7, 2014. CC – In Tunisia
  34. 34. 34 Dec. 16, 2013 - Starting of a school in Hammamet entirely devoted to CC. Feb 18, 2014, Tunisie Télécom develops its CC services and corporate offerings. Telecom Review (2014). Tunisie Télécom développe ses services de Cloud Computing et ses solutions professionnelles, http://www.telecomreview.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=650:tunisie-telecom-developpe-ses-services-de- cloud-computing-et-ses-solutions-professionnelles&catid=3:newsflash&Itemid=54, last accessed June 7, 2014. CC – In Tunisia
  35. 35. 35 Dec. 16, 2013 - Starting of a school in Hammamet entirely devoted to CC. Feb 18, 2014, Tunisie Télécom develops its CC services and corporate offerings. Investir (2014). Tunisie : Poulina Group Holding investit plus de 45 MDT dans le Cloud Computing (vidéo), Investir - Le Magazine Economique d'Audinet Conseil, 17 mai, http://www.investir-en- tunisie.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=26512:tunisie-poulina-group-holding-investit-plus-de-45-mdt-dans-le- cloud-computing-video&catid=36:investissement&Itemid=323, last accessed June 8, 2014. May 19, 2014, Poulina Group Holding invests TD 45 million in creating a company named Cloud Temple Tunisia. CC – In Tunisia
  36. 36. 36 Feb 18, 2014, Tunisie Télécom develops its CC services and corporate offerings. Investir (2014). Tunisie : Poulina Group Holding investit plus de 45 MDT dans le Cloud Computing (vidéo), Investir - Le Magazine Economique d'Audinet Conseil, 17 mai, http://www.investir-en- tunisie.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=26512:tunisie-poulina-group-holding-investit-plus-de-45-mdt-dans-le- cloud-computing-video&catid=36:investissement&Itemid=323, last accessed June 8, 2014. CC – In Tunisia Dec. 16, 2013 - Starting of a school in Hammamet entirely devoted to CC. May 19, 2014, Poulina Group Holding invests TD 45 million in creating a company named Cloud Temple Tunisia.
  37. 37. 37 Tuesday, May 17, 2016, Poulina Group Holding (PGH) officially inaugurates its largest Datacenter, DataXion. Boasting 1200 sq. meters of white rooms and located in the El Agba industrial zone, DataXion is considered the largest Datacenter in Africa. Taboubi, K. (2016). Poulina inaugure le plus grand Datacenter en Afrique, African Manager, http://africanmanager.com/12_poulina- inaugure-le-plus-grand-datacenter-en-afrique/, last accessed May 18, 2016. CC – In Tunisia
  38. 38. 38 CC – In Tunisia
  39. 39. 39 CC – In Tunisia
  40. 40. 40 June 17, 2014 – A Tunisian bank, Zitouna, embraces the cloud. CC – In Tunisia
  41. 41. 41 June 17, 2014 – A Tunisian bank, Zitouna, embraces the cloud. CC – In Tunisia February 2, 2018 – Inauguration of Sibtel’s Data Center1. 1. Société Interbancaire de Télécompensation
  42. 42. 42 The entrance of Sibtel’s Data Center. CC – In Tunisia
  43. 43. 43 The Data Center proper, where everything is mutualized. CC – In Tunisia
  44. 44. 44 All of financial transactions of value such as bank’s cheques, bank bills, bank levies, and wire transfers exchanged among Tunisian banks, including public employees’ salaries, are handled electronically through Sibtel. CC – In Tunisia
  45. 45. 45 CC – In Tunisia Sibtel’s three power generators and the cooling equipment.
  46. 46. 46 CNI Bizerte Finances + Armée (Fondouk Jedid) BCT and Sibtel (Kairouan) CNSS (Sousse) CNAM (Kairouan) BIAT (Jedaida) Tunisie Telecom (3 Data Centers) Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research (HPC with Chinese collaboration) Topnet Orange Tunisie 3S GlobalNet Axelaris Data Center Intrensec Tunisie Oreedoo (El Mghrira) Satec Tunisie Alpha Technologie In 2015, the data centers existing in Tunisia were: Mesona, J.-B. (Jan 5, 2015). Le boom des data centers et du cloud en Tunisie!, http://calliopeservices.blogspot.com/2015/01/le- boom-des-data-centers-et-du-cloud-en.html, last accessed Mar 21, 2018. CC – In Tunisia
  47. 47. 47 5,560 8,090 13,400 21,210 33,090 47,220 63,190 78,430 92,750 105,490 116,390 125,520 132,570 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 Total Revenue Forecast for SaaS 2007-2015 (Million US dollars). Sources: http://www.institut-sage.com/voir/1447 and http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/cloud-computing-market-241-billion-in- 2020/47702 * Business Process as a Service CC – The market
  48. 48. 48Source: Karthik T.S. (not dated). Cloud Computing - An Introduction, Cloud Computing Centre of Excellence, Torry Harris, http://fr.slideshare.net/toryharis/cloud-computing-integration-introduction, last accessed Dec 22, 2013. The disadvantages: • Data security – Still a concern • SLAs, High Availability, etc • Hidden costs – Setup, exit, etc. • etc. • Fear of Rigidity and Vendor Lock-in CC – The dark side
  49. 49. 49 The Daily Beast (2014). Adobe’s ‘Creative Cloud’ Goes Offline—and Takes a Million Designers With It, May 15, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/05/15/adobe-s-creative-cloud-goes-offline-and-takes-a-million-designers-with-it.html, last accessed June 15, 2014. The authors wonder, “This sudden unavailability […] highlights the problems of cloud computing even as we’re coming to depend on it more heavily.” On May 14, 2014, at around 5 PM EST, Adobe displayed a maintenance message for the service. Other non-design services, like Adobe Business Catalyst, which hosts email fundraising campaigns and e- commerce, also went down. CC – Examples
  50. 50. 50 Applications CC – Examples
  51. 51. 51Source: Karthik T.S. (not dated). Cloud Computing - An Introduction, Cloud Computing Centre of Excellence, Torry Harris, http://fr.slideshare.net/toryharis/cloud-computing-integration-introduction, last accessed Dec 22, 2013. CC – Examples
  52. 52. 52 • Google Docs January 13, 2010 • Google Drive April 24, 2012 • DropBox June 1, 2007 • SugarSync March 20, 2008 • ZumoDrive 2007 • Sendspace 2005 • SkyDrive August 1, 2007 • iCloud October 12, 2011 CC – Examples
  53. 53. 53 • Google Docs January 13, 2010 • Google Drive April 24, 2012 • DropBox June 1, 2007 • SugarSync March 20, 2008 • ZumoDrive 2007 • Sendspace 2005 • SkyDrive August 1, 2007 • iCloud October 12, 2011 CC – Examples
  54. 54. 54 Dropbox is a very easy way to share files across platforms whether on Windows, Mac, Android or Linux. http://onsoftware.en.softonic.com/why-icloud-wont-kill-dropbox CC – Examples
  55. 55. 55 CC – Examples
  56. 56. 56 CC – Examples
  57. 57. 57 CC – Examples
  58. 58. 58 Rodrigues, T. (2013). The cloud is fundamental to the Internet of Things, January 16, http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/datacenter/the-cloud-is-fundamental-to-the-internet-of-things/5963?tag=nl.e077&s_cid=e077, last accessed on Jan 18, 2013. What now?... They are now talking about the “Internet of things” This connects a great number of objects, internal sensors, processors, etc. The refrigerator will order milk from the grocery store whenever it is running out without our intervention Toys will interact with each other independently Offices will automatically order new supplies as needed This kind of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is at the crux of the Internet of Things.
  59. 59. 59 IoT Smart Cities Cloud Computing New Technologies Internet of Things The Internet of Things (IoT)
  60. 60. 60 The Internet of Things (IoT)
  61. 61. 61 The Internet of Things (IoT)
  62. 62. 62 The Internet of Things (IoT)
  63. 63. 63 The Internet of Things (IoT)
  64. 64. 64Twining, J. (Aug 13, 2015). Behind the numbers: Growth in the Internet of things, https://www.ncta.com/platform/broadband- internet/behind-the-numbers-growth-in-the-internet-of-things-2/, last accessed Mar 4, 2017. The Internet of Things (IoT)
  65. 65. 65 The Internet of Things (IoT)
  66. 66. 663:2IBM Think Academy (Sep 3, 2015). How It Works: Internet of Things, IBM, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QSIPNhOiMoE, last accessed Aug 13, 2017. The Internet of Things (IoT)
  67. 67. 67 The Internet of Things (IoT)
  68. 68. 68 IoT Smart Cities Cloud Computing New Technologies Smart Cities The Internet of Things (IoT) A smart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses ICTs and other means to improve quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social, environmental as well as cultural aspects. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and International Telecommunication Union, October 2015.
  69. 69. 69Mazza, D. (2014). Challenges on Wireless HetNet for Mobile Cloud Computing in a Smart City Scenario, Bologna, https://www.slideshare.net/danimaz/tutorial7-112014, last accessed Mar 4, 2017. Smart Cities
  70. 70. 70Mazza, D. (2014). Challenges on Wireless HetNet for Mobile Cloud Computing in a Smart City Scenario, Bologna, https://www.slideshare.net/danimaz/tutorial7-112014, last accessed Mar 4, 2017. Smart Cities
  71. 71. 71 Smart Cities
  72. 72. 72 Smart Cities
  73. 73. 73 Smart Cities
  74. 74. 74 Already in 1502, Leonardo da Vinci had drawn up maps for what he considered the “ideal city”. Banhamou, P. (2015). Léonard de Vinci, L'Histoire des inventions, Le Monde Hors-Série, pp. 68-69 (Illustration de Sonia Roy). Smart Cities: An old idea?
  75. 75. 75 Smart Cities
  76. 76. 76 LondonLondon San Francisco London San Francisco Oslo London San Francisco Oslo Singapore Smart Cities
  77. 77. 77 0:0 8 Smart Cities: Songdo London San Francisco Oslo Singapore Songdo
  78. 78. 78 Excerpted from YouTube (Nov 7, 2014). Songdo, the Future City: MEGAPROJECTS (Part 2), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szktRPHI1U8, last accessed Mar 4, 2017. Smart Cities: Songdo
  79. 79. 79 “The world’s most futuristic city is Songdo, South Korea. Within the larger city of Incheon, Songdo is a $40 billion project that embraces the 21st century design concepts.” Excerpted from YouTube (Nov 7, 2014). Songdo, the Future City: MEGAPROJECTS (Part 2), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szktRPHI1U8, last accessed Mar 4, 2017. Smart Cities: Songdo
  80. 80. 80 “If the 20th century was the era of nations, the 21st century is the era of cities” Lee Myung-bak President, South Korea Excerpted from YouTube (Nov 7, 2014). Songdo, the Future City: MEGAPROJECTS (Part 2), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=szktRPHI1U8, last accessed Mar 4, 2017. Smart Cities: Songdo
  81. 81. 81 Smart Cities: Songdo 0:0 3
  82. 82. 82 SOUTH KOREA Seoul Songdo Smart Cities: Songdo Built in a 50.22 million people country (2013).Built in a 50.22 million people country (2013). The city is 40 miles south west of Seoul. Built in a 50.22 million people country (2013). The city is 40 miles south west of Seoul. The project started in 2001. Built in a 50.22 million people country (2013). The city is 40 miles south west of Seoul. The project started in 2001. 1500 acres had to be reclaimed from the sea. Built in a 50.22 million people country (2013). The city is 40 miles south west of Seoul. The project started in 2001. 1500 acres had to be reclaimed from the sea. 40% of the space is open space. Built in a 50.22 million people country (2013). The city is 40 miles south west of Seoul. The project started in 2001. 1500 acres had to be reclaimed from the sea. 40% of the space is open space. Cost: $35 to $40 billion.
  83. 83. 83 All public transportation is automated, connected, synchronized optimally with the rest of the network. The system of recycling: in the streets, there are no dumpsters. In the apartments, all the electronic instruments are monitored thanks to a mural control panel or a smartphone application. A system, called Homenet, manages lights, smoke detectors, televisions, door locks, intercom cameras, etc. It also regulates the temperature, the heating and air-conditioning. Smart Cities: Songdo
  84. 84. 84 Smart Cities: Songdo
  85. 85. 85 European Parliament (May 2014). Mapping Smart Cities in the EU, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/507480/IPOL-ITRE_ET(2014)507480_EN.pdf, last accessed Mar 4, 2017 (p. 36). (Original infography: Laganier, C. (June 3, 2016). Songdo, un modèle pour les villes intelligentes de demain ? https://www.energystream-wavestone.com/2016/06/songdo-modele-villes-intelligentes-de-demain/, last accessed Mar 4, 2017). Smart Mobility Smart Environment Smart Living Smart People Smart Governance Smart Economy ICT supported & integrated transport (trams, buses, trains, metros, cars, cycles, etc.) & logistics systems. Safe and interconnected transportation systems. ICT-enabled energy grids, metering, pollution control and monitoring, renovation of buildings and amenities Urban services (street lighting, waste management, drainage systems, and water resource systems) to reduce pollution and improve water quality. ICT-enabled life styles, behavior and consumption. Healthy and safe living in a culturally vibrant city with diverse cultural facilities Good quality housing and accommodations. e-skills, working in ICT-enabled environments Access to education and training, human resources and capacity management, An inclusive society that improves creativity and fosters innovation. Joining up within- city and across- city governance, including services and interactions Linking and integrating public, private, civil and community organizations so the city can function efficiently and effectively as one organism. e-business and e-commerce. Increased productivity, ICT-enabled manufacturing and delivery of services. Local and global inter- connectedness and international embeddedness with physical and virtual flows of goods, services and knowledge. Connected city 7 criteria to become a Smart City
  86. 86. 86See http://www.investir-en-tunisie.net/fr/index.php/2018/02/23/bizerte-et-kairouan-villes-intelligentes/, accessed July 3, 2018 Smart cities in Tunisia
  87. 87. 87 Smart cities in Tunisia Voir https://www.tekiano.com/2018/05/02/la-ville-de-bizerte-inscrite-parmi-les-quatre-premieres-villes-intelligentes-et-durables-au- monde-photos/, last accessed July 4, 2018.
  88. 88. 88See https://news.itu.int/how-itu-supports-smart-sustainable-cities-and-the-achievement-of-sdg-11/, last accessed July 4, 2018. Smart cities in Tunisia
  89. 89. 89 Smart cities in Tunisia
  90. 90. 90 Smart cities in Tunisia See https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/hlm/Meetings/2018/04_26/Documentation/0_1_Opening_remarks_Reyna.pdf, last accessed July 3, 2018
  91. 91. 91 T T H H A A N N K K S SSong: Extracted from the song 141120 TK music sn04.-27510, by Artist: Pleasure Park Music - Licensed by AdRev for Rights Holder (on behalf of Pleasure Park Music), https://soundcloud.com/zoxfox87/141120-tk-music-sn05-1, last accessed July 27, 2018.

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