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01 Introduction 2018

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01 Introduction 2018

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01 Introduction 2018

  1. 1. 1 Introduction Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer Innovation & IT Management
  2. 2. 2 Thomas Edison holds a world record Who do you think is the most innovative person? I have not failed. I have just found 10.000 ways that do not work. Thomas Edison holds a world record of 1093 patents for inventions such as the light bulb and phonograph Thomas Edison holds a world record of 1093 patents for inventions such as the light bulb and phonograph all listed on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Edison_patents Definitions
  3. 3. 3Inspired from Kwoh, L. (2012). You Call That Innovation? May 23, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304791704577418250902309914.html, last accessed Dec. 26, 2012. Definitions
  4. 4. 4Inspired from Kwoh, L. (2012). You Call That Innovation? May 23, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304791704577418250902309914.html, last accessed Dec. 26, 2012. Definitions
  5. 5. 5 The process may be achieved through trial and error Definitions
  6. 6. 6 The process may be achieved through trial and error The enablers of innovation
  7. 7. 7 Barker, E. (December 16, 2013). How creative geniuses get their ideas, http://theweek.com/articles/454731/how-creative-geniuses- ideas, last accessed Feb 19, 2017. The real meaning of “trial and error”
  8. 8. 8 1:36 Excerpted from Sims, P. (2011). Peter Sims: “Little Bets” | Talks at Google, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kl5ATK7tCsI, last accessed Feb 19, 2017 [1:40-3:16]. The real meaning of “trial and error”
  9. 9. 9 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation The enablers of innovation
  10. 10. 10 The enablers of innovation
  11. 11. 11 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation In 1968, Dr. Spencer Silver, a scientist at 3M, was attempting to develop a super-strong adhesive, but instead he accidentally created a "low-tack", reusable, pressure-sensitive adhesive that has been characterized as "a solution without a problem". Source: Wikipedia (2013). Post-it note, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-it_note, last accessed May 2, 2013. So do mistakes (Post It Notes) The enablers of innovation
  12. 12. 12 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation July 2006 So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Or cheer “accidents” The enablers of innovation
  13. 13. 13 EUREKA! The enablers of innovation For the popular sci fi novelist Isaac Azimov, “The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not ‘Eureka!’, but ‘That’s funny’…”
  14. 14. 14 [Steve Jobs] spent time studying telephones in houses and offices and noticed that they often sat on telephone books. Nonaka, I. and Kenney, M. (1991). Towards a New Theory of Innovation Management: A Case Study Comparing Canon, Inc. and Apple Computer, Inc. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 8, pp. 67-83. The enablers of innovation
  15. 15. 15 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation Or cheer “accidents”Or cheer “accidents” or serendipityOr cheer “accidents” or serendipity: A vast majority of human inventions are akin to lucky finds due to serendipity or the fruit of chance than of creative imagination. So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Serendipity: a propensity for making fortunate discoveries while looking for something unrelated (Wikipedia). The enablers of innovation
  16. 16. 16Planet Science (not dated). Accidental discoveries, Science isn't exact! http://www.planet-science.com/categories/over-11s/science- celebrities/2011/09/accidental-discoveries.aspx, consulté le 22 mars 2014. Serendipitous discoveries
  17. 17. 17Planet Science (not dated). Accidental discoveries, Science isn't exact! http://www.planet-science.com/categories/over-11s/science- celebrities/2011/09/accidental-discoveries.aspx, consulté le 22 mars 2014. Serendipitous discoveries
  18. 18. 18Planet Science (not dated). Accidental discoveries, Science isn't exact! http://www.planet-science.com/categories/over-11s/science- celebrities/2011/09/accidental-discoveries.aspx, consulté le 22 mars 2014. Serendipitous discoveries
  19. 19. 19Planet Science (not dated). Accidental discoveries, Science isn't exact! http://www.planet-science.com/categories/over-11s/science- celebrities/2011/09/accidental-discoveries.aspx, consulté le 22 mars 2014. Serendipitous discoveries
  20. 20. 20Planet Science (not dated). Accidental discoveries, Science isn't exact! http://www.planet-science.com/categories/over-11s/science- celebrities/2011/09/accidental-discoveries.aspx, consulté le 22 mars 2014. Serendipitous discoveries
  21. 21. 21 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation The enablers of innovation So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology
  22. 22. 22 Science and Technology When humans started inventing, science did not exist. Finkelstein, R. (n.d.). MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, presentation based on: Customized Management of Technology by Tarek Khalil (With Additional Information By R. Finkelstein), p. 54, http://www.robotictechnologyinc.com/images/upload/file/Presentation%20Technology%20Management3.pdf, last accessed Aug 14, 2017. Sardjana, D. (2009). Design and Implementation of Technology Strategy: S-Curve and Disruption, Lecture by Djadja Sardjana, https://www.slideshare.net/djadja/innovation-s-curve-disruptive-m-m-biztel-01-jul0997-03, last accessed Aug 14, 2017. When humans started inventing, science did not exist. Invention, and technology existed independently of science. When humans started inventing, science did not exist. Invention, and technology existed independently of science. Because science helps to understand the fundamental laws of nature and provides methods for learning those laws, the advent of science contributed to the spectacular increase in invention, innovation, and technology. When humans started inventing, science did not exist. Invention, and technology existed independently of science. Because science helps to understand the fundamental laws of nature and provides methods for learning those laws, the advent of science contributed to the spectacular increase in invention, innovation, and technology. Today, it happens that science provides the basis for technological development, which in turn, creates new products and processes, and even markets. New technology, in turn, leads to new scientific discoveries.
  23. 23. 23 Opportunities for science push Scientific discoveries Applied knowledge Recognized needs Intellectual capital Inspired by Sardjana, D. (2009). Design and Implementation of Technology Strategy: S-Curve and Disruption, Lecture by Djadja Sardjana, https://www.slideshare.net/djadja/innovation-s-curve-disruptive-m-m-biztel-01-jul0997-03, last accessed Aug 14, 2017. Science push and market pull Opportunities for market pull Market demand Proliferation of application areas Recognized needs Opportunities for increased profitability, quality, productivity, etc. Innovation
  24. 24. 24 Science can lead to new technology (e.g., Maxwell’s equations led to all electronics technology; Einstein’s equations led to nuclear energy). Technology can push demand for new products onto the market. Or the market for new products (i.e., solutions to problems) can pull demand for new technology. Finkelstein, R. (n.d.). MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION, presentation based on: Customized Management of Technology by Tarek Khalil (With Additional Information By R. Finkelstein), p. 89, http://www.robotictechnologyinc.com/images/upload/file/Presentation%20Technology%20Management3.pdf, last accessed Aug 14, Science and Technology
  25. 25. 25 “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” Ken Olson, President, Chairman and Founder of Digital Equipment Corp. (DEC), maker of big business mainframe computers, arguing against the PC in 1977. Timely (?) quotes… Source: Frater, J. (2007). Top 30 Failed Technology Predictions, Oct. 28, http://listverse.com/2007/10/28/top-30-failed-technology- predictions/, last accessed on June 20, 2013. “We will never make a 32 bit operating system.” - Bill Gates “There is practically no chance communications space satellites will be used to provide better telephone, telegraph, television, or radio service inside the United States.” T. Craven, FCC Commissioner, in 1961 (the first commercial communications satellite went into service in 1965).
  26. 26. 26 “Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” Lord Kelvin, British mathematician and physicist, President of the British Royal Society, 1895. Timely (?) quotes… Source: Frater, J. (2007). Top 30 Failed Technology Predictions, Oct. 28, http://listverse.com/2007/10/28/top-30-failed-technology- predictions/, last accessed on June 20, 2013. “Heavier-than-air flying machines are impossible.” Lord Kelvin, British mathematician and physicist, President of the British Royal Society, 1895. “The horse is here to stay but the automobile is only a novelty – a fad.” The president of the Michigan Savings Bank advising Henry Ford’s lawyer, Horace Rackham, not to invest in the Ford Motor Co., 1903. “This ‘telephone’ has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us.” A memo at Western Union, 1878 (or 1876).
  27. 27. 27 “There’s no chance that the iPhone is going to get any significant market share.” Steve Ballmer, CEO Microsoft, 2007. Timely (?) quotes… Lieberman, D. (2007). CEO Forum: Microsoft's Ballmer having a 'great time', USA TODAY, Apr 30, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2007-04-29-ballmer-ceo-forum-usat_N.htm, last accessed Aug 27, 2013. Apple vs. Microsoft after Balmer’s Statement Graph via Google Finance “There’s no chance that the iPhone is going to get any significant market share. No chance.”
  28. 28. 28 “There’s no chance that the iPhone is going to get any significant market share. No chance.” Steve Ballmer, CEO Microsoft, 2007. Lieberman, D. (2007). CEO Forum: Microsoft's Ballmer having a 'great time', USA TODAY, Apr 30, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/management/2007-04-29-ballmer-ceo-forum-usat_N.htm, last accessed Aug 27, 2013. “Everything that can be invented has been invented.” Charles H. Duell, Commissioner, U.S. Patent Office, 1899 “We always overestimate the change that will occur in the next two years and underestimate the change that will occur in the next ten.” Bill Gates (The road Ahead) Timely (?) quotes…
  29. 29. 29 A century ago one French writer, seeing the smoke belching from early automobiles, predicted that “the petroleum spirit cab will never be a practical proposition in large towns.” October 1st, 1908: First model T Ford goes on sale. Source: The Economist (US) (June 22, 1996). A hundred years on the clock(automobile industry) (Survey: Living with the Car), p. 3. Science and… Technology?
  30. 30. 30 Jospeh Mille’s “automobile horse”, patented in 1897, designed not to scare off real horses. Science and… Technology? BY KRUTIMODY (2010). Mechanical Horse Infused With Steampunk Concept, Dec. 20, http://walyou.com/steampunk- mechanical-horse/, last accessed June 20, 2013.
  31. 31. 31Drucker, P. F. (2000), The Discipline of Innovation, Harvard Business Review, May, (originally published 1985, May-June, 63(3), 67- 72. CREATIVITY INNOVATION Innovation is work rather than genius,… and very much a matter of discipline (Drucker) Definitions INVESTMENT If your cool new thing doesn’t generate a profit, it isn’t innovation …It’s art (Fast Company).
  32. 32. 32 Creativity is about coming up with ideas while innovation is about “bringing ideas to life”. Definitions Creativity is about coming up with ideas while innovation is about “bringing ideas to life”. While individuals may display creativity, innovation occurs in the organizational context only, by bringing creative ideas to life. Creativity is about coming up with ideas while innovation is about “bringing ideas to life”. While individuals may display creativity, innovation occurs in the organizational context only, by bringing creative ideas to life. while Invention implies bringing something new into beingInvention implies bringing something new into being; innovation implies bringing something new into use (Schumpeter).
  33. 33. 33 For Schumpeter, an invention has not yet entered to economic system. And most inventions never do. an innovation becomes part of the economic system. Definitions
  34. 34. 34 Innovation is also different from improvement. Neumann, R. (Mar 26, 2013). Innovation and the S-Curve, Presentation from the 2013 LiFT Conference: Driving Innovation-based Growth, https://www.slideshare.net/wright4/double-scurve-model-of-growth?from_action=save, last accessed Aug 14, 2017. Definitions Innovation is also different from improvement. (Later, authors will recognize improvement as a type of innovation (incremental!)) Innovation is also different from improvement. (Later, authors will recognize improvement as a type of innovation (incremental!)) Improvement is doing something better. Innovation is also different from improvement. (Later, authors will recognize improvement as a type of innovation (incremental!)) Improvement is doing something better. Innovation is doing something different (or differently).
  35. 35. 35 Innovation: ideasInnovation: ideasInnovation: ideas valueInnovation: ideas value f(idea) = value Innovation transforms ideas into value for customers, and so bringing a profit that has to be sustainable for the company Definitions Cornella, A. (Nov 7, 2007). The "new" and the "best" in teaching innovation, Infonomia.com, https://web.stanford.edu/group/ree/archives/archive07/europe/presentations/alfons_cornella.pdf, last accessed Dec 22, 2012.
  36. 36. 36 Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato) Definitions Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato), or of starting a radical change in our way of thinking or of looking at things. Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato), or of starting a radical change in our way of thinking or of looking at things. Creativity, although naturally limited, is made even more limited by our modern education systems.
  37. 37. 37 Definitions The answer has to do with how many circles are in each number. The number 8 has two circles in its shape so it counts as two. And 0 is one big circle, so it counts as 1. So 2581=2. This problem can be solved by pre-school children in 5-10 minutes, by a programmer - in 1 hour, by people with higher education… well, check it yourself! Long, J.D. (2012). Solving easy problems the hard way, March 17, http://www.cerebralmastication.com/2012/03/solving-easy- problems-the-hard-way/, last accessed Sept 9, 2013.
  38. 38. 38 • Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato) • Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato), or of starting a radical change in our way of thinking or of looking at things. • Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato), or of starting a radical change in our way of thinking or of looking at things. • Creativity, although naturally limited, is made even more limited by our modern education systems. • Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato), or of starting a radical change in our way of thinking or of looking at things. • Creativity, although naturally limited, is made even more limited by our modern education systems. Our limited imagination prevents us from really inventing. Definitions
  39. 39. 39 A busy road is not necessarily a path to follow Definitions
  40. 40. 40 A busy road is not necessarily a path to follow Definitions
  41. 41. 41 Definitions
  42. 42. 42 Creativity is the action of bringing something new (Plato), or of starting a radical change in our way of thinking or of looking at things. Creativity, although naturally limited, is made even more limited by our modern education systems. Our limited imagination prevents us from really inventing. Definitions
  43. 43. 43 more limited by our modern education systems. Definitions
  44. 44. 44Sir Ken Robinson, Do schools kill creativity, TEDx Talk. 0:26 Definitions
  45. 45. 45 more limited by our modern education systems. Definitions
  46. 46. 46 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation So do mistakes (Post It Notes) The enablers of innovation Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere (Dreams)
  47. 47. 47 The enablers of innovation In 1846, Elias Howe was awarded the first US patent for a sewing machine. Elias Howe dreamt he was in a jungle, surrounded by “savages”. They lifted their spears toward him, then lowered them. Each spear had a hole in the tip. This dream inspired him to move the position of the needle’s hole from the problematic location of the base to the tip, an aspect of his invention with which he had been struggling. Source: Harvard Magazine (1998). Cambridge 02138, July-August '98, http://harvardmagazine.com/1998/07/02138.html, last accessed July 5, 2013.
  48. 48. 48 The enablers of innovation
  49. 49. 49 “Sleep can help us learn, consolidate new memories, improve memory and recall, and give our brain time to get rid of unnecessary waste. Coren, S. (1997). Sleep Thieves, Free Press. concentration, slow down the learning process, and can even temporarily reduce IQ”. “Sleep can help us learn, consolidate new memories, improve memory and recall, and give our brain time to get rid of unnecessary waste. Conversely, chronic sleep deprivation can reduce our cognitive abilities, negatively impact our The enablers of innovation
  50. 50. 50 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere The enablers of innovation
  51. 51. 51 The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere (Out of the box) The enablers of innovation
  52. 52. 52 The enablers of innovation Richard Buckminster Fuller was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, and inventor.
  53. 53. 53Sam Loyd's Cyclopedia of 5000 Puzzles, Tricks, and Conundrums (With Answers), 1914 “Draw a continuous line through the center of all the eggs so as to mark them off in the fewest number of strokes.” Thinking outside the box
  54. 54. 54 Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb (a Caliph in Arabia) dividing 17 camels See: Syed, A. (2011). Imam Ali ibn Abi Taleb's (as) Mathematical Brilliance: Dividing 17 Camels, Moral stories, narratives, anecdotes, prophet stories, short stories and more...., Islamic Moral Stories, http://www.ezsoftech.com/stories/imamali2.asp, last accessed July 10,2013. The sons are sitting there trying to figure out how this can possibly be done, when a very old wise man goes riding by. They stop him and ask him to help them solve their problem. Without hesitation he divides the camels properly and continues riding on his way. How did he do it? He adds his camel in making it 18.He adds his camel in making it 18. The first gets 9.He adds his camel in making it 18. The first gets 9. The second gets 6 He adds his camel in making it 18. The first gets 9. The second gets 6 and the third 2. He adds his camel in making it 18. The first gets 9. The second gets 6 and the third 2. He takes his camel away. A rich Arab has three sons. When he died, he willed his 17 camels to the sons, to be divided as follows: First son to get 1/2 of the camels. A rich Arab has three sons. When he died, he willed his 17 camels to the sons, to be divided as follows: First son to get 1/2 of the camels. Second son to get 1/3 of the camels. A rich Arab has three sons. When he died, he willed his 17 camels to the sons, to be divided as follows: First son to get 1/2 of the camels. Second son to get 1/3 of the camels. Third son to get 1/9 of the camels. Thinking outside the box
  55. 55. 55 1717+1 =18 Thinking outside the box
  56. 56. 56 18/2=18/2=9 Thinking outside the box
  57. 57. 57 18/2=9 18/3=6 Thinking outside the box
  58. 58. 58 18/2=9 18/3=6 18/9=2 =17 Thinking outside the box
  59. 59. 59 No one said it was a math problem (the box!) What goes in the empty box? Hint: It is NOT 6. Thinking outside the box
  60. 60. 60Walton, S. (1992). Sam Walton: Made in America – My Story, New York: Doubleday, pp. 109-110 Thinking outside the box
  61. 61. 61 The power of outsiders 1:48Excerpted from Ted-Ed (Mar 11, 2012). How Containerization Shaped the Modern World, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gn7IoT_WSRA, last accessed Sept7, 2017. A result, the cost of a ton went from $6 to $.16.
  62. 62. 62 The enablers of innovation The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere Copying
  63. 63. 63 • In any scientific writing, such as the abstracts of articles published in Science, there are two kinds of words: 1. words that might appear in any abstract (y words) and 2. words such as substantive nouns that are specific to particular articles (x words). Weick, K.E. (1989). Theory Construction as Disciplined Imagination, Academy of Management Review, Vol.14, No.4, pp. 516-531, p. 522. • The ratio of x words to y words suggests how much jargon the article contains. • Furthermore, if theorists delete the x words and keep the y words, they have a generic structure for theorizing. Or simply… copying
  64. 64. 64 • Once the content words have been removed from an argument, theorists are left with a perfectly good set of blanks into which their own nouns can be inserted. • A structure of form words used by Theorist A can generate thought trials that could not be imagined by Theorist B, who thinks using a different structure. • To insert the ideas of one structure into the forms of another structure is to increase […] the probability of an original solution. • Those nouns will be put into relations with one another independent of the theorists’ own preferences. Or simply… copying
  65. 65. 65 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Thought Trial Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing.
  66. 66. 66 The discovery by Euclid of a new geometry beyond the empirical method is compared to other deductive schemes. The technique of axiomatic statement was familiar to several known Egyptians, and an extension in geometric capability might follow from use of the geometry and "algebra". Measurements of the modeling of the Pythagorean theorem in relation to the geometric proof are described for analogous algebraic equations. The discovery by Euclid of a new geometry beyond the empirical method is compared to other deductive schemes. The technique of axiomatic statement was familiar to several known Egyptians, and an extension in geometric capability might follow from use of the geometry and "algebra". Measurements of the modeling of the Pythagorean theorem in relation to the geometric proof are described for analogous algebraic equations. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Thought Trial If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66.
  67. 67. 67 If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. ColumbusColumbusColumbus Euclid Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  68. 68. 68 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  69. 69. 69 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid empirical methodgeometry The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  70. 70. 70 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid empirical methodgeometry deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  71. 71. 71 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  72. 72. 72 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  73. 73. 73 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  74. 74. 74 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  75. 75. 75 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  76. 76. 76 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an provement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians extension deductive The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  77. 77. 77 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  78. 78. 78 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  79. 79. 79 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovati . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  80. 80. 80 The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" modeling deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" modeling deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" modeling Pythagorean theorem deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" modeling Pythagorean theorem deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" modeling Pythagorean theorem geometric proof deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovat . The technique of cean naviga tion was basic to several known voyages , and an improvemein navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. Euclid geometry schemes empirical method axiomatic statement familiar Egyptians geometric capability geometry "algebra" modeling Pythagorean theorem geometric proof analogous algebraic equations. deductive extension The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  81. 81. 81 The discovery by Euclid of a new geometry beyond the empirical method is compared to other deductive schemes. The technique of axiomatic statement was familiar to several known Egyptians, and an extension in geometric capability might follow from use of the geometry and "algebra". Measurements of the modeling of the Pythagorean theorem in relation to the geometric proof are described for analogous algebraic equations. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. The discovery by Euclid of a new geometry beyond the empirical method is compared to other deductive schemes. The technique of axiomatic statement was familiar to several known Egyptians, and an extension in geometric capability might follow from use of the geometry and "algebra". Measurements of the modeling of the Pythagorean theorem in relation to the geometric proof are described for analogous algebraic equations. The discovery by Columbus of a new land beyond the western ocean is compared to other geographical innovations. The technique of ocean navigation was basic to several known voyages, and an improvement in navigation ability might follow from use of the compass and astrolabe. Measurements of the direction of the North Pole in relation to the morning star are described for seventeen mid-ocean sites. If we delete the x words and keep the y words, we have a generic structure for theorizing. Crovitz, H. F. (1970). Galton’s Walk (Methods for the Analysis of Thinking, Intelligence and Creativity). New York: Harper and Row, pp. 64-66. Thought Trial
  82. 82. 82 How do they do it? G. R. R. Martin Game of Thrones Stephen King The Green Mile The Shining J.K. Rowling Harry Potter
  83. 83. 83 The enablers of innovation The process may be achieved through trial and error Necessity can also lead to innovation So do mistakes (Post It Notes) Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere Copying Or cheer “accidents” or serendipity Science and technology Nowhere Copying mother nature
  84. 84. 84 The limitations of the human being – Imagination & creativity Copying mother nature
  85. 85. 85Source: https://video-frt3-2.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t42.1790- 2/28364409_398130237295270_6988319821075054592_n.mp4?_nc_cat=0&efg=eyJ2ZW5jb2RlX3RhZyI6InN2ZV9zZCJ9&oh=9f0a 0:2 0 A spider weaving its web The enablers of innovation
  86. 86. 86 Excerpted from and speeded up 3 times FACTAHOLICS (2018). A man poured molten aluminum on an ant colony. what happened next blew my mind, http://factaholics.com/man-poured-molten-aluminum-ant-colony-happened-next-totally-blew-mind/, last accessed May 11 2018. After a man poured molten aluminum on an ant colony: 0:5 0 The enablers of innovation
  87. 87. 87 Copying mother nature Each dot represents a single bird species; the location represents the average of the population for each day of the year. There are 118 species. Leonard, P. (January 20, 2016). Mesmerizing Migration: Watch 118 Bird Species Migrate Across A Map Of The Western Hemisphere, https://www.allaboutbirds.org/mesmerizing-migration-watch-118-bird-species-migrate-across-a-map-of-the-western-hemisphere/, last 0:3
  88. 88. 88 Nature provides the cumulative experience of a 4.5 billion year old R&D lab. For example, by observing ants and other insects, scientists are trying to understand how and why living systems are so naturally organized, in order to apply this knowledge to the systems that they build. See Bonabeau, E. et Theraulaz, G. (2000). Swarm Smarts, Scientific American, mars, pp. 72-79 and Dyson, G.B. (1997). Darwin Among the Machines: The Evolution of Global Intelligence, Helix Books, Addison Wesley. Copying mother nature
  89. 89. 89 Have you ever wondered how ants forage for food and how they seem to intelligently solve obstacles in their path? http://www.wordartz.com/swarm-intelligence/ Have you ever wondered how ants forage for food and how they seem to intelligently solve obstacles in their path? Are individual ants intelligent? Have you ever wondered how ants forage for food and how they seem to intelligently solve obstacles in their path? Are individual ants intelligent? Scientists believe not. Have you ever wondered how ants forage for food and how they seem to intelligently solve obstacles in their path? Are individual ants intelligent? Scientists believe not. If no, then how do they seem to be so successful? Copying mother nature
  90. 90. 90 Scientific American (2011). Ferry Tale: Fire Ants Aggregate into Living Rafts to Escape Floods, Scientific American, Apr 26, http://www.stumbleupon.com/su/1WbsdV/www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=ferry-tale-fire-ants-can/last accessed on Feb 16, 2013. Copying mother nature
  91. 91. 91 Copying nature is referred to as biomimetics, a term coined by Otto Schmitt in 1957. Here, copying nature means adaptation or derivation from nature. Indeed humans have always looked to nature for inspiration and the development of various materials and devices. Bhushan, B. (2005). 1. 1.Introduction to Nanotechnology, IN: Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology, Bharat Bhushan (Ed.), http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/cda_downloaddocument/9783642025242- c2.pdf, last accessed Aug 18, 2017. Copying nature is referred to as biomimetics, a term coined by Otto Schmitt in 1957. Copying mother nature
  92. 92. 92 Nature provides the cumulative experience of a 4.5 billion year old R&D lab. It is no secret today that scientists want, by observing ants and other insects colonies, to understand how and why living systems are so naturally organized in order to apply this knowledge to the systems that they build. Nature provides the cumulative experience of a 4.5 billion year old R&D lab. It is no secret today that scientists want, by observing ants and other insects colonies, to understand how and why living systems are so naturally organized in order to apply this knowledge to the systems that they build. A discipline resulting from the study of bees and swarms is incidentally called “swarm intelligence”. Nature provides the cumulative experience of a 4.5 billion year old R&D lab. It is no secret today that scientists want, by observing ants and other insects colonies, to understand how and why living systems are so naturally organized in order to apply this knowledge to the systems that they build. A discipline resulting from the study of bees and swarms is incidentally called “swarm intelligence”. This discipline endorses the principle that following the example of ants, future small organisms will have the capacity to create a collective intelligence. Copying mother nature
  93. 93. 93 Swarm intelligence can be used in a variety of fields such as in robotics where an army of robots can be deployed to work autonomously for a particular objective. Bonabeau, E., Dorigo, M. and Theraulaz, G (1999). Swarm Intelligence - From Natural to Artificial Systems, Oxford University Press. Picture from: Sarin (2012). Swarm Intelligence, Science & Technology, http://www.wordartz.com/swarm-intelligence/, last accessed Feb 15, 2013. Swarm Intelligence (SI) is “The emergent collective intelligence of groups of simple agents.” Copying mother nature
  94. 94. 94Video extracted from École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Jul 25, 2018). An insect-inspired drone deforms upon impact, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kx3nKbjTuKU, last accessed July 27, 2018. Copying mother nature
  95. 95. 95Video extracted from École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Jul 25, 2018). An insect-inspired drone deforms upon impact, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kx3nKbjTuKU, last accessed July 27, 2018. 0:2 3 Copying mother nature
  96. 96. 96 Technological innovations are new products and processes Technological innovations are new products and processes and major technological modifications to products and processes. Technological innovations are new products and processes and major technological modifications to products and processes. An innovation is considered performed if it is introduced to the market (product innovation) Technological innovations are new products and processes and major technological modifications to products and processes. An innovation is considered performed if it is introduced to the market (product innovation) or implemented in the production process (process innovation). Technological innovations are new products and processes and major technological modifications to products and processes. An innovation is considered performed if it is introduced to the market (product innovation) or implemented in the production process (process innovation). In fact, there are 4 types of innovation (the Oslo Manual). OECD (2005). The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities Oslo Manual – Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, Third edition, A joint publication of OECD and Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/OSLO/EN/OSLO-EN.PDF, last accessed on Jan 29, 2013 and OECD (2010). The OECD Innovation Strategy - Getting a head start on to morrow, http://www.foranet.dk/media/14867/the%20oecd%20innovation%20strategy_getting%20a%20head%20start%20on%20tomorrow.pdf, last accessed Jan 29, 2013.. The Oslo Manual
  97. 97. 97 ProcessProduct OrganizationalMarketing MarketingOrganizationalProcessProductInnovation The Oslo Manual
  98. 98. 98 Product innovation A good or service that is new or significantly improved. OECD (2005). The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities Oslo Manual – Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, Third edition, A joint publication of OECD and Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/OSLO/EN/OSLO-EN.PDF, last accessed on Jan 29, 2013 and OECD (2010). The OECD Innovation Strategy - Getting a head start on to morrow, http://www.foranet.dk/media/14867/the%20oecd%20innovation%20strategy_getting%20a%20head%20start%20on%20tomorrow.pdf, last accessed Jan 29, 2013.. The Oslo Manual Product innovation A good or service that is new or significantly improved. This includes significant improvements in technical specifications, components and materials, software in the product, user friendliness or other functional characteristics. Process innovation A new or significantly improved production or delivery method. Process innovation A new or significantly improved production or delivery method. This includes significant changes in techniques, equipment and/or software.
  99. 99. 99 Marketing innovation A new marketing method involving significant changes in product design or packaging, product placement, product promotion or pricing. OECD (2005). The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities Oslo Manual – Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, Third edition, A joint publication of OECD and Eurostat, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/OSLO/EN/OSLO-EN.PDF, last accessed on Jan 29, 2013 and OECD (2010). The OECD Innovation Strategy - Getting a head start on to morrow, http://www.foranet.dk/media/14867/the%20oecd%20innovation%20strategy_getting%20a%20head%20start%20on%20tomorrow.pdf, last accessed Jan 29, 2013.. The Oslo Manual Organizational innovation A new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations.
  100. 100. 100 Excerpted from Randall, T. (2015). The Smartest Building in the World, Bloomberg Business, Sept 23, http://www.bloomberg.com/features/2015-the-edge-the-worlds-greenest-building/, last accessed Sep 24, 2015 (Thanks to David Kaliwata for having brought this to my attention) The Oslo Manual 2:13
  101. 101. 101 Ricardo Semler
  102. 102. 102 Semler, R. (Oct. 2014). How to run a company with (almost) no rules, TEDGlobal 2014, https://www.ted.com/talks/ricardo_semler_radical_wisdom_for_a_company_a_school_a_life?language=en, last accessed June 8, 2016 (5:10-5:43). 0:33 Ricardo Semler
  103. 103. 103 Semler, R. (Oct. 2014). How to run a company with (almost) no rules, TEDGlobal 2014, https://www.ted.com/talks/ricardo_semler_radical_wisdom_for_a_company_a_school_a_life?language=en, last accessed June 8, 2016 (4:36-4:57). 0:25 Ricardo Semler (more of)
  104. 104. 104 T T H H A A N N K K S SSong: Extracted from the song 141120 TK music sn04.-27510, by Artist: Pleasure Park Music - Licensed by AdRev for Rights Holder (on behalf of Pleasure Park Music), https://soundcloud.com/zoxfox87/141120-tk-music-sn05-1, last accessed July 27, 2018.

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