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Challenges to Spanish Authority


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Challenges to the Spanish Authority

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Challenges to Spanish Authority

  1. 1. CHALLENGES TO SPANISH AUTHORITY (1560 – 1820’s )
  2. 2. Spanish colonial government was greatly challenged by it’s rivals, the Portuguese and the Dutch, as well as the numerous uprisings and revolts by the Filipinos in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Which leads to the ruins of old Spanish forts, a moro watchtower along the coast, statues of Spanish conquistadores and missionaries, and occasionally, images of Filipino heroes like Lapu-lapu, Rajah Sulayman, Sultan Kudarat, mark many Philippine Towns. Overview: Lapu-lapu Rajah Sulayman Sultan Kudarat
  3. 3. Spanish claims over the Philippines was challenged by a keen rival from the very start. The Portuguese, knowing that the islands belonged to them under the Treaty of Zaragoza. Treaty of Zaragoza – an imaginary line was drawn from the north to south 297 ½ leagues east of Mollucas. West : Spain East : Portugal
  4. 4. General Gonzalo Pereira - In 1566 and 1568 asked Legazpi to leave. Legazpi - The Portuguese blockaded Cebu and bombarded the Spanish settlement (1570 ) -They failed to disloged their rivals. - The incursions ceased only when Portugal became part of the Spanish Empire . (1580) Portuguese Vs. Spanish - Under the Treaty of Zaragoza the island of Cebu was belong to them, and Portuguese at that time was lead by General Gonzalo Pereira. But the owning of Cebu was refused by Legazpi.
  5. 5. Dutch Vs. Spanish Dutch are freedom-loving people. During 1579, Holland send an expedition under Admiral Oliver Van Noort. Spain finally recognized the freedom of Holland in the conclusion of the Westphalia 1648. Treaty of Westphialia in 1648, led to the recognition of the Dutch independence. 1597 – 1647 - battles between the Spaniards & the Dutch. 1597 - First battle of Mariveles. 1610 - Second battle of Mariveles. 1617 - Battle of Playa Honda. 1647 - Dutch last attack against the Spaniards. - They were finally driven off. Admiral Oliver Van Noort
  6. 6. Lakan Dula was friendly to Legazpi. For instance, he and his men helped Legazpi to rebuild Manila. He also help Martin De Goiti, in Legazpi second Master of Camp. When Legazpi died, his successor Governor Guido Lavares, perhaps through ignorance or bad faith, he lifted the exemption of Lakan Dula and his relatives from the tribute and force labor. 1574, during the attack on Manila by the Chinese Adventurer Limahong, Lakan Dula led revolt against the Spaniards. Juan de Salcedo and Fr. Geronimo Marin – persuaded LakanDula to lay down hi arms. In return, they promised him and his descendants from the payment of tribute and forced labor. Lakan Dula believed them and ordered his men to return their ho,es in peace.
  7. 7. This happened in 1587 when a group of Filipinos in Tondo formed a secret society whose purpose was to regain their freedom. Magat Salamat – Lakan Dula’s son Agustin de Legazpi – Legazpi’s nephew Juan Banal – Chief of Tondo Pedro Balingit – Chief of Pandacan The plot spread throughout Central Luzon and as far as Cuyo Island and Borneo. The society’s plan was to have a Christian Japanese ally bring Japanese weapon and soldiers to the Philippines, and with these weapon drive away the Spaniards. After which Agustin Legazpi would be proclaimed King of the Philippine. The plan seemed good, but it was aborted due to spies who reported it to Spanish authorities.
  8. 8. Pedro Ladia – a native Borneo who came to Bulacan to lead an armed uprising against the Spaniards. He proclaimed “King of Tagalogs”. His planned reach the friar-curate of Malolos who desuaded the town people froim believing Ladia. He urged them to remain faithful to the church and to the King of Spain. At the same time, the friar-curate notified the Spanish authorities of Ladia’s activities. Ladia was arrested, sent to Manila, and then executed.
  9. 9. Maniago Revolt led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives' protest against the polo and bandala ("polo" was forced labour and "bandala" was tribute in the form of food stuff. bandala was the Kapampangan word for food basket.) , later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara's cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal. The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660s. It was a revolt against the Spanish during the colonial period and was named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time, Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them. Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards were busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly depleted by the Kapampangans. Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims. He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there. However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them. Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Manrique de Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the "divide and rule" trick. He began with a "show of force" directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in Mexico, Pampanga. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier revolt in Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of Maniago to revolt against the Spaniards
  10. 10. The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in the Philippines in 1596, led by Magalat, a Filipino rebel from Cagayan. He had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish, and after he was released on the importunities of some Dominican priests, he returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he incited the whole country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities upon his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged. The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán, sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men, who apparently had been promised a reward by the Spaniards.
  11. 11. Sumuroy Revolt (1649-50) In the town of Palapag today in Northern Samar, Agustin Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo y servicio or forced labor system being undertaken in Samar. This is known as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Agustin Sumuroy. The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their forced labor. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, ormayors, The Waray were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicoland the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A rebel government was successfully established in the mountains of Samar. The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt. His trusted co conspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of a fierce battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants.
  12. 12. Igorot Revolt (1601) By order of then Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán an expedition was sent to the Cordillera region for religious conversion purposes with the aid of Padre Esteban Marin. Marin, the curate of Ilocos at that time, who tried to initially convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to Cathilism. Marin allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in Igorot dialect to advance this cause. The Igorots, however, killed Marin and the Governor- General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Lumad foot soldiers, who used brute force and had the Igorot villages cooled in his rage for the gain of the friar. The revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region.
  13. 13. Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622) The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was a religious uprising in the island of Bohol, led by Tamblot in 1621. The Jesuits first came to Bohol in 1596 and eventually governed the island and converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow Boholanos to return to the old belief of their forefathers. The revolt began on the day when the Jesuits were in Cebu, celebrating the feast day of St. Francis Xavier. It was finally crushed on New Year's Day, in 1622. Tamblot was executed and his head was severed on a pike to serve as a warning to the populace.
  14. 14. Bancao Revolt (1621-1622) The Bancao Revolt was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Bancao, the datu of Carigara, in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte. Bancao had warmly received Miguel López de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Catholic in his youth, he abandoned this faith in later years. With ababaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess, and pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Similar to the Tamblot Uprising, Pagali used magic to attract followers, and claimed that they could turn the Spaniards into clay by hurling bits of earth at them. Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo, with Spanish and foot soldier colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. Bancao's severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing squad which the Spanish already possessed at that time. Other historical sources/accounts reports The Bancao Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign colonization. The (1621– 1622) dates may be inaccurate. Carigara was known only a decade after Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising may well have taken place towards the end of 16th century.
  15. 15. Panay Revolt (1663) The Panay Revolt was a religious uprising in 1663 that involved Tapar, a native of the island of Panay, who wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his stories about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish against Spanish and colonial foot soldier troops and their corpses were impaled on stakes.
  16. 16. Chinese Revolt of 1662 Fearing an invasion of Chinese led by the famous pirate Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila.
  17. 17. Zambal Revolt (1681-1683) A group of chieftains from Zambales had refused to accept the authority of the Crown over their realm and staged a revolt. The Spanish were very swift to respond and sent a colonial force of 6,000 foot soldiers to suppress the uprising. After 2 years of conflict, the Spanish had pacified the entire area of Zambales and all of the chieftains who participated in the revolt were executed.
  18. 18. Itneg Revolt (1625-1627) The Itneg Revolt, or the Mandaya Revolt, was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Miguel Lanab and Alababan, the two was previously baptised as Catholics against their will are from the Itneg or Mandaya tribe of Capinatan, in northwestern Cagayan, in the Philippines. The region is now part of the landlocked province of Apayao. Miguel Lanab and Alababan murdered, beheaded and mutilated two Dominican missionaries, Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao, who were sent by the Spanish colonial government to convert the Itneg people to Christianity. After cutting Father Garcia's body into pieces, they fed his flesh to a herd of pigs. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Itnegs to loot, desecrate Catholic images, set fire to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains. In 1626, Governor-General Fernándo de Silva sent Spanish and foot soldier colonial troops to suppress the rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Itnegs, and forced them to surrender in 1627.
  19. 19. Agrarian Revolt of 1745 The Agrarian Revolt was a revolt undertaken between the years 1745 and 1746 in much of the present-day CALABARZON (specifically in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite) and in Bulacan, with its first sparks in the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas. Indigenous landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of Spanish friars or Catholic religious orders, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain. The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting of convents and arson of churches and ranches. The case was eventually investigated by Spanish officials and was even heard in the court of Ferdinand VI in which he ordered the priests to return the lands they seized. The priests were successfully able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives, which resulted in no land being returned to native landowners.
  20. 20. Dagohoy Rebellion (1744-1829) In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only revolt completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike the Tamblot Uprising before it, it is not a complete religious rebellion. After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Catholic burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Mariano Ricafort Palacin y Abarca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 foot soldiers to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well. Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao).
  21. 21. Silang Revolt (1762-1763) Arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history is the Silang Revolt from 1762 to 1763, led by the couple of Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place during the British invasion of Manila. On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of Ilocandia, naming the state "Free Ilocos" and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly independent state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish. However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her husband's struggle, earning the title "Joan of Arc of the Ilocos" because of her many victories in battle. The battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos. Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.
  22. 22. Basi Revolt (1807) The Basi Revolt, also known as the Ambaristo Revolt, was a revolt undertaken from September 16 to 28, 1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo and Salarogo Ambaristo (though some sources refer to a single person named Pedro Ambaristo), with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine. In 1786, the Spanish colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with the revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. Spanish led troops eventually quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side. A series of 14 paintings on the Basi Revolt by Esteban Pichay Villanueva currently hangs at the Philippine National Museum, to be later moved to a museum in Ilocos.
  23. 23. Novales Revolt (1823) Novales later grew discontented with the way Spanish authorities treated the Creoles. His discontent climaxed when peninsulares were shipped to the Philippines to replace Creole officers. He found sympathy of many Creoles, including Luis Rodriguez Varela, the Conde Indio. As punishment to the rising sense of discontentment, many military officers and public officials were exiled. One of them was Novales, who was exiled to Mindanao to fight the Moro. However, Novales was not stopped to secretly return to Manila. On the night of June 1, 1823, Novales along with a certain sub-lieutenant Ruiz and other subordinates in the King's Regiment, went out to start a revolt. Along with 800 Indigenous natives in which his sergeants recruited, they seized the royal palace (palacio del gobernador), the Manila Cathedral, the city's cabildo (city hall) and other important government buildings in Intramuros. Failing to find governor general Juan Antonio Martínez, they killed the lieutenant governor and former governor general, Mariano Fernandez de Folgueras. Folgueras was the one that suggested Spain to replace Creole officers with peninsulars. The soldiers shouted, "Long live the Emperor Novales!" (Viva el Emperador Novales). Surprisingly, the townsfolk followed Novales and his troops as they marched into Manila. They eventually failed to seize Fort Santiago because Antonio Novales, his brother who commanded the citadel, refused to open its gates. Learning that Fort Santiago was still holding out the rebels, soldiers were rushed to the fort. Novales himself was caught hiding under Puerta Real by Spanish led soldiers. At 5:00 pm of June 2, Novales was killed with Ruiz and 21 sergeants by firing squad in a garden near Puerta del Postigo. At his last minute, he declared that he and his comrades shall set an example of fighting for freedom. Antonio was also included in the execution, since he was the brother of Andres. However, the people pleaded for his freedom for he saved the government from being overthrown. Antonio went mad after the ordeal, yet receiving a monthly pension of 14 pesos.
  24. 24.  Desire to regain the lost freedom of their ancestors. (Political)  Religious intolerance of Spaniards authorities. (Religious)  Abuses of the Spaniards (Personal)  The hatred tribute and oppressive forced labor.  Lost of ancestral lands.
  25. 25. Personal Motives Political Motives Religious Motive
  26. 26. Uprising Revolt Date Place Cause Leader Result Igorot 1601 Northern Luzon Desire to maintain their old religion Failed Caraga 1629-1631 Caraga, Northern Mindanao Dissatisfaction of townspeople to the Spanish rule Failed Dagohoy 1744-1828 Bohol Refusal of Fr. Morales to give Dagohony’s brother a christian burial Silang 1762-1763 Ilocos Desire to expel the Spaniards from Ilocos Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang Failed (Diego was assasinated) Visayan/ Sumuroy 1649-1650 Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Zamboanga Caused by Gov. Fajardo’s order to send Visayan laborers to Cavite for shipbuilding Juan Ponce Sumo Uroy and Pedro Caamug Failed (Leaders were captured and were beheaded)
  27. 27. Pampanga 1585 Pampanga Abuses of Spanish Encomiender os Failed (A woman betrayed the revolt) Cagayan - Ilocos 1589 Cagayan, Ilocos Norte Refusal to pay tributes, tyranny of tribute collectors Failed (easily supressed) Magalat 1596 Malolos, Bulacan and Southern Luzon Weariness from Spanish oppression Pedro Ladia Failed (leader was captured) Pangasinanan/ Malong 1660-1661 Binalatongan, Pangasinan Quarrel bet. Fr. Gorospe and Malong Andres Malong and Pedro Gumpaos FailedTRo Lakandula 1574 Tondo, Navotas Failure of Gov. Lavazares to fulfill Legazpi’s promise to Lakandula Lakandula Failed Tondo 1587-1588 Tonso, Cuyo, Calamianes Desire for independence Magat Salamat, Agustin de Legazpi, Juan Banal & Pedro Balingit Failed a spy reported to Spanish authorities about their plan. Leaders were executed
  28. 28. 1. Absence of NationalLeader 2. Lukewarm spirit of nationalism among Filipinos. 3. Inadequate training and preparation for walfare.
  29. 29. Moro Wars, (1901–13), in Philippine history, a series of scattered campaigns involving Americantroops and Muslim bands on Mindanao, Philippines. The Moro fought for religious rather than political reasons, and their actions were unconnected with those of the Filipino revolutionaries who conducted the Philippine-American War (1899–1902). When sovereignty over the Philippines passed to the United States in 1898 after the Spanish-American War, the United States initiated a policy designed to assimilate the Moro into the Philippine nation and to curb some feudal practices such as slave trading. The result of this attempt to alter the traditional ways of the Moro was intransigence and rebellion. Sporadic fighting took place in 1901 and was renewed in the spring of 1903. American troops were attacked near Lake Lanao in the interior of Mindanao. The best known of the American-Moro battles occurred in March 1906 at the top of Mount Dajo on the island of Jolo. Six hundred Moro who had taken refuge inside a large volcanic crater were killed by troops under Gen. Leonard Wood. Because a number of women and children were killed in the fight, Wood came under severe criticism in the U.S. Congress, but he was absolved of any wrongdoing by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt. Renewed hostilities occurred in September 1911 and June 1913. Fighting ceased thereafter, although Moro separatist movements continued into the 21st century.