What do you think
Break it down...
Earth scientists have identified over 3000
These minerals are, however,
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES - their supply
is limited and cannot be replaced.
RENEWABLE RESOURCES, such as air, water
and plants can be replaced within a human
A nonrenewable resource is a natural
resource that cannot be re-made or
re-grown at a scale comparable to its
Ores form in the crust in a variety of ways.
As magma cools, dense METALLIC
minerals sink to the BOTTOM.
Layers accumulate and form ORE
DEPOSITS within the hardened magma.
FORMATION OF ORES:
Some ores form through CONTACT
Sometimes hot MINERAL SOLUTIONS
spread through small cracks in rocks and
form bands called VEINS.
LODE: A large number
of thick mineral veins.
ORES & WATER:
The movement of water helps form ore deposits in
1. Streams carry fragments of minerals (i.e. gold)
until they get DEPOSITED by weak CURRENTS.
Fragments become concentrated and form
2. Water dissolves MINERALS in the earths crust,
and then carry the dissolved minerals until it reaches
a placer deposit where it accumulates.
JEWELRY - Sapphires, Rubies, Diamonds
JEWELRY - Gold, Silver, Platinum
BUILDING MATERIAL - Calcite, Gypsum
USES OF MINERAL RESOURCES:
CONSERVATION OF MINERALS:
The only sure way to preserve mineral
resources is through CONSERVATION.
Use other, more abundant substances
materials such as PLASTICS.
Another way to conserve minerals is to
-Because of their organic origin, COAL,
PETROLEUM, and NATURAL GAS are
known as fossil fuels.
- Fossil fuels consist primarily of compounds
of CARBON and HYDROGEN called
COAL (FORMATION AND TYPES):
•A dark colored ORGANIC rock.
•Formed from dead plants and
Bacteria consuming buried
plant remains, releasing
methane and carbon dioxide,
leaving only carbon behind.
PEAT: partial decomposition of plant remains.
Brownish/black in color.
LIGNITE: brown coal
BITUMINOUS: soft coal
ANTHRACITE: hardest form of all coals.
FOUR STAGES OF COAL:
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS (FORMATION AND DEPOSITS):
Petroleum and natural gas are largely made up of
HYDROCARBONS. Petroleum (oil) is LIQUID and natural
gas is a GAS.
When ancient animals were buried in prehistoric OCEANS and
LAKES heat and pressure build up. CHEMICAL changes
eventually convert the remains into PETROLEUM and
CRUDE OIL: unrefined
chemicals derived from
component of over 3000
include: tar, wax, and
USES AND SUPPLIES:
COAL, PETROLEUM, AND GAS
Coal, petroleum, and
natural gas are
they can not be
replenished in a short
period of time. These
are called fossil fuels.
The SPLITTING of the NUCLEUS of a large
atoms into two or more smaller nuclei. Only
one kind of naturally occurring element can
be used for NUCLEAR FISSION, this
element is URANIUM-235.
1. U-235 is mixed with U-238 and formed
2.The uranium is then shaped into rods
called FUEL RODS.
3.Bundles of these FUEL RODS are
bombarded by NEUTRONS.
4. When hit by a neutron, the fuel rod
SPLITS and releases NEUTRONS
5. This starts a CHAIN REACTION and
the split atoms bump into other atoms
causing the fuel rods to get very HOT.
6. Water is pumped around the fuel rods
to ABSORB & CARRY AWAY THE
7. The resulting HOT WATER / STEAM
then is used to turn TURBINES, to
generate ELECTRIC energy.
Nuclear reactions are contained in a
controlled environment called a
which give off dangerous
•the RADIATION can
destroy plants and
animal cells and cause
harmful changes in the
GENETIC MATERIAL of