Chp 9 learning Reg. Psych


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Chp 9 learning Reg. Psych

  1. 1. LEARNING: Principles & Applications Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning
  2. 2. LEARNING A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING <ul><li>Learning… </li></ul><ul><li>is a change in mental state. </li></ul><ul><li>cannot be seen directly </li></ul><ul><li>involves a change in behavior </li></ul><ul><li>results from experience </li></ul>
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING Cont. <ul><li>is relatively permanent </li></ul><ul><li>can be applied from one situation to another (transfer) </li></ul><ul><li>need not involve direct experience </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning: Principles and Applications <ul><li>Classical Conditioning ** </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Russian biologist/physiologist </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serendipity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pavlov: Experiment UCS (meat) ===> UCR (salivation) NS (tone) ===> No response **************************** UCS (meat) + CS (tone) ===> UCR **************************** CS ===> CR
  8. 8. 1.) Time - Simultaneous Conditioning <ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interstimulus interval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contiguity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trace </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backward </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2) Generalization <ul><li>Occurs when a subject responds to a second stimulus similar to the CS, without being trained with the second CS </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3) Discrimination <ul><li>Occurs when a subject is taught to tell the difference between 2 stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>*Opposite of generalization </li></ul><ul><li>**Has great value because…??? </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4) Extinction <ul><li>Occurs over time when the experimenter stops pairing a CS together with a UCS. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the response gradually fades away, although not entirely forgotten or unlearned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used as a measurement… resistance to extinction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Partial reinforcement effect </li></ul>
  12. 12. 5) Spontaneous Recovery <ul><li>Occurs when , after extinction, a CS is once again presented with a USC, the CR appears again. </li></ul><ul><li>*Not as strong </li></ul><ul><li>*Harmful experiences/ example </li></ul>
  13. 13. How the Body Remembers… When the Mind Forgets… <ul><li>Dog Chase example </li></ul><ul><li>Schizokinesis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schizo means divided/split </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinesis means action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WWII Vets example </li></ul>
  14. 14. 6) Spatial Learning <ul><ul><li>Occurs in much the same way classical conditioning does, but involves the learning the location of objects in the subject’s environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Cognitive Mapping </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Case of Little Albert - Watson (1920_ <ul><li>Subject - 9 month old Albert </li></ul><ul><li>Desired Response - Fear </li></ul><ul><li>USC = loud noise </li></ul><ul><li>UCR = fear </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics / Deconditioning </li></ul>
  16. 16. Watson’s Higher Order Conditioning <ul><ul><li>Using a previously established CS-CR relationship to create a new CS-CR relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking Albert’s fear of rats and conditioning a new fear of dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dog (NS) No response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White Rat (CS) Fear (CR) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dog + White Rat Fear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dog Fear </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other Classical Conditioning Paradigms <ul><ul><li>Jones (1924) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Counter conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used ice cream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mower (1938) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used applied science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bed wetting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bell and pad conditioning apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garcia & Koelling(1966) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taste aversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric shock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gustavson (1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taste aversion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coyotes/sheep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CTA (conditioning taste aversion) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Learning: Principles and Applications <ul><li>Classical Conditioning  </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning ** </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul>
  19. 19. II. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>LEARNING FROM THE CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR OF OTHERS </li></ul>
  20. 20. Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Way psychologists view learners </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of reinforcement </li></ul>
  21. 21. Three Laws of Conditioning <ul><li>The law of association </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition is a part of conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>The law of effect </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>S-R psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforces </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Approval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Privileges </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Dictate the frequency with which the behavior is rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous schedule of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Partial schedule of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable ratio schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interval schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed interval schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable interval schedules </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. B. Stimulus Control <ul><li>Signals are stimuli that are associated with reward or punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner & the Pigeons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response(the pecking) -----> reinforcement (food) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Stimulus Control cont. <ul><ul><li>Secondary reinforcers (conditioned reinforcers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wolfe (1936) chimp study </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary reinforcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfy a basic need (hunger…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: food, sex, avoidance of pain, feeling of belonging… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jeans example </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. C. Aversive Control <ul><li>Negative reinforcement - painful or unpleasant stimulus is either removed as a result of appropriate behavior or not applied at all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape conditioning (ex. Electric shock to Skinner rat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance conditioning (ex. Flashing lights & electric shock, lever) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. C. Aversive Control <ul><li>2. Punishment - unpleasant stimulus applied as a result of undesirable behavior (after the fact) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often effective for stopping a specific behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less effective for stopping a general behavior </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Negative Reinforcement vs Punishment <ul><li>Negative reinforcement is opposite of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement increases a behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment decreases a behavior </li></ul>
  29. 29. 6 effects of punishment: <ul><ul><li>May slow down learning instead of speeding it up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May suppress good behavior as well as bad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior may resurface when punisher is not around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May create an expectation of failure; punishment becomes self-defeating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be negatively associated with power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have negative effects on the punisher </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Summary of Aversion Control <ul><li>If punishment is used, it should be clear that certain behavior will be rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment really suppresses, rather than eliminates undesirable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Example that fits all 3 categories (Running) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Learning: Principles and Applications <ul><li>Classical Conditioning  </li></ul><ul><li>Operant Conditioning  </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning ** </li></ul>
  32. 32. 3 Factors That Affect Learning <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>
  33. 33. 1. Feedback <ul><li>Finding out the results of an action or performance </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the speed of learning </li></ul>
  34. 34. 2. Transfer <ul><li>Using a skill that you have already learned to help you learn another skill </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a. Positive Transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>b. Negative Transfer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. a. Positive Transfer <ul><li>A previously learned response helps in learning a new response </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Moving from tricycle to bicycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. b. Negative Transfer <ul><li>A previously learned response hinders in learning a new response </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Moving from 4 wheel Skating to inline skating </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 3. Practice <ul><li>The repetition of a task </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How & when you practice is most important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologists have found that practice is most effective if it takes place regularly over time, rather than all at once </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Mental Practice </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Learning Strategies <ul><li>Learning to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Learned helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Learned laziness </li></ul>
  39. 39. 1. Learning To Learn <ul><li>Harry Harlow monkey study (1949) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Find the raisin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Started with only under one color/ locations changed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Harry Harlow monkey study Phase Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shapes changed, as did location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monkeys finally learned that location did not matter, only the difference between the 2 lids </li></ul></ul>HOW CAN YOU APPLY THIS TO YOUR OWN LEARNING?
  41. 41. 2. Learned Helplessness <ul><li>A general learning strategy in which subjects believe that they are powerless to affect the outcome of a situation, so it is useless to try to change it </li></ul>
  42. 42. Learned Helplessness cont. <ul><li>Hiroto (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 groups of college students / loud noises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrates concept of learned helplessness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Seligman (1982) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed that learned helplessness is one of the major causes of depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial study with dogs/applied to humans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Learned Helplessness and Depression <ul><li>less motivation </li></ul><ul><li>poor self-concept </li></ul><ul><li>may cause depression </li></ul>
  44. 44. Learned Helplessness & Depression cont. <ul><li>Stability (temporary vs stable) </li></ul><ul><li>Globality (specific vs global) </li></ul><ul><li>Internality (internal vs external cause) </li></ul>
  45. 45. 3. Learned Laziness <ul><li>Failure to overcome a problem because the subject knows that he won’t be punished as a result, or because he knows that someone will do it for him </li></ul>
  46. 46. … Learning Complicated Skills <ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Chaining </li></ul>
  47. 47. 1. Shaping <ul><li>Sculpting new responses out of old ones </li></ul><ul><li>Rats raising a flag </li></ul><ul><li>Skinner’s bowling pigeons </li></ul><ul><li>Lovaas (1967) </li></ul>
  48. 48. 2. Combining Responses: Chaining <ul><li>a. Response chains </li></ul><ul><li>b. Response patterns </li></ul>
  49. 49. a. Response Chains <ul><li>A group of responses that follow each other in a sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Babies drinking bottles… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. b. Response Patterns <ul><li>A cluster of chained responses that operate together to produce a complex behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Swimming (arm stroke chain, breathing chain, and leg kicking chain… all performed @ the same time) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Modeling <ul><li>Cuing </li></ul><ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul>
  52. 52. a. Cuing <ul><li>The behavior of others acts as a cue for the appropriate way to behave </li></ul>
  53. 53. b. Observational Learning <ul><li>Coined by Albert Bandura </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to reproduce a behavior that you have watched someone else perform </li></ul>
  54. 54. 4 Processes of Observational Learning <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Retention </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>
  55. 55. C. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Learning of social skills is done by observational learning </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Bandura </li></ul>
  56. 56. Bandura: The Bobo Doll Experiment <ul><li>Bobo doll video </li></ul><ul><li>Frustrating experience </li></ul><ul><li>Playing experience </li></ul><ul><li>Variations… </li></ul>
  57. 57. The Bobo Doll Experiment - Conclusion <ul><li>BOTH classical and operant conditioning can take place through observational learning by observing another’s conditioning </li></ul>
  58. 58. Behavior Modification <ul><li>Applying principles of learning to change people’s actions and feelings </li></ul>
  59. 59. Computer assisted Instruction (CAI) <ul><li>Concept invented by SL Presser </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching machine invented by BF Skinner (my boyfriend) </li></ul>
  60. 60. Token Economies <ul><li>Systematically paying people to behave appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen and Filipczak - National training School experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Miller and Schneider preschool experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Head Start </li></ul>