Au Psy492 Review Paper Presentation

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  • Auditory processing disorder (APD) is defined as difficulties in the perceptual processing of auditory information (DeBonis & Moncrieff, 2008). Rosen, Adlard, and Van der Lely (2009) describe common difficulties children exhibit associated with APD which are: distracted by background noise, difficulty following multi-step instructions, longer time comprehending auditory directions, and occasionally misconstrue what is spoken by another, and apparent selective hearing. Individuals identified as APD are found to use inefficient integration of auditory inputs (Fiorello, Hale, & Snyder, 2006). Auditory processing is located in the temporal regions of the brain. (Tallal, Merzenich, Miller, & Jenkins (1998) found that temporal processing deficits correlate highly with the phonological discrimination and processing deficits.
  • ASHA (2005) and DeBonis & Moncrieff (2008) conclude that auditory deficits do not cause language disorders, but occur in association with them. Other research supports the idea that auditory processing deficits do underlie language and learning problems (Cacace & McFarland, 1998; DeBonis & Moncrieff, 2008). APD, language impairment (LI) and reading disorder (RD) all reflect difficulties processing language-based information. Sharma, Purdy, and Kelly (2008) link the symptoms of APD, LI, and RD and also found that memory and attention deficits could co-occur with auditory deficits. Dyslexia is another learning disability that is linked to auditory difficulties. Greany, Tumner and Chapman (1997) contend that dyslexics tend to use ineffective learning strategies, such as partial letter-sound cues. Faulty phonemic awareness makes sounding out words difficult, and reading comprehension impaired. Staudt (2009) reasons that if a child cannot read fluently that this seriously impairs reading comprehension.
  • This audible example of APD demonstrates the difficulty of discriminating between auditory inputs. Some disruptive auditory signals are more disruptive than others. Rosen, Adlard, and Van der Lely (2009) contend that certain tones presented in various placements and decibel levels could cause auditory processing disruption. Most classroom instruction is auditory. The constant disruptive auditory signals within a classroom make learning auditory information very difficult. The noise causes a person with APD to either miss critical information or misconstrue instruction. This leads to the conclusion that language-based alternative instruction methods are needed for students with APD.
  • Research shows that traditional learning methods are ineffective for children diagnosed with APD (Xin & Reith, 2001; Van Keer & Verhaeghe, 2005; Greany, Hale, & Snyder, 2006; Staudt, 2009). Van Keer & Verhaeghe (2005) suggest peer tutoring is an effective method of boosting both reading comprehension and reading self-efficacy. The active nature of tutoring, which requires monitoring and regulating the reading process of the younger student, helped improve meta-cognition skills and therefore reading comprehension (Van Keer & Verhaeghe, 2005). APD students benefit from an enriched learning environment. Xin & Reith (2001) found that video along with audio cues in context provide children concrete conceptions of vocabulary. Concrete conceptions of abstract word meanings allow children to build schemas that assist with accurate word encoding and retrieval. Early intervention is one of the most effective ways to help learning disabled children. Hay, Elias, Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007) discovered that children with limited communication experience should have opportunities for verbal interactions that support the child in using progressively more linguistically complex dialogues. Practicing language through speech is an effective means of organizing and processing language-based information (Hay et al.).
  • Staudt (2009) and Greany, Tumner and Chapman (1997) developed reading interventions centered on the use of rhyme. Staudt reasoned that an effective way to increase reading fluency is through the use of fun, easy-to-read poetry. Reading fluency is linked to solid reading comprehension (Staudt, 2009). The more fluently a child reads the better able the child is to comprehend or process what is being read. Greany et al. (1997) discovered that dyslexic children use ineffective word parsing strategies. This means that these children do not correctly sound out words. Rhyming words are more accessible to dyslexic children than phonemes (Greany et al.). The use of rhymes help dyslexic children replace ineffective with effective learning strategies. This also leads to better language processing.
  • Professionals, such as audiologists, speech language pathologists, and special education teachers have questioned the existence of APD. Some argue that APD does not have enough research to be a valid diagnosis (DeBonis and Moncrieff, 2008). Others argue that the existence of APD is an indisputable fact due to clinical or teaching experience with individuals exhibiting symptoms of APD (DeBonis and Moncrieff, 2008). More research is needed to provide more empirical evidence of APD and to continue providing alternative education methods. Another important outcome of research is to provide more knowledge for professionals who help individuals struggling with APD. The roles that audiologists, speech language pathologists and special education teachers will be further defined by research on APD. Students who are identified as having APD will have a more hopeful and promising educational experience if research on APD continues.
  • De Bonis, D.A., Moncrieff, D. (2008). Auditory processing disorders: An update for speech and language pathologists. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 4-18. Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Fiorello, C.A., Hale, J.B., Snyder, L.E. (2006). Cognitive hypothesis testing and response to intervention for children with reading problems. Psychology in the Schools, 43, (8) 836-853. Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Greaney, K.T., Tunmer, W.E., Chapman, J.W. (1997). Effects of rime-based orthographic analogy training on the word recognition skills of children with reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, (4) 645-651. Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Hay, I., Elias, G. Fielding-Barnsley, R., Homel, R., Freiberg, K. (2007). Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multi-dimensional programming. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40 (5), 400-409. Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Rosen, S., Adlard, A. van der Lely, H.K.J. (2009). Backward and simultaneous masking in children with grammatical specific language impairment: No simple link between auditory and language abilities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 396-411. Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search. http://www.shutterstock.com/ Staudt, D.H. (2009). Intensive word study and repeated reading improves reading skills for two with learning disabilities. The Reading Teacher, 63, (2) 142-151 Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Sharma, M., Purdy, S.C., Kelly, A.S. (2009). Comorbidity of auditory processing, language, and reading disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 706-722.Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., Miller, S., Jenkins, W. (1998). Language learning impairment: Integrating research and remediation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 197-199.Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search Van Keer, H., Verhaeghe, J.P. (2005).Effects of explicit reading strategies instruction and peer tutoring on second and fifth graders’ reading comprehension and self-efficacy perceptions. The Journal of Experimental Education, 73 (4) 291-329 Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  Xin, J.F., Reith, H. (2001). Video-assisted vocabulary instruction for elementaryschoolsStudents with learning disabilities. Information Technology in Childhood Education Annual 87-103.Retrieved on January 15, 2010, from, http://wfxsearch.webfeat.org/wfsearch/search.  
  • Au Psy492 Review Paper Presentation

    1. 1. Auditory Processing Disorder<br />Language-based Interventions<br />
    2. 2. What is auditory processing disorder (APD)?<br />APD affects the temporal regions of the brain.<br />Auditory inputs are <br />misinterpreted<br />
    3. 3. Auditory processing disorder (APD) is defined as difficulties in the perceptual processing <br />auditory information (De Bonis & Moncrieff, 2008). Rosen, Adlard, and Van der Lely<br />(2009) describe common difficulties children exhibit associated with APD which are:<br />Distracted by background noise, difficulty following multi-step instructions, longer<br />time comprehending auditory directions, and occasionally misconstruing what is spoken<br />by another and apparent selective hearing.<br />Individuals identified as APD are found to use inefficient integration of auditory inputs<br />(Fiorello, Hale, & Snyder, 2006). Auditory processing is located in the temporal regions<br />of the brain. Tallal, Merzenich, Miller, & Jenkins (1998) found that temporal processing <br />deficits correlate highly with the phonological discrimination and processing deficits.<br />
    4. 4. Learning disabilities are associated with APD.<br />Dyslexia<br />Language Impairment<br />Reading Disorder<br />ADHD<br />
    5. 5. ASHA (2005) and DeBonis & Moncrieff (2008) conclude that auditory deficits do not <br />Cause language disorders, but occur in association with them. Other research supports<br />the idea that auditory processing deficits do underlie language and learning problems<br />(Cacace & Mc Farland, 1998; DeBonis &Moncrieff, 2008). APD, language impairment<br />(LI) And reading disorder (RD) all reflect difficulties processing language-based <br />Information. Sharma, Purdy, and Kelly (2008) link the symptoms of APD, LI, and RD<br />and also found that memory and attention deficits could co-occur with auditory<br />deficits. Dyslexia is another learning disability that is linked to auditory difficulties.<br />Greany, Tumner, and Chapman (1997) contend that dyslexics tend to use ineffective<br />Learning strategies, such as partial letter cues. Faulty phonemic awareness makes<br />Sounding out words difficult, and reading comprehension impaired. Staudt (2009)<br />reasons that if a child cannot read fluently that this seriously impairs reading <br />comprehension. <br />
    6. 6. An Auditory Example of APD<br />Play<br />Many competing inputs<br />
    7. 7. This audible example of APD demonstrates the difficulty of discriminating between<br />auditory inputs. Some disruptive auditory signals are more disruptive than others.<br />Rosen, Adlard, and Van der Lely (2009) contend that certain tones presented in<br />various placements and decibel levels could cause auditory processing disruption.<br />Most classroom instruction is auditory. The constant disruptive auditory signals<br />within a classroom make learning auditory information very difficult. The noise<br />causes a person with APD to either miss critical information or misconstrue<br />instruction. This leads to the conclusion that language-based alternative instruction<br />methods are needed for students with APD. <br />
    8. 8. Language-based Alternative Teaching Methods<br />Peer Tutoring<br />Video Instruction<br />Early Intervention<br />
    9. 9. Research shows that traditional learning methods are ineffective for children diagnosed with APD<br />(Xin & Reith, 2001; Van Keer & Verhaeghe, 2005; Greany, Hale, & Snyder, 2006; Staudt, 2009). Van<br />Keer & Verhaeghe (2005) suggest peer tutoring is an effective method of boosting both reading<br />comprehension and reading self-efficacy. The active nature of tutoring, which requires monitoring<br />and regulating the reading process of the younger student, helped improve meta-cognition skills and<br />therefore reading comprehension (Van Keer & Verhaeghe, 2005). <br />APD students benefit from an enriched learning environment. Xin & Reith (2001) found that video along with audio cues in context provide children concrete conceptions of vocabulary. Concrete conceptions of abstract word meanings allow children to build schemas that assist with accurate word encoding and retrieval.<br />Early intervention is one of the most effective ways to help learning disabled children. Hay, Elias,<br />Fielding-Barnsley, Homel, and Freiberg (2007) discovered that children with limited communication<br />experience should have opportunities for verbal interactions that support the child in using<br />progressively more linguistically complex dialogues. Practicing language through speech is an<br />effective means of organizing and processing language-based information (Hay et al.).<br />
    10. 10. Language-Based Alternative Learning Methods<br />Play<br />Rhymes<br />Rhymes<br />Mary, Mary quite contrary<br />How does your grow?<br />With silver bells and cockle shells<br />All in a row.<br />Humpty dumpty<br />Sat on a wall…<br />
    11. 11. Staudt (2009) and Greany, Tumner and Chapman (1997) developed reading<br />interventions centered on the use of rhyme. Staudt reasoned that an effective way<br />to increase reading fluency is through the use of fun, easy-to-read poetry. Reading<br />fluency is linked to solid reading comprehension (Staudt, 2009). The more fluently a<br />child reads the better able the child is to comprehend or process what is being read.<br />Greany et al. (1997) discovered that dyslexic children use ineffective word parsing<br />strategies. This means that these children do not correctly sound out words.<br />Rhyming words are more accessible to dyslexic children than phonemes (Greany et al.).<br />The use of rhymes help dyslexic children replace ineffective with effective learning<br />strategies. This also leads to better language processing<br />
    12. 12. Professional Involvement and Further Research of APD<br />Audiologists<br />Speech Language Pathologists<br />Special Education Teachers<br />Students<br />
    13. 13. Professionals, such as audiologists, speech language pathologists, and special education<br />teachers have questioned the existence of APD. Some argue that APD does not have<br />enough research to be a valid diagnosis (DeBonis and Moncrieff, 2008). Others argue<br />that the existence of APD is an indisputable fact due to clinical or teaching experience<br />with individuals exhibiting symptoms of APD (DeBonis and Moncrieff, 2008). <br />More research is needed to provide more empirical evidence of APD and to continue<br />providing alternative education methods. Another important outcome of research is<br />to provide more knowledge for professionals who help individuals struggling with APD.<br />The roles that audiologists, speech language pathologists and special education teachers<br />will be further defined by research on APD. Students who are identified as having APD<br />will have a more hopeful and promising educational experience if research on APD<br />continues. <br />
    14. 14. References<br />References are in a document in the box.net application on my LinkedIn profile.<br />Thank you for watching this presentation!<br />

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