Today’s Presenter:


Bird Houk Collaborative
Gary Smith ASLA, APA
  Market Leader
     Community Planning
     Land Develo...
Town Planners/Architects:

Bird Houk Collaborative
  Multidisciplinary design firm offering:
      Planning
      Architec...
Presentation Goals
 Present a regional case study of Conservation Development
 and Smart Growth planning

 Demonstrate how...
Presentation Overview
I.    Jerome Township Overview:
       A. Location
       B. History
       C. Fears
       D. Optio...
Presentation Overview
IV.   Creating an Architectural Heritage:
      A.   Impact of Post War Planning and Development Tre...
Central Ohio Area Map

                      Delaware
                      Delaware

    Marysville
    Marysville
      ...
Central Ohio – Regional Perspective

  Between now and 2030, over 570,000 new residents
  will join the Columbus metro are...
Jerome Township Map

                                   Jerome Village


                                   Glacier Ridge
...
Jerome Village
  Dublin Growth
  Jerome Township
  Glacier Ridge
  Metro Park

Dublin:
1969
-2,084 Acres
-Population: 681
Jerome Village
  Dublin Growth
  Jerome Township
  Glacier Ridge
  Metro Park

Dublin:
1970-Present
-15,712 Acres
-Populat...
Jerome Township Historically

  Rural township situated between rapidly growing
  Dublin and Marysville communities
  So F...
Jerome Township: Fears

 Suburban development is now at Township’s
 doorstep
 Expansion of infrastructure has made the Tow...
Jerome Township – The Crossroads


                Not:
      “Will growth take place?”

                But:
   “HOW will...
Suburban Sprawl?
Jerome Township: Future Options


 Option I – Annex into Dublin
 Option II – Annex into Marysville
 Option III – Allow pie...
‘Grow Smart’: Our Rural Growth Model


  Using the ‘best’ of Smart Growth and Conservation
  Development principles to cre...
‘Smart Growth’ Principles
 Create a shared vision for the future…and Stick with it
 Identify and sustain green infrastruct...
‘Conservation Design’
 The purpose of Conservation Design is to protect
 farmland and/or other natural resources while
 al...
Conservation Design - Planning Principles

 Preserve the most important natural features
 Cluster dwelling units into smal...
Conservation Design




Conventional Subdivision




     Note: Sketches taken from
       Conservation Design for
       ...
A New Model for Rural Development on
the Suburban Fringe
Jerome Village Planning Objectives:
‘Grow Smart’
 Consider/preserve the natural environment
 Consider the existing built e...
Jerome Village Overview
Master planned community
centered around public park
system
1350 Acres, ± 2100 d/u, 544 acres
of o...
Planning Challenges for Jerome Village &
Rural Communities.
 Lack of adjacent utilities
 Property ownership constraints
 N...
Planning Process – How to go about it…

 Address regional traffic issues
 Identify site’s natural features
 Define conserv...
Address Regional Traffic Issues

 Understand the Concerns of Growth Pressure on
 existing “rural” roads.
 Create an interi...
Address Regional Traffic Issues




Regional Circulation System
Identify Site Natural Features
Every site is unique in it’s natural
features and the preservation of these
features is key...
Define Development & Conservation
Zones
 Development Pods
 Open Space
Link Circulation Systems
     Proposed Roads     Circulation Overlay

     Existing Roads
     Proposed Bike/
     Pedestr...
Land Use Plan
Land Use Plan – Site Data

  Total Site Area        ±1,350 Ac
  Regional Office        35 Ac.
  Town Center            36 ...
Land Use Plan – Site Data


 Flex/ Office           +/- 500,000 sq. ft.
 Commercial             +/- 756,500 sq. ft.
 Singl...
Open Space Plan
• Preservation of tree stands,
watersheds, wetlands and
rookery key to this
development.
Parkway Section
Jerome Parkway
Maintaining Environmental Quality
 Low Impact Stormwater Design
    Minimize Impervious Impacts
    Maximize Flow Lengths
...
Natural Drainage
Develop Identifiable Neighborhoods
 Relevant for large tracts
 especially where unique
 environments exist in the same
 de...
District E: Glacier Park Neighborhood
 TOTAL - 385 Acres
 166 Acres Open
 Space
 518 Units
 1.34 DU/Acres
 School
 Founder...
Entry at Founders Park
Conservation Neighborhoods
District D: Eversol Run Neighborhood




                                       TOTAL– 330 Acres
                         ...
Conservation Neighborhoods
District A-B-C: Village Center




TOTAL - 387 Acres
156 Acres Open Space
1350 Units
3.5 DU/Acre
District A – Commerce Center
600,000 Sq.Ft. Regional Retail
300,000 Sq.Ft. Office




                                 Ret...
District A – Commerce Center




              Office Campus
District C – Neighborhood Village

 800 Units
 550 Attached
 50’-70’ Lots
Neighborhood Village Homes
District B - Town Center




                 TOTAL – 323,500 sq. ft.
                 116,000 sq. ft Retail/ Entertainmen...
District B - Town Center District

Community heart –
“Downtown Main Street”
Within 10 minute walk of
60% of residents
Supp...
District B - Town Center District
Creating an Architectural Heritage


Jerome Village is an opportunity to live differently in a
multi-use community. Theref...
Jerome Village – Architectural Overview

 Discontent with current subdivision architecture –
 Post war planning
 Historica...
Impact of Post War Planning and
Development Trends
 Suburban sprawl
   Disconnected / separated
   Mass production buildin...
Impact of Post War Planning and
Development Trends
 Modernism trends
   Minimalist approach to design
   No ornamentation
...
Impact of Post War Planning and
Development Trends
 Zoning restrictions
    Based on minimums
    Little requirements for ...
Historic Influences
  Creates a “tie-in” with existing
  community and keeps project
  from appearing foreign.




       ...
Historic Influences
 Regional influences
   Worthington
   Mount Vernon
   Granville
Goals for Jerome Village Architecture
 To blend with and
 preserve the existing
 “rural town” character of
 Jerome Townshi...
Goals for Jerome Village Architecture
 To reflect and
 embody the heritage
 and traditional values
 of small town
 America
Goals for Jerome Village Architecture
 To have consistency in
 quality, details, and
 scale throughout the
 community.
 To...
To Achieve an Architectural Heritage
 The Jerome Village
 Architectural Pattern
 Book
The Process for Developing the
Pattern Book
  Familiarize ourselves with the existing architecture of
  Jerome Township & ...
What is a Pattern Book?
 Outlines the quality, detail, and scale desired
 throughout the development
 To be used by archit...
What is a Pattern Book?
                    A book that outlines the
                    styles of architecture
          ...
What is a Pattern Book?
 It can include:


 Single Family


                   Multi-Family
                              ...
What is a Pattern Book?
 A guide book of appropriate details, materials,
 proportions, and arrangements for the architectu...
What is a Pattern Book?
 It is usually based on regional context and historical
 relevance
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
The Jerome Village Pattern Book
Why is Jerome Village Good for the
Township?
 A large comprehensive development (PUD) is more
 effective than ‘piecemeal’ ...
Jerome Village



    The Developers Perspective
Developer:

Highland Management Group, Inc.

  Founded in Columbus, Ohio in 2000
  Full service real estate development co...
Why a project like Jerome Village?
 Desire to build value for the long-term.
 Believe there is a better way for people to ...
Challenges of Conservation Development

 Critical mass: land acquisition
 Sustain long-term vision while balancing short-t...
Jerome Village:
Meeting the Challenges
Have a Vision
 Right location in a growing corridor
 Right time in the history of t...
Jerome Village:
Meeting the Challenges
Secure Strong Capital Base
  NRI relationship enables a long-term perspective
  Com...
Jerome Village:
Meeting the Challenges
Leverage Efficiencies of Scale
  Project’s scale and design principles allow for
  ...
Jerome Village:
Meeting the Challenges
Educate & Communicate
  Engage the public early & often with key messages
     Grow...
Jerome Village:
Meeting the Challenges
Brand the Community
  Selling “lifestyle”, a better way to live.
  Not just selling...
“Take Aways” – How can communities
 encourage developers to do the right thing?
Make it easy to do the right things:
  Col...
“Take Aways” – How can communities
encourage developers to do the right thing?
Acknowledge the Economic Realities
  Sustai...
“Take Aways” – How can communities
encourage developers to do the right thing?

Be Courageous…Build a Legacy
  Passionatel...
“Communities can be shaped by choice, or they can be
    shaped by chance. We can keep on accepting the
  kind of communit...
Questions?
Conservation Development in Jerome Village: A Case Study of Responsible Development on the Suburban Fringe
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Conservation Development in Jerome Village: A Case Study of Responsible Development on the Suburban Fringe

5,170 views

Published on

http://www.ohm-advisors.com - Conservation development is a hot topic in community planning circles. It represents a new way of thinking about planning for development. Rather than choosing one of two extremes - rapid growth and anti-growth, community stakeholders and planners can pursue a third path. This presentation, Conservation Development in Jerome Village: A Case Study of Responsible Development on the Suburban Fringe, was created by Bird Houk, a division of OHM, based on one of its landmark projects. Jerome Village is a 1600-acre mixed-use development just outside metropolitan Columbus, Ohio. Jerome Village is a great example of a new planning philosophy, using the ‘best’ of Smart Growth and Conservation Development principles to create sustainable rural communities.

Published in: Real Estate
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,170
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
134
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
83
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Conservation Development in Jerome Village: A Case Study of Responsible Development on the Suburban Fringe

  1. 1. Today’s Presenter: Bird Houk Collaborative Gary Smith ASLA, APA Market Leader Community Planning Land Development
  2. 2. Town Planners/Architects: Bird Houk Collaborative Multidisciplinary design firm offering: Planning Architecture Landscape Architecture Urban Design Economics 23 employees: Registered architects, planners and landscape architects 3 MBAs, Licensed Realtor, Former Director of Development
  3. 3. Presentation Goals Present a regional case study of Conservation Development and Smart Growth planning Demonstrate how these approaches to planned development can positively impact growing rural communities Preview Conservation Development and Smart Growth from a developer’s perspective Offer advice on how communities can encourage developers to utilize these planning practices
  4. 4. Presentation Overview I. Jerome Township Overview: A. Location B. History C. Fears D. Options II. ‘Grow Smart’ Model: A. Smart Growth Principles B. Conservation Subdivision Principles III. Jerome Village - A New Model for Rural Development on the Suburban Fringe
  5. 5. Presentation Overview IV. Creating an Architectural Heritage: A. Impact of Post War Planning and Development Trends B. Goals for Jerome Village Architecture C. The Pattern Book V. Why is Jerome Village Good for the Township? IV. The Developer’s Perspective: A. Why a project like Jerome Village? B. Conservation Development Challenges C. Jerome Village: Meeting the Challenges V. “Take Away’s” – How can communities encourage developers to utilize these planning practices?
  6. 6. Central Ohio Area Map Delaware Delaware Marysville Marysville Jerome Village Jerome Village Jerome Jerome Township Township Dublin Columbus Columbus
  7. 7. Central Ohio – Regional Perspective Between now and 2030, over 570,000 new residents will join the Columbus metro area Nearly 200,000 new single family housing units will be needed by 2030. Over 110,000 current housing units will need to be replaced Sources: Urban Land Institute, 2006 Arthur C. Nelson, Brookings Institute Report, Dec. 2004
  8. 8. Jerome Township Map Jerome Village Glacier Ridge Jerome Metro Park Township Dublin I-270 Route 33
  9. 9. Jerome Village Dublin Growth Jerome Township Glacier Ridge Metro Park Dublin: 1969 -2,084 Acres -Population: 681
  10. 10. Jerome Village Dublin Growth Jerome Township Glacier Ridge Metro Park Dublin: 1970-Present -15,712 Acres -Population: 38,909
  11. 11. Jerome Township Historically Rural township situated between rapidly growing Dublin and Marysville communities So Far -‘Sheltered’ from growth by resistant attitude of citizens and lack of infrastructure Limited sewer and water services Comprehensive Township Master Plan repeatedly stopped by public referendums Scattered, large-lot development – no interconnectivity, no town center
  12. 12. Jerome Township: Fears Suburban development is now at Township’s doorstep Expansion of infrastructure has made the Township a target for development Annexation threat from surrounding areas (Marysville and Dublin) Loss of Township identity and rural character No comprehensive plan in place to handle/guide growth
  13. 13. Jerome Township – The Crossroads Not: “Will growth take place?” But: “HOW will growth take place?”
  14. 14. Suburban Sprawl?
  15. 15. Jerome Township: Future Options Option I – Annex into Dublin Option II – Annex into Marysville Option III – Allow piecemeal development Option IV - Be proactive: ‘Grow Smart’ Implement smart planning practices to direct future development, enhance community identity and protect natural resources
  16. 16. ‘Grow Smart’: Our Rural Growth Model Using the ‘best’ of Smart Growth and Conservation Development principles to create sustainable rural communities.
  17. 17. ‘Smart Growth’ Principles Create a shared vision for the future…and Stick with it Identify and sustain green infrastructure Remember that the right design in the wrong place is not smart growth Protect environmental systems and conserve resources Provide diverse housing types and opportunities Build centers of concentrated mixed uses Use multiple connections to enhance mobility and circulation Deliver sustainable transportation choices Preserve the community’s character Make it easy to do the right thing Source: Urban Land Institute, 2006
  18. 18. ‘Conservation Design’ The purpose of Conservation Design is to protect farmland and/or other natural resources while allowing for the maximum number of residences under current community zoning and subdivision regulations Source: The Center for Land Use Education, 2002
  19. 19. Conservation Design - Planning Principles Preserve the most important natural features Cluster dwelling units into smaller areas allowing for the permanent aggregation and preservation of open space Utilize large setbacks and narrow roads to preserve rural road characteristics Discourage large lot development on major roadways Majority of housing units should back on open space
  20. 20. Conservation Design Conventional Subdivision Note: Sketches taken from Conservation Design for Subdivisions Conservation Design
  21. 21. A New Model for Rural Development on the Suburban Fringe
  22. 22. Jerome Village Planning Objectives: ‘Grow Smart’ Consider/preserve the natural environment Consider the existing built environment and project forward to the character that might naturally have occurred over time Consider the community’s spirit of place Consider the community’s existing social/civic amenities and provide opportunities to encourage interaction Consider community sustainability and incorporate lifestyle-responsive housing and a mix of uses to ensure that a community can ‘grow with’ its residents
  23. 23. Jerome Village Overview Master planned community centered around public park system 1350 Acres, ± 2100 d/u, 544 acres of open space Town Center: Civic and social hub for Township New Schools Community recreation facilities Lifestyle-responsive housing options Will double the population of Jerome Township 15-20 year build out
  24. 24. Planning Challenges for Jerome Village & Rural Communities. Lack of adjacent utilities Property ownership constraints Natural/ significant features of the site Lack of Comprehensive Township Development Plan Inflexible and out-of-date zoning code Citizens/public officials’ lack of knowledge of Smart Growth/New Urbanism concepts No strong architectural character within Township How do we maintain the existing rural character with ‘Suburban’ development?
  25. 25. Planning Process – How to go about it… Address regional traffic issues Identify site’s natural features Define conservation zones Define primary development zones Link open space systems and development zones with pedestrian and vehicular circulation system. Develop unique identifiable neighborhoods
  26. 26. Address Regional Traffic Issues Understand the Concerns of Growth Pressure on existing “rural” roads. Create an interior road network designed to handle traffic. Minimize new development accessing the existing rural roads. Maintains rural character of existing roads
  27. 27. Address Regional Traffic Issues Regional Circulation System
  28. 28. Identify Site Natural Features Every site is unique in it’s natural features and the preservation of these features is key to the success of the development.
  29. 29. Define Development & Conservation Zones Development Pods Open Space
  30. 30. Link Circulation Systems Proposed Roads Circulation Overlay Existing Roads Proposed Bike/ Pedestrian Path Development Pods Open Space
  31. 31. Land Use Plan
  32. 32. Land Use Plan – Site Data Total Site Area ±1,350 Ac Regional Office 35 Ac. Town Center 36 Ac Regional Commercial 73 Ac. Single family 587 Ac. Attached residential 67 Ac. Open space 544 Ac. School 35 Ac.
  33. 33. Land Use Plan – Site Data Flex/ Office +/- 500,000 sq. ft. Commercial +/- 756,500 sq. ft. Single family +/- 1,438 units Attached residential +/- 660 units A mix of uses adds to the Projects long term viability.
  34. 34. Open Space Plan • Preservation of tree stands, watersheds, wetlands and rookery key to this development.
  35. 35. Parkway Section
  36. 36. Jerome Parkway
  37. 37. Maintaining Environmental Quality Low Impact Stormwater Design Minimize Impervious Impacts Maximize Flow Lengths Maximize Infiltration Provide Water Quality Filtration Minimize Flow Velocities Provide Controlled Flood Storage Stormwater Bioretention Design Surface Flow Paths and Bioswales First Flush Treatment WQ Wetlands Low Flow Channels and Floodplains Floodplain Wetlands for Infiltration Multiple Extended Detention Basins Habitat Diversification Nature Trail Integration and Maintenance
  38. 38. Natural Drainage
  39. 39. Develop Identifiable Neighborhoods Relevant for large tracts especially where unique environments exist in the same development. District A-B-C: Village Center District D: Eversol Run Neighborhood District E: Glacier Park Neighborhood Jerome Village Neighborhoods
  40. 40. District E: Glacier Park Neighborhood TOTAL - 385 Acres 166 Acres Open Space 518 Units 1.34 DU/Acres School Founders Park
  41. 41. Entry at Founders Park
  42. 42. Conservation Neighborhoods
  43. 43. District D: Eversol Run Neighborhood TOTAL– 330 Acres 139 Acres Open Space 274 Units .83 DU/Acre
  44. 44. Conservation Neighborhoods
  45. 45. District A-B-C: Village Center TOTAL - 387 Acres 156 Acres Open Space 1350 Units 3.5 DU/Acre
  46. 46. District A – Commerce Center 600,000 Sq.Ft. Regional Retail 300,000 Sq.Ft. Office Retail Center
  47. 47. District A – Commerce Center Office Campus
  48. 48. District C – Neighborhood Village 800 Units 550 Attached 50’-70’ Lots
  49. 49. Neighborhood Village Homes
  50. 50. District B - Town Center TOTAL – 323,500 sq. ft. 116,000 sq. ft Retail/ Entertainment 200,000 sq. ft. Office 7,500 sq. ft. Civic
  51. 51. District B - Town Center District Community heart – “Downtown Main Street” Within 10 minute walk of 60% of residents Supports neighborhood lifestyle needs – retail, entertainment, municipal & civic
  52. 52. District B - Town Center District
  53. 53. Creating an Architectural Heritage Jerome Village is an opportunity to live differently in a multi-use community. Therefore, the architecture needs to be more than a typical subdivision…
  54. 54. Jerome Village – Architectural Overview Discontent with current subdivision architecture – Post war planning Historical context – What is it? Goals for the development of Jerome Village
  55. 55. Impact of Post War Planning and Development Trends Suburban sprawl Disconnected / separated Mass production building Loss of multi-dimensional community Lack of identity- no sense of place-no pride in place
  56. 56. Impact of Post War Planning and Development Trends Modernism trends Minimalist approach to design No ornamentation Lack of visual character Lack of human connection
  57. 57. Impact of Post War Planning and Development Trends Zoning restrictions Based on minimums Little requirements for diversity Leads to sameness and banality- “safe”
  58. 58. Historic Influences Creates a “tie-in” with existing community and keeps project from appearing foreign. Jerome Township Very rural – No real sense of architecture
  59. 59. Historic Influences Regional influences Worthington Mount Vernon Granville
  60. 60. Goals for Jerome Village Architecture To blend with and preserve the existing “rural town” character of Jerome Township.
  61. 61. Goals for Jerome Village Architecture To reflect and embody the heritage and traditional values of small town America
  62. 62. Goals for Jerome Village Architecture To have consistency in quality, details, and scale throughout the community. To recreate a sense of pride in one’s community
  63. 63. To Achieve an Architectural Heritage The Jerome Village Architectural Pattern Book
  64. 64. The Process for Developing the Pattern Book Familiarize ourselves with the existing architecture of Jerome Township & surrounding communities. Research the history and development of Central Ohio architecture Establish the architectural character desired Work with the local residences and regulatory officials Get input from builders and their architects
  65. 65. What is a Pattern Book? Outlines the quality, detail, and scale desired throughout the development To be used by architects, builders, and regulatory officials to guide them throughout the process of development of Jerome Village
  66. 66. What is a Pattern Book? A book that outlines the styles of architecture appropriate for a development or redevelopment
  67. 67. What is a Pattern Book? It can include: Single Family Multi-Family Commercial
  68. 68. What is a Pattern Book? A guide book of appropriate details, materials, proportions, and arrangements for the architecture of a development
  69. 69. What is a Pattern Book? It is usually based on regional context and historical relevance
  70. 70. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  71. 71. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  72. 72. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  73. 73. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  74. 74. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  75. 75. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  76. 76. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  77. 77. The Jerome Village Pattern Book
  78. 78. Why is Jerome Village Good for the Township? A large comprehensive development (PUD) is more effective than ‘piecemeal’ development in achieving the following for the Township: Creation of a ‘template’ for positive growth and consistent design within the Township Creation of a sense of ‘place’ for the larger community by emphasizing and preserving its uniqueness Provides for amenities in a controlled development Provides a social and civic hub for entire Township Provides a funding mechanism to maintain natural areas without taxing existing Township residents
  79. 79. Jerome Village The Developers Perspective
  80. 80. Developer: Highland Management Group, Inc. Founded in Columbus, Ohio in 2000 Full service real estate development company Focus on building “communities”
  81. 81. Why a project like Jerome Village? Desire to build value for the long-term. Believe there is a better way for people to live, work and play. Desire to build true communities that respect the past and plan for the future. This is what the market wants & needs. J.C. Nichols – Country Club Plaza Inspired by the projects that are still viable today.
  82. 82. Challenges of Conservation Development Critical mass: land acquisition Sustain long-term vision while balancing short-term need Who pays for open space, parkland and community facilities Community and builder buy in for a new concept
  83. 83. Jerome Village: Meeting the Challenges Have a Vision Right location in a growing corridor Right time in the history of the Township/County Right solution as people will pay a premium to live in a “true” community
  84. 84. Jerome Village: Meeting the Challenges Secure Strong Capital Base NRI relationship enables a long-term perspective Community Development Authority (CDA) will be established to fund infrastructure, community services, parks, schools, etc. Builder participation
  85. 85. Jerome Village: Meeting the Challenges Leverage Efficiencies of Scale Project’s scale and design principles allow for efficient use of infrastructure Higher density village allows for lower density conservation area
  86. 86. Jerome Village: Meeting the Challenges Educate & Communicate Engage the public early & often with key messages Growth is inevitable “Grow Smart” or suffer from sprawl Use a variety of forums (open houses, newsletters, jeromevillage.com, small group meetings, mail surveys, event sponsorships, PR)
  87. 87. Jerome Village: Meeting the Challenges Brand the Community Selling “lifestyle”, a better way to live. Not just selling “product” or another sub-division Must inspire the pride of the Township Desire to be viewed as a different kind of developer with a different kind of solution Upfront investment is required ($, relationship equity, etc.)
  88. 88. “Take Aways” – How can communities encourage developers to do the right thing? Make it easy to do the right things: Collaborate between developer and public officials…we all have a vested interest in doing the right thing Develop a shared vision for the future Keep the big picture in mind Maintain some flexibility relevant to current zoning codes Help educate the citizens…this isn’t just another sub- division
  89. 89. “Take Aways” – How can communities encourage developers to do the right thing? Acknowledge the Economic Realities Sustainability requires an economic engine (mixed use, job creation, tax generation) Creative financing (CDA, TIF, etc.) Density matters
  90. 90. “Take Aways” – How can communities encourage developers to do the right thing? Be Courageous…Build a Legacy Passionately champion the project
  91. 91. “Communities can be shaped by choice, or they can be shaped by chance. We can keep on accepting the kind of communities we get, or we can start creating the kind of communities we want.” Richard Moe, National Trust for Historic Preservation
  92. 92. Questions?

×