Carbon Cycles<br />Xiaoming Zou<br />Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, University of Puerto Rico<br />
Carbon cycles<br />Carbon cycles<br />Ocean <br />Structure and properties<br />Carbon distribution<br />Atmosphere<br />S...
Global environmental changes
Natural rhythms and disturbances
Climate
Geological events
Anthropogenic influence
Land use
Fossil fuel combustion
Fertilizers and pollutants</li></li></ul><li>Ocean Structure and Properties<br />Physical properties<br />70% of earth sur...
Ocean Structure and Properties<br />Ocean circulation<br />Surface water<br />Well mixed<br />Warm water<br />Little chang...
Ocean Structure and Properties<br />Ocean circulation<br />Deep water<br />Stratified<br />Cold water with an average temp...
Carbon Distribution in Ocean<br />
Structure and Properties of the Atmosphere<br />Structure and physical properties<br />Troposphere (0-10 km)<br />Stratosp...
Global circulation<br />Occurs in troposphere<br />Upward near equator and at 60 degrees of latitude<br />Downward at 30 a...
Carbon Distribution in Atmosphere<br />
Atmospheric CO2 was much higher 390 M yrs ago than now<br />
Lignin was evolved first in ferns 390 M yrs ago<br />With lignin, plants could grow much taller and root deeply<br />
Lignin decomposers were evolved at least 50 M yrs later<br />Most coal formed during this mismatch <br />between lignin pr...
Before combustion of fossil fuel for more than 650 thousand years, atmospheric CO2 has fluctuated between180 and 300 parts...
Now things are changing again,mostly from the burning of fossil fuels.<br />
Structure and Properties of Land<br />
Carbon Distribution on Land<br />Light<br />Altitude<br />Latitude<br />Aspects<br />Water<br />Nutrients<br />
Carbon Distribution on Land<br />
Global Carbon Cycle<br />Pools<br />Atmosphere 750 x 10^15 g<br />Ocean water 38,000 x 10^15 g<br />Plant biomass 560 x 10...
Global Carbon Cycle<br />Fluxes<br />Terrestrial GPP 120 x 10^15 g/y<br />Ocean GPP 92 x 10^15 g/y<br />Terrestrial Rp 60 ...
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Carbon cycles lecture

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Carbon cycles lecture

  1. 1. Carbon Cycles<br />Xiaoming Zou<br />Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies, University of Puerto Rico<br />
  2. 2. Carbon cycles<br />Carbon cycles<br />Ocean <br />Structure and properties<br />Carbon distribution<br />Atmosphere<br />Structure and properties<br />Carbon distribution<br />Land<br />Structure and properties<br />Carbon distribution<br />Global carbon cycles<br /><ul><li>Mechanisms for carbon stabilization and destabilization
  3. 3. Global environmental changes
  4. 4. Natural rhythms and disturbances
  5. 5. Climate
  6. 6. Geological events
  7. 7. Anthropogenic influence
  8. 8. Land use
  9. 9. Fossil fuel combustion
  10. 10. Fertilizers and pollutants</li></li></ul><li>Ocean Structure and Properties<br />Physical properties<br />70% of earth surface<br />0.02% of earth mass<br />97% of total water on earth<br />Twice as much area in the Southern Hemisphere as in the Northern Hemisphere<br />Euphotic zone 50-100 m, surface ocean<br />Deep ocean, up to an average of 4000 m<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Ocean Structure and Properties<br />Ocean circulation<br />Surface water<br />Well mixed<br />Warm water<br />Little change in temperature<br />Movement caused by wind <br />Earth rotation drives surface current from east to west along the equator<br />Mean residence time 1700 years<br />
  13. 13. Ocean Structure and Properties<br />Ocean circulation<br />Deep water<br />Stratified<br />Cold water with an average temperature of 3 C<br />Sharp decrease in temperature in the thermocline, stable temperature further deeper<br />Movement caused by water density and salinity<br />Mean residence time 34000 years<br />
  14. 14. Carbon Distribution in Ocean<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Structure and Properties of the Atmosphere<br />Structure and physical properties<br />Troposphere (0-10 km)<br />Stratosphere (10-50 km)<br />Temperature<br />Pressure (log P = - 0.06 A)<br />Density<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20. Global circulation<br />Occurs in troposphere<br />Upward near equator and at 60 degrees of latitude<br />Downward at 30 and 90 degrees of latitude<br />Structure and Properties of the Atmosphere<br />
  21. 21. Carbon Distribution in Atmosphere<br />
  22. 22. Atmospheric CO2 was much higher 390 M yrs ago than now<br />
  23. 23. Lignin was evolved first in ferns 390 M yrs ago<br />With lignin, plants could grow much taller and root deeply<br />
  24. 24. Lignin decomposers were evolved at least 50 M yrs later<br />Most coal formed during this mismatch <br />between lignin producers and decomposers.<br />
  25. 25. Before combustion of fossil fuel for more than 650 thousand years, atmospheric CO2 has fluctuated between180 and 300 parts per million. <br />
  26. 26. Now things are changing again,mostly from the burning of fossil fuels.<br />
  27. 27. Structure and Properties of Land<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Carbon Distribution on Land<br />Light<br />Altitude<br />Latitude<br />Aspects<br />Water<br />Nutrients<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Carbon Distribution on Land<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Global Carbon Cycle<br />Pools<br />Atmosphere 750 x 10^15 g<br />Ocean water 38,000 x 10^15 g<br />Plant biomass 560 x 10^15 g<br />Soil organic matter and soil biomass 1,500 x 10^15 g <br />Total active pool: 40,000 x 10^15<br />Organic sediments 1.56 x 10^22 g<br />Inorganic sediments 6.5 x 10^22 g<br />
  35. 35. Global Carbon Cycle<br />Fluxes<br />Terrestrial GPP 120 x 10^15 g/y<br />Ocean GPP 92 x 10^15 g/y<br />Terrestrial Rp 60 x 10^15 g/y<br />Terrestrial Rd 60 x 10^15 g/y<br />Deforestation 0.9 x 10^15 g/y<br />Anthropogenic 6 x 10^15 g/y<br />Ocean R 90 x 10^15 g/y<br />River flow 0.8 x 10^15 g/y<br />
  36. 36. Global Carbon Cycle<br />Residence time<br />Atmosphere: 750/152 = 4.9 years<br />Plant biomass: 560/60 = 9.3 years<br />Soil organic C: 1500/60 = 25 years<br />Surface ocean: 1020/90 = 11.3 years<br />Entire ocean: 3800/90 = 422<br />
  37. 37. Mechanisms for Carbon Stabilization and Destabilization<br />Reduction in decomposition of organic carbon<br />Litter quality with high lignin content<br />Land management (reduced earthworms, reduced O2 levels, increased N input, etc)<br />Reduction in deforestation and combustion of fossil fuel<br />Increase in primary productivity<br />Iron fertilization in ocean<br />Chemical fertilizers in land<br />N2 fixation<br />Increase inorganic carbon pool<br />Increase ocean water pH<br />Reduced acid rain<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Greenhouse Effect<br />1951-1997<br />Carbon dioxide (70%), nitrous oxide, methane (23%), ozone, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and water vapor<br />A molecule of methane is 21 times more potent than a molecule of carbon dioxide as a heat-trapping gas <br />Vegetation has migrated since postglacial warming, but has failed to keep pace with changing climate because the greenhouse effect waarms 50-100 times faster than postglacial warming<br />
  40. 40. “Double loop" model of SOM dynamics<br />CO2<br />Non-lignin<br />decomposers<br />Geochemical processes<br />Non-lignin decomposers<br />Lignolytic <br />Microbes<br />Physical <br />Protection<br />Slow C<br />Active C<br />Passive C<br />Labile C decomposing<br />Microbes<br />Chemical <br />bonding<br />Lignolytic <br />Microbes<br />Microbial C<br />Geochemical processes<br />LOC/N control<br />
  41. 41. Global Environmental ChangesNatural rhythms<br />
  42. 42. Global Environmental ChangesHuman Activities<br />1980<br />1994<br />

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