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La storia di internet - Storia Dei Media Digitali Lezione 5

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La storia di internet e la sua organizzazione sociale

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La storia di internet - Storia Dei Media Digitali Lezione 5

  1. 1. Storia dei media digitali Lorenzo Cassulo lorenzo.cassulo@15multimedia.it Lezione 5 1
  2. 2. Storia di Internet 1969 ARPANET ricerca di una superiorità tecnologica USA dopo il lancio dello Sputnik, viene utilizzata la commutazione di pacchetto; 1971 ARPANET 15 nodi e 23 host, vien introdotta la posta elettronica; 1973 TCP Transmission Control Protocol standard per la comunicazione tra reti di computer, opera a livello di trasporto; 1978 IP Internet Protocol protocollo di comunicazione tra rete e rete, opera a livello rete; 1983 Scissione MILNET e ARPANET che evolverà poi in quella che è Internet; 1995 privatizzazione, nascono i service provider. 2
  3. 3. Storia di Internet 1977 MODEM programma per il trasferimento dei file; 1978 Computer Bullettin Board System; 1983 FIDONET; 1989 ARCHIE indicizzare contenuti su server ftp; 1990 GOPHER architettura client/server, struttura a menu, antenato del web. 3
  4. 4. Storia di Internet 1990 World Wide Web inventato da Tim Berners-Lee al CERN, è composto da un protocollo di trasporto ed un sistema di codifica delle informazioni; 1993 Mosaic primo browser grafico; 1994 Netscape Comunicator dagli sviluppatori di Mosaic; 1995 Internet Explorer; Il 1995 è la data di nascita della internet 4
  5. 5. La Governance di Internet • Governance: gestione spontanea dal basso e governo dall'alto; • 1992 con le privatizzazioni e la diffusione di internet in Europa nasce l'esigenza di dotarsi di organismi di controllo indipendenti dal governo americano, la Internet Society (org, non-prof) non basta più: nasce la Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) guidata da Jon Postel (uomo di grande fiducia, uno dei progettisti originari di internet); • Nel 1998 Postel muore "La fiducia in uomo non può essere rimpiazzata dalla fiducia globale in un'istituzione”; • 2000 nasce la Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN privata non-profit) gestisce l'assegnazione degli IP, dei domini e dei root server. 5
  6. 6. ICANN • Formata da una membership libera e tre organizzazioni di supporto: 18 direttori, ogni organizzazione ne nomina 3, gli altri 9 sono eletti da elezioni pubbliche tra i membri (ogni individuo dotato di conoscenze tecnologiche può iscriversi); • Elezioni 2000: 158.000 iscritti 35.000 voti; • Rifiuto domini “.eu”; • Elezione hacker del CCC www.icann.org 6
  7. 7. W3C World Wide Web Consortium Migliorare i linguaggi e i protocolli del web aiutandolo a sviluppare le sue potenzialità. Più di 300 membri: aziende informatiche, società di varie dimensioni operanti in settori strategici, associazioni e università. Cosa fa? Definisce specifiche comuni per il web, ricerca sull'accessibilità dei servizi web, vigila affinché interessi particolari non limitino la libertà di tutti. www.w3c.org 7
  8. 8. Internet Internet è PRIMA DI TUTTO una creazione CULTURALE 8

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