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Drafting technology y3

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Drafting technology y3

  1. 1. Republic of the Philippines Department of Education PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS PUBLIC TECHNICAL-VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS Unit of Competency: Draft Architectural Layout and Details Module No.: 1 Module Title: Drafting Architectural Layout and Details
  2. 2. AKNOWLEDGEMENT We, the teachers assigned to work on the Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) and Contextual Learning Material (CLM) and Competency – Based Learning Modules (CBLM) particularly in TECHNICAL DRAFTING, wish to express our gratitude and appreciation for having been given the chance to take part in this educational breakthrough. With high hopes we look forward to the improvement of the TechnicalVocational Education of the country through the development of functional materials such of these kinds. Marikina Hotel Marikina City May 25-30, 2009 June 5-7, 2009 Technology Writers Mario S. Gregorio Tagum National Trade School Tagum City, Davao Del Norte Region XI Alexander M. Latoga Manuel S. Enverga Memorial School of Arts and Trades Mauban, Quezon Mirasol F. Dasig San Pedro Relocation Center National High School San Pedro, Laguna Region IV-A, Calabarzon Ariel F. Maglalang Assemblywoman Felecita G. Bernardino Memorial Trade School Lias, Marilao, Bulacan Conrado C. Casulla Pangasinan School of Arts and Trades Lingayen, Pangasinan Region I Rolando V. Inay E. Rodriguez Vocational High School Nagtahan,Sampaloc,Manila i
  3. 3. Percival Magaway Cabarroguis Natural School of Arts and Trades Region II, Quirino English Teacher Mercy F. Divina E. Rodriguez Vocational High School Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila Math Teacher Emmanuel V. Dionisio Assemblywoman Felecita G. Bernardino Memorial Trade School Lias, Marilao, Bulacan Science Teacher Ma. Lenalyn Q. Manzano E. Rodriguez Vocational High School Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila Editorial Specialist Estrelita Y. Evangelista Ed.D. (Ret.) CESO VI DepED-Director, BSE Beatriz A. Adriano Principal III E. Rodriguez Vocational High School Nagtahan, Sampaloc, Manila Carolina F. Chavez Principal II Muntinlupa Business High School Facilitator Orlando E. Manuel Ph.D. Principal I Cabarroquis National School of Arts and Trades Gundaway, Cabarroquis, Quirino Region II ii
  4. 4. Math Specialist Jesus L. Huenda Senior Education Program Specialist DepED-NCR Encoders Eduardo B. Dicion Jr. Integrative School of Quezon City U.P. Village, Diliman, Quezon City Jomel Gail O. Ponce One World Connection 31/F Wynsun Corporate Plaza Ortigas Center, Pasig City iii
  5. 5. Table of Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................. i-iii DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY ....................................................................... 1 TECHNICAL TERMS .................................................................................... 2 LEARNING OUTCOME 1 ......................................................................3-4 INFORMATION SHEET # 1.1 .................................................................5-6 ACTIVITY SHEET # 1.1 ............................................................................ 7 SELF CHECK 1.1 ..................................................................................... 8 INFORMATION SHEET # 1.2 ............................................................... 9-27 SELF-CHECK 1.2 ................................................................................... 28 OPERATION SHEET 1.1 ......................................................................... 29 SELF-CHECK # 1.3 ........................................................................... 30-31 LEARNING OUTCOME 2 .................................................................. 32-33 INFORMATION SHEET # 2.1 ............................................................. 34-35 ACTIVITY SHEET # 1.1 .......................................................................... 36 SELF CHECK 2.1 ................................................................................... 37 INFORMATION SHEET 2.2 ................................................................ 38-40 SELF CHECK 2.2 ................................................................................... 41 LEARNING OUTCOME 3 .................................................................. 42-43 INFORMATION SHEET 3.1 ................................................................ 44-48 ACTIVITY SHEET # 3.1 .......................................................................... 49 SELF CHECK 3.1 ................................................................................... 50 INFORMATION SHEET # 3.2 ............................................................. 51-53 ACTIVITY SHEET # 3.2 .......................................................................... 54 SELF CHECK 3.2 ................................................................................... 55 OPERATION SHEET 3.2 .................................................................... 56-62 LEARNING OUTCOME 4 .................................................................. 63-64 INFORMATION SHEET # 4.1 ............................................................. 65-71 SELF CHECK 4.1 ................................................................................... 72 INFORMATION SHEET 4.2 ................................................................ 73-75 SELF CHECK 4.2 ................................................................................... 76 INFORMATION SHEET 4.3 ................................................................ 77-81 SELF CHECK 4.3 ................................................................................... 82 OPERATION SHEET 4.1 .................................................................... 83-89
  6. 6. SELF CHECK 4.4 .............................................................................. 90-91 LEARNING OUTCOME 5 .................................................................. 92-93 INFORMATION SHEET # 5.1 ............................................................. 94-98 INFORMATION SHEET 5.2 .............................................................. 99-104 OPERATION SHEET 5.1 ................................................................ 105-109 SELF CHECK 5.1 ................................................................................. 110 SELF CHECK 5.2 .......................................................................... 111-113 LEARNING OUTCOME 6 .............................................................. 114-115 INFORMATION SHEET 6.1 ............................................................ 116-118 OPERATION SHEET 6.1 ................................................................ 119-121 SELF CHECK 6.1 .......................................................................... 122-124 LEARNING OUTCOME 7 ..................................................................... 125 INFORMATION SHEET 7.1 ............................................................ 127-134 SELF CHECK 7.1 ................................................................................. 135 OPERATION SHEET 1 ................................................................... 136-138 INFORMATION SHEET 1.2 ............................................................ 139-145 SELF CHECK 7.2 ................................................................................. 146 OPERATION SHEET 7.2 ................................................................ 147-150 LEARNING OUTCOME 8 .............................................................. 151-152 INFORMATION SHEET 8.1 ............................................................ 153-156 OPERATION SHEET 8.1 ....................................................................... 157 ANSWER KEY .............................................................................. 158-174
  7. 7. HOW TO USE THIS MODULE Activities are properly arranged in this module to help you work at your own pace. This module also covers the knowledge, skills, and proper attitude you need in Technical Drafting. A pre-assessment precedes the learning activities in each module to determine your level and need. The learning activity page gives the sequence of the learning task. This page serves as the road map in achieving the desired objectives. After you accomplished all the tasks required, a post assessment is given to check if you are already competent with the specified learning outcome/s and be ready for the next task. Definitions of terms are provided in this module for your better understanding.
  8. 8. Program/ Course : DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Module Title : Drafting Architectural Layout and Details INTRODUCTION Architectural layout and detail drawings are designed to develop the technical skills and technical know-how of the students in architectural drafting works. Students will learn to interpret and fully understand the standard procedure in layouting and detailing of architectural working plans and drawings. This module covers how to prepare students learn to draw a complete set of architectural working drawings. SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: LO1 Plan and prepare for work LO2 Prepare and set up tools and materials for drawing LO3 Draft Site Development Plans LO4 Draft Floor Plans LO5 Draft Roof Plans LO6 Draft Ceiling Plans LO7 Draft Elevations and Sections LO8 Prepare Presentation Drawings 1
  9. 9. TECHNICAL TERMS Blueprint is a reproduced drawing of architectural plans and layout. Ceiling is the overhead surface of a room or the material used to line the surface. Code is a system of accepted laws and regulations that govern procedure or behavior in particular circumstances or within a particular profession Elevation drawing is the exterior and interior works of a building. It is a perpendicular or upright projection from the floor plan to show vertical architectural or design details Floor Plan is an orthographic projection of the floor of a building or a house. Perspective is a drawing angle from which an object or structure is viewed. Plan is a drawing or diagram on a horizontal plane of the layout or arrangement of something. Revision is an act of changing or revising. Roof Plan is a roofing plan presenting roof types used. Scaling refers to enlarging or reducing the drawing using architect’s scale. Sections are drawings of an object as though they were cut in order to expose the interior construction. Site is an area of land available for construction or the lot on which a building is constructed. A building sites maybe a single lot, a series of lots, or a subdivision. A lot is a piece of ground of specific size. A subdivision is a large tract of land that is being developed. SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN or Lot Plan refers to the position and the location of the building with property line, setbacks, approaches, grade contours, landscape and other pertinent data in relation to the site. Working drawing is a finished plan drawing containing complete information for the workmen. 2
  10. 10. Program/ Course : DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Module Title : Learning Outcome 1 Drafting Architectural Layout and Details Plan and prepare for work Assessment Criteria: 1. Drawing tools, materials, and equipment are identified based on job requirements. 2. Elements of architectural working drawings are identified and explained. 3. Work instruction is secured following standard operating procedures. 4. Blueprint is interpreted according to architectural layout, drawing or job requirements. References: Earnest R. Weidhaas. Architectural Drafting and Design 4th Edition Paul I. Wallach. Basic Architectural Drafting, 1982 French and Vierck. Engineering Drawing; MacGraw, Hill Book Company,10th Edition: 1960 Emmanuel P. Cuntapay. Implementing Rules and Regulation of the National Building Code of the Philippines (PD 1096), 2005 German M. Manaois. Drafting 1 and 2; Phoenix Publishing:1983 Norman Stirling. Introduction to Technical Drawing,Delmar Publishing, 1977 3
  11. 11. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome 1: Plan and Prepare for Work Learning Activities Special Instruction  Remember important tools, materials and equipment 2. Answer Self-Check no 1.1  Try to answer the self-check 3. Read information sheet no.  1.2 about architectural  Take note of the details of the drawings Remember architectural abbreviations and symbols Interpret blueprint reading Determine tools and materials used in working drawings Try to answer the self-check 1.2 Determine tools and materials used in working drawings Try to answer the self-check 1.2-1 Remember architectural abbreviations and symbols Interpret blueprint reading Determine tools and materials used in working drawings 1. Read information sheet no. 1.1 about drawing tools, materials and equipment. working drawings 4. Answer Self-Check 1.2 5. Read Operation Sheet no. 1.2-1. 6. Answer Self-Check 1.2-1 7. Read information sheet no. 1.2-2 to 1.2-12 about architectural working         drawings 8. Answer Self-Check 1.2-2 to  Try to answer the self-check 1.2-2 to 12  Try to answer the self-check 12 9. Read information sheet no. 1.3. about company rules and regulations and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) 10. Answer Self-Check no. 1.3 4
  12. 12. INFORMATION SHEET 1.1 LO1 Plan and prepare for work Review on drafting tools, materials and equipment, their uses and care Most architectural drafting works generally consist of freehand and mechanical drawings. As such, the learner must know how to plan and prepare carefully all drafting tools, materials, and equipment needed for the required work or job. It is presumed that all students are already aware on the tools and materials needed in drafting works considering their prior learning in the previous year level. However, it is necessary to review their previous learning to prepare them for higher drafting activity. Architectural drafting tools, materials and equipment A. Tools: 1. Drawing pencil 2. Mechanical Pencil 3. Erasing shield 4. Protractor 5. Triangular Scale 6. French curve 7. Penknife or Pencil Sharpener 8. Compass 9. Dusting brush 10. Technical Pen 11. Templates 12. Leroy lettering pen 13. Tape rule/Pull-push rule 5
  13. 13. B. Materials: 1. T-square Parallel rule 3. Triangle Drawing paper 4. Tracing paper 5. Masking tape 6. Eraser 7. Sandpaper Block C. Equipment: 1. Drawing board/table 2. Drawing stool The importance, uses and maintenance procedure of these tools, materials and equipment has been discussed in the previous modules. It is presumed therefore that you are now ready for a series of drafting activities. 6
  14. 14. ACTIVITY SHEET # 1.1 LO1. Plan and prepare for work Situation: Group the students into four and allow each group to assign its leader and reporter. Each group must be provided with one (1) sheet manila paper and a piece of pentel pen. Gather all the drafting tools and materials and display them on the table. Activity: 1. Give 10 minutes to each group to list down on the manila paper all the displayed tools and materials according to its classifications. Allow them to discuss its importance and uses in drafting and drawing activity considering their prior learning in the previous modules. 2. Another 5 minutes is allotted to each group to report its respective outputs. 3. Each group is required to evaluate and give comments on the output of the assigned reporter according to the following criteria: a. Identification of tools according to each classification………40% b. Presentation………………………………………………………30% c. Delivery……………………………………………………………30% 7
  15. 15. SELF CHECK 1.1 LO1. Plan and prepare for work Directions: Identify what is referred to in each number. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. ______1. An instrument used for drawing vertical and oblique lines. ______2. An instrument used for dividing lines or distance into equal parts. ______3. Used for marking out distances, as well as, measuring purposes. ______4. A flat piece of plastic with standard symbols and used as guide for drawing images on plans. ______5. Used to hold and fasten drawing paper on the drawing board. ______6. Most common grade of pencil used in architectural drawing. ______7. Used to draw arcs and circles. ______8. Used to draw horizontal lines and serves as guide for triangles. ______9. A thin transparent paper used for reproduction in blueprint. ______10. Instrument used to reduce or enlarge measurement and distances and for transferring measurement to the drawing paper. ______11. Used in place of the standard drawing board and T-square. ______12. A high technology machine for drawing purposes. ______13. Used to remove smears of pencil and ink lines. ______14. A pen used for inking mechanical lines. ______15. Instrument used for measuring degree angle. ______16. Used to sharpen pencils into desired lead point. ______17. A thin sheet of metal used when erasing pencil and inked lines to protect other drawing lines. ______18. It helps pencil lead into a conical shape points. ______19. It is used in setting a line degree angle. ______20. Serves as substitute instrument in sharpening a pencil into desired points. 8
  16. 16. INFORMATION SHEET 1.2 LO1. Plan and prepare for work ARCHITECTURAL WORKING DRAWINGS The architectural working drawings together with the specifications are the most important parts of the documents constituting the contract. Information on the designs, locations, and dimensions of the elements of a building is found on the architectural working drawings while information on the quality of materials and workmanship is found in the specifications. A good architectural working drawing gives the contractor the exact information he needs. It should be clear, simple, and orderly arranged, and accurately drawn so that scaled measurements will match with dimensions. The finished drawings made by the architect, or draftsman and used by the contractor are called architectural working drawings. The architectural working drawings, together with the specifications and the general conditions, form the legal contract between the owner and the contractor. Since the working drawings are a major portion of the contract documents, they should be very carefully drawn. Students will be able to interpret, identify tools and materials used in working drawings and fully understand the standard procedure in layouting and detailing architectural working plans and drawings. 9
  17. 17. Elements of Architectural working drawing A complete architectural working drawing of a house generally includes the following: 1. Architectural sheets a. Sheet # 1 - Title page and index (Exterior perspective, site development plan or plot plan, and vicinity map or location plan is often included in the plan). PERSPECTIVE is the view as seen by the eyes or it shows the appearance of the finished building. This drawing represents the actual form of the proposed building. (See perspective on the next page). SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN is the outline and measurements ofthe proposed building and its placement on the property. it shows the withproperty position and the location of the building line, setbacks, approaches, grade contours, landscape and other pertinent data in relation to the site. A site development plan is drawn using a scale not smaller than 1:200meters. (seesite development plan on the next page.) LOCATION PLAN is the top view of the site or lot where the proposed house will be built. It shows the position of the house inside the lot, the number of the adjacent lots, streets or lanes before or beside the lot, and the North sign. The location plan is usually located near the title block. The main line symbol of the North sign is generally parallel to the side border line of the drawing paper and points upward. 10
  18. 18. Sheet # 1 SAMPLE BLUEPRINT OF A ONE-STOREY HOUSE 11
  19. 19. Title Page and Index generally includes title block, table of contents, labels, and the name of the duly licensed and registered Geodetic Engineer who approves the lot survey plans. Title Block in House Plan The title block in house plans includes the following information: 1. Owner’s name 2. Location or address of the proposed house 3. Lot and block numbers 4. Signature of architect or civil engineer who approves the plan 5. Draftsman’s name or initials 6. Date when plan was drawn or completed 7. Scale as shown (See title block in sheet #1) b. Sheet # 2 – Floor plan, of a 2 Storey House. It includes the Ground Floor Plan and Second Floor Plan) with complete Elevation. FLOOR PLAN is the top view of the floor area of a house. The cutting plane line for this top view passes between the upper and lower window sills. It represents the arrangement of rooms, doors, windows and other features located in the floor plan. 12
  20. 20. ELEVATION is the front or side view of a building. It shows the design of the house, height dimension, materials finish and complete information on specification. 13
  21. 21. Sheet # 3 - Sections, Roof Plan, and Reflected Ceiling Light 14
  22. 22. SECTION is the view showing the inside part of the building either in cross- section or longitudinal section. ROOF PLAN is one showing the outline of the roof and the major object lines indicating ridges, valleys, hips, and openings. REFLECTED CEILING PLAN is the complete plan design of house ceiling. BALUSTER DETAIL is the detail of the vertical railing along a staircase or balcony railing. d. Sheet # 4 - Doors and Windows Schedule, Detail of kitchen, and Detail of Toilet and Bath DOORS and WINDOWS SCHEDULE is a complete specification of doors and windows in terms of width, height, types, materials and quantity. KITCHEN DETAIL is a drawing of kitchen floor plan with complete specifications. TOILET and BATH DETAIL is a drawing of toilet and the floor plan that shows complete features of toilet and bath. 15
  23. 23. d. Sheet # 4 - Doors and Windows Schedule, Detail of kitchen, 16
  24. 24. ARCHITECTURAL ABBREVIATIONS: BALCONY – BALC CEILING LINE – CL METER – M BATHROOM – B ELEVATION – ELEV. MILIMETER – MM BEDROOM – BR SECTION – SEC. AT - @ MASTER BEDROOM - MBR FLOOR – FLR DOWN SPOUT –DS LIVING ROOM – LR CONCRETEHOLLOW VERTICAL – VERT. DINING ROOM – DR BLOCKS – CHB NOT TO SCALE – NTS KITCHEN – K CORRUGATED – CORR FLOOR LINE – FL LAVATORY – LAV CEMENT – CEM GROUND LINE – GL TOILET & BATH – T & B BOTH WAYS – B.W. FINISH FLOOR LINE – BUILDING – BLDG ON CENTER - OC FFL BUILT-IN – BLT-IN DOWN – DN FINISH GROUND LINE- CABINET – CAB FGL Architectural Symbols Familiarizing all the architectural symbols is a prerequisite for all students in architecture and drafting technology programs considering that their future works will be on the architectural activity. It would be difficult for them to interpret drawing or blueprint unless they have familiarized all the architectural symbols. The following illustrations are the architectural symbols: a. Doors and windows symbols that are shown in the floor plan. 17
  25. 25. b. Doors and windows symbols that used to represent doors on floor plans and elevation drawings 18
  26. 26. c. Door, window and staircase symbols that are shown in the elevation plans. 19
  27. 27. 2. Structural Sheet a. Sheet # 5 - Foundation plan, Roof Framing Plan, Truss Detail, and Column/Footing/Beam Schedules 20
  28. 28. FOUNDATION PLAN a structural excavation plan of footings and walls of a building. ROOF FRAMING PLAN a structural framing plan of the roof plan with complete specification. TRUSS DETAIL a complete structural detail of a common or typical truss of a building. COLUMN/FOOTING/BEAM SCHEDULE a complete specification of column, footings, and beam in terms of sizes, materials and quantity. b. Sheet # 6 - Detail of Footings, Construction Notes and General Notes FOOTINGS a part of foundation directly supporting the column or post of a house. A detail drawing of building footings with specific requirements. CONSTRUCTION NOTES a sub-complete detail of wall footings, lintels, beams, and other required structural features to present in the plan. GENERAL NOTES a complete specification and legend of structural features presented in the plan. 21
  29. 29. Sheet # 6 - Detail of Footings, Construction Notes and General Notes 22
  30. 30. 3. Plumbing Plan/Layout a. Sheet # 7 - Water and Sewage System Plan 23
  31. 31. Plumbing Plan is the complete drawing detail of water and sewage distribution. Water System Plan is the drawing of flow of water in the house from main water source. Sewage System Plan is the drawing flow of sewage from the house to main canal and septic tank. Sheet # 8 - Storm Drainage System, and Septic Tank Detail 24
  32. 32. Storm Drainage System shows the flow of water waste from the lavatory, floor drain, and downspout from roof to storm drainage. Septic Tank it is the depository of human excreta and a drainage reservoir for all washing done in the kitchen and bathroom. The main section of septic tank is the digestive chamber and the leaching well. 4. Electrical Plan Sheet # 9 - Lighting layout, Power and Auxiliary layout, Location plan, Panel board Detail, Load Schedules and Specifications Electrical Plan a plan consists of lighting plan, power layout and specification details of the house. Lighting layout an electrical plan that shows the flow of house lightings Power & auxiliary layout an electrical plan that shows the flow of convenience outlet and other auxiliary outlet in the floor plan. 25
  33. 33. Sheet # 9 - Lighting layout, Power and Auxiliary layout, Location plan, Panel board Detail, Load Schedules and Specifications 26
  34. 34. ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS USED:  ACU – AIR CONDITIONING UNIT  WHEATHER PROOF OUTLET – OWP  M –METER -  CB – CIRCUIT BREAKER/ PANEL BOARD – PB - 27
  35. 35. SELF-CHECK 1.2 LO1. Plan and prepare for work A. Identification. Directions. Identify what is referred to in each number and write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. ______1. A drawing sheet that contains perspective, site development title, page and sheet index. ______2. A drawing of the lot showing the setback and development of the house in relation to the lot. ______3. The top view of the site or lot where the proposed house will be built. ______4. Generally includes title block, table of contents, and labels for signs and sealed of the duly licensed and registered professionals in the plans. ______5. He signs in the lot survey plans. 28
  36. 36. OPERATION SHEET 1.1 LO1. Plan and prepare for work ARCHITECTURAL WORKING DRAWINGS After all the drawings are performed, it is also necessary to expose the student in tracing activity. This activity is commonly applied in industry especially in the reproduction of the architectural plans. All drafting works must be done first in the preliminary process using sketching sheet. The final outputs are those drawings which are done through tracing activity. Below is a activity on tracing the drawing. Steps in tracing architectural working drawing sheet no. # 1: 1. Prepare all tools and materials needed. 2. Fasten sheet #1 and tracing paper on drawing board. Be sure it is aligned horizontally by the T-square and aligned vertically with the triangle. 3. Trace border lines using T-square, 300 x 600 triangle, and technical pen point 0.8-1.0. 3. Trace all the labels in title block and index using technical pen point 0.3 – 0.6. 4. Trace first all vertical lines using big triangle 300 x 600. Follow all horizontal lines using T-square before tracing all the curved and irregular curved lines using French curved instrument or templates. 5. Trace all the labels and dimensions using technical pen point 0.1-0.4. 6. Finalize the drawing by checking and erasing all unnecessary lines. 29
  37. 37. SELF CHECK 1.3 A. Identification Direction: Identify the following architectural abbreviations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Elev.____________ FFL. ____________ DN ____________ O.C ____________ CHB ____________ 6. FLR. 7. GL. 8. NTS 9. FL 10. @ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ B. Enumeration 1. Give at least 2 specification features found in the roof plan, 6 features in sections, and 2 features from reflected ceiling plan. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 2. Give at least 3 specification features in drawing doors and windows schedule, 3 main features in kitchen detail, and 4 features from toilet and bath details. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. 3. Give at least 5 specification features in foundation plan, 5 features in roof framing plan, and 5 features from truss detailing, and 5 features in column/footings/beam schedules. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. C. Direction: Identify the following architectural symbols: 1. ____________________ 4. 2. 3. ___________________ 5. ________________ 6. _____________________ ___________________ 7. _____________________ 8. ___________________ _________________ 9. __________________ 10. 30
  38. 38. Performance Assessment Scoring Rubrics Score Criteria (Tick the corresponding pts.) Accuracy 50 45 40 Speed 10 6 8 Neatness 25 20 15 Lettering/Labeling 15 12 10 8 Total Performance Criteria:  Accuracy 50 pts 45 pts 40 pts. - the output is accurately done. two to five errors are observed on the output. six to ten errors are observed on the output.  Speed 10 pts 8 pts 6 pts.  Neatness 25 pts. 20 pts 15 pts - the output is done 2 hours before the time. the output is done on time. the output is done after the allotted time. has no error. has two to three erasures. has four or more erasures  Lettering/Labeling 15 pts. - all pieces of information are completely indicated and legibly printed in gothic letters or mechanical lettering. 12 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing. 10 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing and misspelled. 8 pts. - pieces of information are not legibly printed and words are missing misspelled. 31
  39. 39. Program/ Course : TECHNICAL DRAFTING Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Module Title Learning Outcome 2. : Drafting Architectural Layout and Details Prepare and set up tools and materials for drawing Assessment Criteria 1. Drawing tools, materials, and equipment are selected and prepared according to job requirements 2. Working drawing tools, materials and equipment are properly set up according to standard procedure. 3. Company rule, regulations and SOP are properly discussed. References: Earnest R. Weidhaas. Architectural Drafting and Design 4th edition Paul I. Wallach. Basic Architectural Drafting, 1982 French and Vierck. Engineering Drawing; MacGraw, Hill Book Company,10th editon: 1960 Emmanuel P. Cuntapay. Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Philippines (PD 1096), 2005 German M. Manaois. Drafting 1 and 2; Phoenix Publishing:1983 Norman Stirling. Introduction to Technical Drawing; Delmar Publishing: 1977 32
  40. 40. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome 2: Prepare and set-up tools and materials for drawing Learning Activities Special Instruction 1. Read information sheet no. 2.1  Take note of the details about drawing tools, materials and  Remember equipment important tools, materials and equipment 2. Answer Self-Check 2.1  Try to answer the self check  Answer the self check 3. Read information sheet no. 2.2 about procedure for setting-up drawing equipment 4. Answer Self Check 2.2 33
  41. 41. INFORMATION SHEET 2.1 LO2.1 Drawing tools, materials and equipment This lesson is only a review of your prior learning in technical drawing particularly on the proper use and care of drawing tools, materials and equipment. The purpose of this discussion is to allow the students review and recall its importance in the Drafting Technology works. The Importance of Drawing tools, materials and equipment a. Drawing/Drafting tools These refer to the sets of tools that are used in all drafting works or activities especially if the activity requires mechanical presentation. Prior to the start of drafting activity, it is expected therefore that all drawing tools needed must be available in the work station to ensure that the assigned task can be accomplished according to customers or client’s standard. The following are the common drafting tools 1. Drafting Table/Drawing Board (24” x 36” /0.61cm x 0.91cm) 2. T-Square (36” /0.915 cm. length) 3. Triangles -300 x 600 and 400 x 450 ((@ least 0.30 each length) 4. Triangular Scale – 1:100, 1:75 in range 5. Technical Pens/G-Tech pen/Pilot pen – (From point: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) 6. 7. Pencil Sharpener or Pen knife Drawing Templates – Circular templates, Furniture template, Ellipse template, 8. Protractor (medium size) 9. Dusting Brush 10. Sand paper pad (fabricated fine coarse sand paper attached to wood or board pad) 34
  42. 42. 11. Erasing shield 12. Pull-push rule 13. Drafting Light b. Drawing/Drafting Materials These are sets of consumable items that are specifically used in drafting works or activities. The draftsman cannot perform his drafting task without these items. The following are the required materials needed in drafting works: 1. Bond Paper (short and Long) 2. Tracing paper 3. A4 drawing paper 4. Drawing pencil – HB, F, 2H 5. Mechanical pencil – point 0.3, 0.5 6. Pen and Ink Eraser 7. Masking Tape 8. Ink (Staedler/Rotring) 9. Cartolina Paper c. Equipment These items are also essential in producing quality drafting output especially if the assigned task requires mechanical manipulation. Although, these items are so expensive, however, these are important in making the drawing output presentable and convincing to the clients. The following are some of the equipment needed in drafting task: 1. Drafting machine 2. Leroy Lettering Pen 3. Computer 35
  43. 43. ACTIVITY SHEET # 1.1 LO1. Plan and prepare for work Situation: Randomly select fifteen (15) students from the class for a required activity relative to tools, materials and equipment identification. Group them into three (3) groups and allow them to choose their respective group leader. Put a long table that could conveniently accommodate several sets of drawings tools and materials in drafting. Activity: 1. In line formation, let the three groups to fall in line at least 2 meters distance from the table where sets of tools and materials are displayed. 2. Give 10 minutes for each group to perform the activity by requiring each member of the three group to come forward as fast as he can and immediately pick any tools from the table. 3. Demonstrate a non-verbal description that best explains the use of such tools or materials. (See to it that all members are given the opportunity to do the same as what had been done by the first member). 4. The students who were not included in the activity shall evaluate the performance of each group. Note: The group that will be declared champion shall be given 25 points credit per member. While the second and third placers shall be given 20 and 15 points respectively. 36
  44. 44. SELF CHECK 2.1 Direction. Enumerate the following. Write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. A. Five most common tools in drafting architectural layout and details 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. Four most needed materials in architectural layout and details. 1. 2. 3. 4. C. List three important equipment needed in layouting Architectural details 1. 2. 3. 37
  45. 45. INFORMATION SHEET 2.2 LO1. Plan and prepare for work Procedure in Setting up Drawing tools, Materials and Equipment and standard procedure In preparation for a required task in drawing architectural layout and details, a draftsman should plan, prepare, and select tools and materials for a particular planning layout. This is to ensure the correct setting of standard procedure and accuracy of drawing plans. Some of the key tools used in drafting architectural plans are described and illustrated in this learning Outcome. The drawing tools, materials and equipment are very expensive items, however these are important in all drafting tasks. Considering its cost and value in drafting activity, it is also important to take care and maintain its usability. With this, the following considerations are strictly emphasized as Standard Operating Procedure during and after the utilization of the drafting tools, materials and equipment: a. Before the start of drafting activity: 1. Select the tools, materials and equipment which are needed in the assigned task. 2. Properly set up the required tools and materials in a place which is convenient for you to move and execute your work. 3. Clean the table and tools, see to it that these are free from the dust and other elements that would cause damage to your work. 4. Wash your hand with clean water. 38
  46. 46. b. Activity proper: 1. Perform the activity by following the standard operating procedure per job requirement. 2. Properly manipulate all the tools and equipment that are used in the activity. 3. In case of meeting an errors or mistakes along the way of activity ( for instance misprinting of lines, letters, and other forms of mistakes) use appropriate eraser for a particular mistakes. c. After the activity: 1. Submit your output to your teacher for checking 2. Check all the tools and materials to ensure that nothing has lost. 3. Return the tools and materials to the assigned tool keeper for safekeeping. 4. Withdraw your borrower’s card from the tool keeper to as document that you have returned the borrowed tools and materials. 5. Clean your work station before leaving. Other important Practices that must be observed in the work station or work place There are important practices that must be observed in the work setting. The following are: 1. Observe safety precautions: a. Never smoke inside the work station b. Never use any tools and equipment without having it clean first. c. Avoid talking with your co-students during working period. d. Always turn off the lights, air condition, ceiling fan, computer units, and other equipment before leaving the work station. 39
  47. 47. e. Maintain cleanliness in the work station. f. Use tools and equipment properly. 2. Observe punctuality of attendance. 3. Avoid making quarrel with your co-students. 4. Observe and practice the value of respect. 5. Return the borrowed tools and equipment on time. 6. Observe and practice proper disposal of waste. 40
  48. 48. SELF CHECK 2.2 Directions: Enumerate the following. Write the answers on a separate sheet of paper A. Identify five drafting tools and materials to be prepared before drawing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. Give at least five steps for fastening the drawing paper. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C. Cite at least five steps in setting-up drafting tools, materials and equipment. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 41
  49. 49. Program/ Course : DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Module Title : Drafting Architectural Layout and Details Learning Outcome 3 : Draft Site Development Plan Nominal Duration : 10 hours Assessment Criteria: 1. Technical description of lot is drawn according to approved lot survey. 2. Building blueprint is drawn according to architectural drafting standards 3. National Building Code and Architectural Standards are properly observed according to job specification 4. Dimension lines, dimensions and drawing titles are indicated according to architectural drafting standards. 5. Drafting tools and equipment are used according to architectural drafting standards. References: Earnest R. Weidhaas. Architectural Drafting and Design, 4th edition, 1987 Paul I. Wallach. Basic Architectural Drafting,1982 French and Vierck. Engineering Drawing, 10th edition; MacGraw, Hill Book Company,10th editon: 1960 Emmanuel P. Cuntapay. Implementing Rules and Regulations of the National Building Code of the Philippines (PD 1096), 2005 German M. Manaois. Drafting 1 and 2; Phoenix Publishing:1983 Norman Stirling. Introduction to Technical Drawing; Delmar Publishing; 1977 42
  50. 50. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome 3. Draft Site Development Learning Activities 1. Read Information Sheet no. Special Instruction  Try to answer the self-check  Try to answer the self-check  Try to answer the self-check  Perform operation 3.1 3.1 about site development plan 2. Answer Self Check no 1 3. Read Information Sheet no. 3.2 about lot mensuration and plotting 4. Answer Self Check no 3.2. 5. Read Operation 3.2 6. Answer Self-Check no. 3.3 43
  51. 51. INFORMATION SHEET 3.1 LO3 DRAFT SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN is the outline and measurements of the proposed building and its placement on the property. This shows the position and the location of the building with property line, setbacks, approaches, grade contours, landscape and other pertinent data in relation to the site. A site development plan is drawn using a scale not smaller than 1:200meters. SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 44
  52. 52. SITE is an area of land available for construction or the lot on which a building is constructed. Building site maybe a single lot, a series of lots, or a subdivision. A lot is a piece of ground of specific size. A subdivision is a large tract of land that is being developed. PLANNING CONSIDERATION IN DEVELOPING THE SITE  Location of a proposed house on the lot. The location of the house must be considered in order to determine the locations of the rooms and the house itself on the lot. Some lots are located on swampy grounds and others on hilly or rugged terrain. Still others are sited near rivers, highways, streets and squatter areas. The front part of the house generally faces the street or away from ugly views like the back parts of neighboring houses, a swampy area, and thick bushes.  Many want their bedrooms to face the sunrise – which is, on the eastern side of the lot. Others, especially those who work at night, prefer their bedrooms located on the west side. The breeze at the site may determine the location of the living room and toilet or bathrooms. The height of the flood waters in the locality should also be considered in determining the distance of the first floor from the ground. This is especially true in low areas. In high locations the floor may be 20 cm. only from the ground level.  As earlier mentioned the house may be located at the center of the lot. Or one of its sides may be exactly on a lot line or fence. In this case, a firewall which is made of concrete, adobe, and concrete hollow blocks should be constructed on this side of the house.  Like and dislikes of the family member. This factor is usually considered when the family is rich and can afford to pay for the services of an architect or draftsman. Before he designs the house, the architect or draftsman has to first interview the members of the family to get information about their interests, hobbies, and the like. From such interviews, he will get to know whether the family wants a library or study room, a social hall, a playroom, a music room, a swimming pool, a 45
  53. 53. carport or garage, servant’s quarters, a driver’s room, a landscaped garden, a balcony, and a roof garden. Property Lines are those lines working outside of the lot area. Setback refers to the distance at how far a building can be built within the property lines.                 Zoning refers to the legal restrictions on size, location, and type of structures to be built on a designated area. 46
  54. 54. Zoning Laws One major area covered by building code is the zoning laws. Zoning laws are designed to keep different areas of a community from interfering with each other. In some cities or towns, separate areas are set aside for specific uses. Examples are residential, commercial, and industrial. These are established and protected by zoning laws. In addition, zoning laws establish standards for construction in different sizes and uses. One of the first things an architect must do before designing a building is to read the building codes. The intended use of the building has to be within the limits of zoning laws. Also, the size of the lot must be large enough to meet the requirements. Building Code are local laws that set standard for structural design within the community. This is a collection of local laws that regulate the building of homes and other structures. These legal requirements are intended to protect the safety and health of the people who live and work in the buildings. They regulate restrictions concerning the construction of buildings to provide safety to the occupants. All constructions in an area must meet the requirements of building codes. Some of the designs and construction features covered by building codes include:     Qualifications of persons who can design building within the area. Structural design that can be used Lot sizes for certain types of buildings Types and sizes of materials that can be used. 47
  55. 55. National Building Code Rules: 1. For one-storey wooden or frame house, the height of the floor plan from the ground should not be less than 1.50 m. 2. Walls with window opening should not be less than 2.00 m. from the lot line of fence. In other words, adjacent houses should not be at least 4.00 m. from each other. 3. The front part of a house should not be less than 3.00 m. from the lot line along the street. 4. No windows should be constructed along a wall of a house if this wall is flush with or exactly on the lot line. 48
  56. 56. ACTIVITY SHEET # 3.1 LO3. DRAFT SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN Situation: Group the students into four. Assign leader to each group. Each group must be provided with ½ sheets of manila paper, T-square, triangle, pencil and a piece of pentel pen. Leader of the group will draw lots for different shapes; Activity: 1. Each group will draw the assigned shape in a ½ sheet of manila paper using the provided tools. Imagine that it is a big drawing of a residential lot. All the side lines will be label as property lines. 2. As a residential lot, it needs to put the following inside and outside of the lot: a. A setback space from all the sides of the lot to produce lot occupancy. b. One or two streets along the sides of the lot. c. Pick an appropriate roofing’s for the lot occupancy. d. Draw the gate entrance assuming the front of the lot adjacent to the street constructed. 3. Each group is required to evaluate and give comments on the output of the assigned leader according to the following criteria: a. Functionality………40% b. Presentation……....30% c. Reporting…………...30% Total 100% 49
  57. 57. SELF CHECK 3.1 Directions: Identify what is referred to in each number. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. ______1. The outline and measurements of the proposed building and its placement on the property. ______2. It refers to the legal restrictions on size, location, and type of structures to be built on a designated area. ______3. A piece of ground of specific size. ______4. These local laws that set standard for structural design within the community. ______5. These are designed to keep different areas of a community from interfering with each other. ______6. It is a space requirement from the lot line along the street. ______7. It refers to the distance at how far a building can be built within the property lines. ______8. It is a space requirement of walls with window opening from the lot line of fence. ______9. It is a space requirement to each other of adjacent houses according to NBC. ______10. Lines which are working the outside of the lot area. 50
  58. 58. INFORMATION SHEET 3.2 LO3 DRAFT SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN  LOT MENSURATION AND PLOTTING Types of Lot 1. Inside lot Is a lot surrounded on each side by other lots 2. Through lot is a lot having frontage on two public streets or highways 3. Corner lot is a lot with at least two adjacent sides meeting on a corner of two streets. 4. Open lot is a lot bounded on all sides by streets or pathways Percentage of Lot Occupancy 1. Every building, except those especially mentioned in the building ordinance, shall be limited in its occupancy. Limitation of Lot Occupancy a. To secure natural light and ventilation b. For better fire protection 2. Limits of Lot Occupancy Domestic building on inside lot Domestic building on corner lot Non-Domestic building on inside lot Non-domestic building on corner lot - 70% 90% 90% 95% Measurement of Lot Occupancy 1. Measurement of lot occupancy shall be taken at ground level 2. Items not included in measurements: a. Court b. Yard c. Light well (Light Well - same as close court only, it has no passages it is used only for illumination and ventilation. Doors are used only for maintenance.) Open Court Close Court 51
  59. 59. Lot Plotting Protractor is an instrument graduated in angular degrees for measuring and laying out angles. Types of Protractor 900 900 O - Origin O - Origin 00 180 0 00 Half Circle Type (1800) 900 270 0 Half Circle Type (3600) Note: It is suggested that diameter of protractor is not less than 4”. Bigger protractors are naturally accurate. Units of Protractor Full Circle contains 4 quadrants One quadrant - 900 (degrees) One degree – 60’ (minutes) One minute – 60” (seconds) How to use Protractor 1. ZERO CENTER the protractor on given point of desired angle. 2. ALIGN 0-AXIS (base of protractor) against one side of desired angle. 3. MARK OFF desired angle at the edge of protractor (start reading from 0-degree) 52
  60. 60. Setting the Protractor 00 Mark off 0- Degree Desired angle 900 H-axis O - Origin O-axis of protractor V-axis 180 Procedure in Lot Plotting 0 1. NORTH is always to be pointed vertical up with respect to the paper. 2. Bearing is read, plotted and marked off directly as, DUE NORTH, DUE SOUTH, DUE WEST, or DUE EAST 3. PLOTTING starts with point 1 and ends with point 1 4. Compass axes North-South and West-East are zeroed in each point and bearing marked off. 5. DRAFTING PRACTICES IN LOT PLOTTING a. All drawings and labels are inked. b. Use only standard plotting paper if submitted as part of Contract Document c. Lot points are represented by small circle and point no. indicated near it within the lot whenever possible d. Bearing and Magnitude are centered to lot line and within the lot whenever possible NOTE: Bearing and Magnitude must be written and readable from South West quadrant. e. Lot No. and Block No. are written at the center of lot. f. Subdivision streets are indicated as Street Lot No. ____. It is directly centered and parallel to respective streets g. Scale is indicated under the NORTH symbol for non-documentary work and proper position for documentary Plotting Paper 53
  61. 61. ACTIVITY SHEET # 3.2 LO3. Lot mensuration and Plotting Direction: A. Given the following diagram. Mark-off bearings using protractors by applying the procedures in lot plotting and measure the lot line using ruler. Scale: 1cm : 1m North N W East N South ° NW S NE Position of a Protractor Position of a Protractor E W N N SE SW S E S W S Position of a Protractor Position of a Protractor Direction:B. Draw the following bearing magnitude with corresponding distance using ruler and protractor. Scale: 1cm.=1m. a. N 15°30’ E, 7m b. E 48°40’ S, 11m c. W 25°20’ N, 7m d. S 49°50’ W, 9m e. Start at point 1, N150 30’ E, 7m., point 2, E 150 25’S, 9m, point 3, S 450 36’ W, 8m., point 4 connect to point 1. Get the measurement and bearing magnitude of pt. 1-4. 54
  62. 62. SELF CHECK 3.2 Directions: Enumerate the following. Write the answer on a separate sheet of paper. A. Different types of lot. 1. 2. 3. B. Three (3) steps in using protractor in plotting the lot. 4. 5. 6. C. Units of protractor in drawing a Lot Plan. 10. 11. 12. D. Three (3) drafting practices in lot plotting 13. 14. 15. 55
  63. 63. OPERATION SHEET 3.2 LO3. Procedure in drawing a Site Development Plan: 1. Draw the given property lines of the lot using T-square, triangles, triangular scale and protractor. Given: 12.25 m. x 16.75 m. Scale: 1: 100m. 2. Indicate dimensions of lot including bearing magnitude. 3. Lot points are represented by small circle and point no. indicated within the lot whenever possible. SMALL CIRCLE W 600 25’ S., 16.75 m. N 350 40’ E., 12.25 m. 4. Locate lot center. Analyze the lot shapes, streets, adjacent lots and consider the lot plan guides when designing areas of occupancy. 56
  64. 64. 5. Plan and measure the setbacks of all corners of the lot plan 2.00 m. setback Setback sample N 350 40’ E., 12.25 m. setback Setback sample W 600 25’ S., 16.75 m. setback 2.00 m. setback 57
  65. 65. 6. Draw and finalized design of occupancy plan. 2.50 m. setback setback setback LOT OF OCCUPANCY W 600 25’ S., 16.75 m. setback N 350 40’ E., 12.25 m. setback setback 2.0 m. 58
  66. 66. 7. Draw the desired roof type on the occupancy plan. 2.50 m. N 350 40’ E., 12.25 m. setback setback setback W 600 25’ S., 16.75 m. setback setback setback 2.0 m. 59
  67. 67. 10. Indicate all symbols required in the plot plan. 11. Indicate the perimeter dimensions including compass direction. 12. Indicate the necessary utility line to be shown in the plot plan. 13. Letter all the labels required. 14. Indicate the scale used. 15. Finalize the drawing. N SITE DEVELOPMENT PLAN SCALE: 1:100 M. 60
  68. 68. A. Drawing Problem Directions: Draw the site of a given survey lot below. Use appropriate tools and materials. Given: Use scale 1:100 meter. Start from point no. 1, N 440 33’E’, 197.38M., from point 1., S790 00’W; 6.55 M. point 2, from 2, N 100 21’ W; 17.04M. point 3, from point 3, N780 25’ E; 6.51 M. point 4, point 4, S 100 30’ E; 17.11 M. point 5. Performance Assessment Scoring Rubrics Criteria Score (Tick the corresponding pts.) Accuracy 50 45 40 Speed 10 6 8 Neatness 25 20 15 Lettering/Labeling 15 12 10 8 Total Performance Criteria: 61
  69. 69.  Accuracy 50 pts - the output is accurately done. 45 pts - two to five errors are observed on the output. 40 pts. - six to ten errors are observed on the output. 10 pts - the output is done 2 hours before the time. 8 pts - the output is done on time. 6 pts. - the output is done after the allotted time.  Speed  Neatness 25 pts. - has no error. 20 pts - has two to three erasures. 15 pts - has four or more erasures  Lettering/Labeling 15 pts. - all pieces of information are completely indicated and legibly printed in gothic letters or mechanical lettering. 12 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing. 10 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing and misspelled. 8 pts. - pieces of information are not legibly printed and words are missing and misspelled. Program/ Course : TECHNICAL DRAFTING 62
  70. 70. Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Module Title : Drafting Architectural Layout and Details LO4 Draft Floor Plan ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1. Drafting tools are used according to architectural practices 2. Walls, windows and doors, fixtures and fittings are drawn according to architectural design standards 3. Grid and dimension lines are drawn according to architectural design standards 4. Metric scale is used according to the magnitude of plans to be drafted. 5. Letterings and labels are indicated according to drafting standards. References: Giesecke, Mitchell, and Spencer. Technical Drawing, Macmillan Company, 1999. Donald Hepler, Paul I. Wallach, Architecture Drafting and Design, fifth edition, 1986 Donald Hepler, Paul I. Wallach, Architecture Drafting and Design, fourth edition, 1988 French and Vierck. Engineering Drawing, 10th edition, MacGraw, Hill Book Company, 1988 German M. Manaois. Drafting 1 and 2, Phoenix Publishing, 1983 Max B. Fajardo Jr., Planning and Designers Handbook, Second Edition The National Building Code of the Philippines and its Implementing Rules and Regulations. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES 63
  71. 71. Learning Outcome 4: Draft Floor Plan Learning Activities Special Instruction 1. Read information sheet no. 4.1 about floor plan features.  Try to answer the self check.  2. Answer self-check no. 4.1 to Try to answer the self check.  Try to answer the self check.  Try to perform the self check. test your knowledge about floor plan features. 3. Read information sheet no. 4.2 about use of appropriate scale. 4. Answer self-check no. 4.2 to test your knowledge about the use of appropriate scale. 5. Read information no. 4.3 to test your knowledge about architectural drafting standards 6. Answer self-check no. 4.3 to test your knowledge about architectural drafting standards. 7. Read operation sheet no. 4.1 about the steps in drawing a floor plan. 8. Answer self check no. 4.4. INFORMATION SHEET 4.1 64
  72. 72. L.4. FLOOR PLAN FEATURES Floor Plan Floor plan is the top cross-sectional view of the floor area of a house. The horizontal cutting plane line for this top view passes between the upper and lower window sills or one meter above the floor line. It shows the size and arrangement of the rooms. It also presents the sizes and locations of the stairs, door and windows openings, and partitions and walls. Sometimes it includes the kind of furnishings in each room. However, the materials required for constructing permanent or integral parts of each room such as bedroom closets, kitchen cabinets, etc., should also be accounted for in the bill of materials. B EAVE LN.. A A B FLOOR PLAN SCALE: 1:100 M. In multi-storey buildings, a separate floor plan is drawn for each floor level when the layout of the room is not in each floor. However, when two or 65
  73. 73. more floor levels have the same arrangement and features, one typical floor plan representing all the identical floors will suffice to be drawn. Room Requirements and pointers in planning a floor plan 1. Living Room is the center of the living area in most homes. It should be centrally located and should be adjacent to the outside entrance and to the dining area, but the entrance should not lead directly into the living room. Recommended sizes should be at least 2.00m x 3.00 small, 3.7m. x 5.5m. average or optimum size would be 6.1 x 7.9 m. in rectangular shape. 2. Bedroom is a room for sleeping and taking rest of the family. Ideal number of rooms for low cost housing should be two bedrooms, master’s bedroom and bedroom. Preferably, there should be a toilet and bath in master’ bedroom and a built-in cabinets or closets. 3. Dining Area is the area where greatly depend on eating habits of the occupants. This should be located between the living room and kitchen. Its size and shape are determined by the size of the family. 4. Kitchen is the place for preparation of food and connecting the work triangle area for storage and mixing center, preparation and cleaning center and cooking center. There should be a storage hanging kitchen cabinet with a minimal width of 0.60 meter. Types of Kitchen 66
  74. 74. 1. U-shaped kitchen 67
  75. 75. 2. . L-shaped type 3. Corridor type 68
  76. 76. 5. Bathroom is where the toilet and tub or shower are separated to save economically in plumbing. As much as possible keep the toilet near 69
  77. 77. the kitchen. The bath and toilet must be near the bedrooms, accessible to the living room even without passing through other rooms. The toilet and bath are generally located between bedrooms. In a two-storey residential house, the bedrooms, toilet, and bath are often located on the second floor. In this case, the stair must go up from the living room or hall if there is any. The stair is generally L or U-shaped and has a landing. Bathroom Doors and Windows Bathroom door could be small as 5560 cm. except for utility bathroom which requires not less than 70.cm. wide to allow passage of equipment as required. In general, bathroom wall contain only one door. 6. Entrances Entrance is divided into several different types; the main entrance, the service entrance, and the special- purpose entrance. The entrance is composed of an outside waiting area like the porch, marquee or lanai and an inside waiting area like foyer or entrance hall. It provides for and controls the flow of traffic into and out of a building. The main entrance provides access to the house. It is the one through which guests are welcomed and from which all major traffic patterns radiate. The main entrance should be readily identifiable. It should provide shelter to anyone awaiting entrance. The service entrance provides access to the house through which supplies can be delivered to the service areas going through other parts of the house. It should also provide access to parts of the service area like the garage, laundry or workshop. The special-purpose entrances and exits do not provide for outside traffic. Instead they provide for movement from the inside living area of the house to the outside living areas. A sliding door from the living area to the patio is 70
  78. 78. a special-purpose entrance. It is not an entrance through which street, drive, or sidewalk traffic would have an access. 7. Garage and Carports. A garage is an enclosed structure designed primarily to shelter an automobile. It maybe used for many secondary purposes – as a workshop, as a laundry, or for storage space. It is usually attached to the house in some manner to provide a sheltered entry. A carport is a garage with one or more of the exterior walls removed. It may consist of a free-standing roof completely separate from the house, or it may be built against the existing walls of the house. SELF CHECK 4.1 71
  79. 79. LO4.1 Floor Plan features Direction: A. Multiple Choice: Read each item carefully. Choose the letter of the answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. A part of the house where sometimes used for eating and relaxing. a. porch b. living area c. bedroom d. dining area 2. It provides for and controls the flow of traffic into and out of a building. a. special purpose exit b. door c. entrance d. exit door 3. This room is generally located between the bedrooms. a. Bathroom b. dining area c. kitchen d. foyer 4. This has an access to kitchen and living room. a. Bathroom b. dirty kitchen c. dining hall d. dining area B. Enumeration: Identify the following. a. Types of kitchen 5. 6. 7. b. Fixtures in kitchen “work triangle”. 8. 9. 10. INFORMATION SHEET 4.2 72
  80. 80. LO4. Use of appropriate scale in drawing a Floor Plan Scales The architectural draftsman normally uses an architect’s scale for reducing and enlarging the scale size measurement. There are two system of measurement, Metric system and English system. Metric System 73
  81. 81. Always remember that the smallest the number used in metric scale, the bigger the size in the triangular scale whereas, the largest the number used the smallest size of actual measurement. 1:05 m. 1: 100 m. 1:10 m. 1: 200 m. 1:20 m. 1: 300 m. 1: 30 m. 1: 400 m. 1: 40 m. 1: 500 m. 1: 50 m. 1: 600 m. 1:75 m. 1:1000m. Note: The scale of 1:1000 m. or more is being used in Lot Plan and other topographical drawings. Full size scale The 1:1 is a full size scale and each division measures 1 mm. in width with the numbering of the calibrations at 10mm intervals. This same scale is convenient for ratios of 1:10, 1:100, and 1:1000 Half size Scale The 1:2 is one-half size scale and each division is equals to 2 mm. with the calibration numbering at 20-unit intervals. In addition, this scale is convenient for ratios of 1:20, 1:200, and 1:2000. ARCHITECTURAL USE OF METRIC SCALE 74
  82. 82. USE FLOOR PLANS DETAILS 0.4 mm. equals to 1 M. 1:1250 0.8 mm. equals to 1 M. 1:500 12 mm. equals to 1 M. 1:200 5 mm. equals to 1 M. 1:100 10 mm. equals to 1 M. 1: 80 12.5 mm. equals to 1M. 13.3 mm. equals to 1 M. 1:50 20 mm. equals to 1 M. 25 mm. equals to 1M. 1:20 PLOT PLANS 1:2500 1:40 PLAT PLANS COMPARISON TO 1 METER 1:75 CITY MAP RATIO 50 mm. equals to 1M. 1:10 100 mm. equals to 1 M. 1:5 200 mm. equals to 1 M. SELF CHECK 4.2 75
  83. 83. LO4. Use of appropriate scale Directions: A. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. It is the appropriate scale for plot plan. a. 1:2500 and 1:1250 b. 1:75,1:50,1:40 c. 1: 5, 1:10, 1:20 d. 1 :100, 1:80 2. Its equivalent is ten millimeters in metric figures. a. O.0010 b. 0.010 c. 0.100 d. 0.10 3. It is equal to one hundred centimeters. a. 0.100 b. 0.0100 c. 1.00 d. 10.0 4. It is also equivalent to one half kilometer. a. 1,000 meters b. 50 meters c. 500 meters d. 500 decimeters 5. It is a kind of scale equivalent to 1:1. a. half scale b. full scale c. metric scale d. none of the above B. Metric figures. Directions: Convert the following into metric figures. 1. One meter and five centimeters. __________ 2. Ten meters and two decimeters. __________ 3. Ninety centimeters. ________________ 4. Seventy five centimeters. _____________ 5. One kilometer. _________________ INFORMATION SHEET 4.3 76
  84. 84. LO4. Architectural drafting design standards Legal Provisions:  Section 806 of the National Building Code (NBC). Size and Dimension of Rooms: a. Room for human habitations should be 6.00 square meters with at least a dimension of 2.00 meters. b. Kitchens should be 3.00 square meters with at least a dimension of 1.50 meters. c. Bath & Toilet – 1.20 square meters with at least dimension of 0.90 meters.  Section 1207. Stairs, Exit, and Occupant Loads. Width and Height. Every required exit doorway shall have a size to permit the installation of a door not less than 900 millimeters in width and not less than 2.00 meters in height. Stairways width. Stairway serving an occupant load of more than 50 shall not be less than 1.10 meters. While stairway serving an occupant load of 50 or less shall be 900 millimeters wide. Rise and run. The rise of every step in a stairway shall not exceed 200 millimeters and the run shall not be less than 250 millimeters. Other guidelines must be observed in the arrangement of rooms in drawing floor plan: 1. Built-in cabinets or closets are usually found in the bedrooms, kitchen, and dining room. Open shelves may be constructed in the kitchen and dining room. 2. In some one-storey houses, the bedrooms toilet, and bath are elevated from the other rooms. In this case, the stairs leading to these rooms must be indicated on the floor plan. Two or three steps, each has 18 or 19 cm high from each other and 25 cm wide, 77
  85. 85. may be shown in the plan. All these measurements must be drawn to scale. 3. Since most of the time is spent by the members of a family in the bedrooms at home, these rooms must be located far from noise, dust, and polluted air coming from garbage pits or from the kitchens and toilets of the neighboring houses. 4. If furnitures and house appliances are to be shown in each room, these furnishings should be drawn on the same scale in the floor plan. 5. If the floor plan will be traced on tracing paper in order to indicate the electrical or water connections, these furnishings should not be shown on the tracing. 6. In presentation drawings, the landscaping around the floor plan may be added. 7. It is on the floor plan where the cutting plane lines for at least two full-sectional elevations (cross and longitudinal) are indicated. These sectional elevations are usually labeled as Section A-A and Section B-B, depending on the capital letter used at the extremities of the cutting plane lines. These cutting plane lines need not be continuous or straight. They are often drawn in colored ink. ( see illustration) 8. Windows and Doors symbols should be indicated in the outer walls of the floor plan opposite to door and windows openings to determine the total number and specification. Entrance and Exit. There shall be at least one entrance and another one for exit. Windows opening should be 10% of the total floor square area according to the National Building Code. Example: Bedroom size of 3.00m x 40.00 = 12 square meters x 10% = 1.20m window width opening. 78
  86. 86. Concrete Hollow Blocks (CHB) for walling and partitions Sizes:  CHB - 0.10 T x 0.40 W. x 0.20 H. (4” T x 16”W x 8”H) is used for interior walls or sometimes exterior wall with no heavy loads.  CHB - 0.15 x 0.20 x 0.40 (6” x 8” x 16”) is used for exterior wall sometimes for interior wall.  Plastering of CHB wall should not be less than 0.015 mm. or not more than to 0.05 cm in thickness. Note: In lay outing floor plan walls, it should be scaled with same sizes of all actual materials to be used. If the occupancy wants to use 0.10 x 0.20 x 0.40 CHB plus plastering of 0.015 mm thickness on both side walls, the total thickness of the wall is 0.13 cm. On the other hand, likes to use 0.15 x 0.20 x 0.40 CHB plus plastering of 0.015 mm thickness on both sides a total average is 0.018 cm. since it is very hard to layout the accurate scale of 0.18 wall thickness, so most draftsman prefer to use 0.20 cm. wall in lay outing floor plan. Wall Openings Entrance door is preferably with 0.90 cm. to 1.00 m. width. Bedroom door has a minimum width of 0.80 cm. Toilet and Bath door have a minimum width of 0.70 cm. to 0.80 cm. Minimal width of windows is preferably 0.60 cm. Other appliances and fixtures are required to be drawn in the floor plan for space requirements Eave lines are hidden roof lines which also indicated in the floor plan. Trees, Plants symbols are required to be drawn in the development of site plan if needed. 79
  87. 87. Architectural Symbols used in drawing floor plan 80
  88. 88. 81
  89. 89. SELF CHECK 4.3 LO4. Architectural drafting design standards Directions: A. Multiple Choice: Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. It is the standard thickness of wall in meter using 4” x 16” x 8” CHB . a. 0. 20 m. b. 0.10 m. c. 0.18 m. d. 0.13 m. 2. Standard thickness of wall in meter using 6” x 16” x 8” CHB. a. 0. 20 m. b. 0.10 m. c. 0.20 m. d. 0.18 m. 3. It is the standard size of an entrance door opening. a. 0.90 m. b. 0.80 m. c. 0.75 m. d. 1.00 m. 4. They are overhang roof lines in hidden lines form of floor plan. a. dormer b. canopy c. eave line d. shed line 5. It is a minimum area of Kitchen. a. 4.00 sq.m. b. 3.00 sq.m. c. 5.00 sq.m. d. 7.00 sq.m. B. Draw the symbols of the following: 6. Interior door – 7. Swinging door – 8. Double door – 9. Accordion door – 10. Bay window - 82
  90. 90. OPERATION SHEET 4.1 LO4. Steps in drawing a Floor Plan 1. Prepare the needed tools and materials. 2. Use the correct scale. 83
  91. 91. 3. Construct the wall thickness. Use 0.15cm. CHB for the major walls. Start from the center of the wall. 84
  92. 92. 4. Divide the floor area to other areas of the house. Use a 10 cm interior wall partitions. Compute each area of the house, then check the total floor area 85
  93. 93. 5. Lay out the position of doors and windows by center line and by their widths with a 4H pencil. The standard width of doors is 90-95 centimeters like the main entrance door. While 80 centimeters for bedrooms and service doors and 0 .75 centimeters for toilet and bath doors. 86
  94. 94. 6. Label each part of the floor plan. Draw the kitchen and apply the work triangle principle in designing the kitchen. Draft the toilet and bath draw the fixtures properly. 87
  95. 95. 7. Lay-out extension lines. Use any dimension limits and lay out dimensions legibly and never repeat dimensions. 88
  96. 96. 8. Draw the schedule of doors and windows. Name doors and windows by sizes. Finally, draw the roof line of the floor plan. 89
  97. 97. SELF CHECK 4.4 LO4.6. Procedure in drafting floor plan Directions: Using the same operation. Draw the floor plan area Given: A floor plan of 6.00 x 9.00 m. with two bedrooms. Use a scale of 1:100. Use correct tools for the right job. Performance Assessment Scoring Rubrics Criteria Score (Tick the corresponding pts.) Accuracy 50 45 40 Speed 10 6 8 Neatness 25 20 15 Lettering/Labeling 15 12 10 8 Total 90
  98. 98. Performance Criteria:  Accuracy 50 pts - the output is accurately done. 45 pts - two to five errors are observed on the output. 40 pts. - six to ten errors are observed on the output.  Speed 10 pts - the output is done 5 minutes before the time. 8 pts - the output is done on time. 6 pts. - the output is done after the allotted time.  Neatness 25 pts. - no errors made on the output. 20 pts - has two to three erasures. 15 pts - has four or more erasures  Lettering/Labeling 15 pts. - all pieces of information are completely indicated and legibly printed in gothic letters or mechanical lettering. 12 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing. 10 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing and misspelled. 8 pts. - pieces of information are not legibly printed and words are misspelled. 91
  99. 99. Program/Course : DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUTS AND DETAILS Module Title : DRAFTING ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUTS AND DETAILS LO5. - Draft Roof Plans Assessment Criteria 1. Different types of roofs are correctly identified. 2. Elements of roofs are properly discussed. 3. Dimensions of roof plan are indicated and should match floor plan dimensions. 4. Lines are drawn according to drafting standards 5. Architectural standard symbols are used. 6. Drawings are laid out according to sheet contents 7. Roof plan and framing details are drawn according to architectural drawing standards. References: Giesecke, Mitchell and Spencer. Technical Drawing Macmillan Company,1982 Donald Hepler, Paul I. Wallach, Architecture Drafting and Design, fifth edition 1999 Donald Hepler, Paul I. Wallach, Architecture Drafting and Design, fourth edition 1999 French and Vierck. Engineering Drawing 10th edition MacGraw Hill Book Company 1987 German M. Manaois. Drafting 1 and 2 Phoenix Publishing 1983. Max B. Fajardo Jr., Planning and Designers Handbook, Second Edition, 1980 The National Building Code of the Philippines and Its Implementing Rules and Regulations 2005 92
  100. 100. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome 5: Draft Roof Plans Learning Activities 1. Read Information Sheet no. 5.1. about terms and definitions Special Instruction  Remember the terminologies  Try to answer self-check no. 5.1. related to roof plan. 2. Answer Self check no.5.1 3. Read information sheet no. 5.2 on types of roofs  Try to answer self-check no. 5.2 4. Perform task on Self check no. 5.2 5. Read operation sheet no. 5.3 about the elements or features of roof and framing plans. 6. Answer self check no. 5.3 7. Answer Self-Check no. 5.5  Try to answer self-check no. 5.3  Try to perform the said activity 8. Read about information or sheet no. 5.4 on the procedure in drafting roof plan. 93
  101. 101. INFORMATION SHEET 5.1 LO5. Draft Roof Plans Definition of technical terms Angle iron is a structural piece of rolled steel shaped to form a 900 angle. Butterfly roof is a roof with two sides sloping down toward the interior of the house. Dome is a hemispherical roof form. Dormer is a structure projecting from a sloping roof to accommodate a window. Eave is a part of a roof that projects over a wall. Fascia is a surface finish material used to cover another surface. Flashing is the material used for covering exposed places outside the building like firewalls. Flat roof is a roof with a minimum pitch for drainage. Gable is the triangular end of an exterior wall above the eaves. Gable roof is a roof that slopes from two sides only. Galvanize is a lead and zinc bath treatment to prevent rusting. Gambrel roof is a symmetrical roof with two different pitches or slopes on each side. Hip rafter is the diagonal rafter that extends from the plate to the ridge to form the hip. Hip roof is a roof with four sloping sides. Mansard roof is a roof with two slopes on each sides with the lower slope much steeper than the upper. Overhang is the horizontal distance that a roof projects beyond a wall. Pitch is the angle between the top plate and the ridge board. It is also referred to as the rise over the run. Purlin is a horizontal structure member which hold rafters together. Rafters are structural members used to frame a roof. 94
  102. 102. Ridge is the top edge of the roof where rafters meet. Ridge cap is a wood or metal cap used for roofing at the ridge. Rise is the vertical height of a roof. Roll roofing is a material of fiber and asphalt manufactured in rolls. Shed roof is a flat roof slanting in one direction. Shingles are thin pieces of wood or other materials that ovelap each other in covering a roof. Truss is a prefabricated triangular shaped unit used for supporting roof loads over long spans. Valley is the internal angle formed by two slopes of a roof. Valley rafter is the diagonal rafter forming the intersection of two sloping roofs. Roof It is the external upper covering of a house or building. It shows the size, shape and the type of materials that should be used in the roofing system. Types of Roofs There are different types of roofing system that are commonly used in the building construction. The following are: 1. Gable Roof has a pitch on two sides but no pitch on the gable ends. This type of roof is used extensively on Philippines bahay kubo and raw houses in subdivision. The pitch or angle of a gable roof varies from the high pitch roofs found on chalet A-frame style buildings to the low pitch roofs found on most ranch homes. 95
  103. 103. GABLE ROOF 2. Hip roofs are used when eave-line protection is desired around the entire perimeter of the building. Hip roofs are very popular in warm climates. they are commonly used on Regency and French Provincial homes. HIP ROOF 96
  104. 104. 3. Flat roofs are used to create a low silhouette on modern homes. Slightly heavier rafters are needed for flat roofs. Built-up asphalt construction is often used on flat roofs. FLAT ROOF 4. Shed roofs are higher at one end than the other. They may be used effectively when two levels exist where additional light is needed. SHED ROOF 97
  105. 105. 5. Overhang is a roof type where the pitch is low and extends on the side of the building perpendicular to the rafters direction. It should provide additional protection from the sun and rain. OVERHANG ROOF These five roofing system are commonly used in the construction sector. However, there are other types of roofs that are rarely used in the construction. 98
  106. 106. INFORMATION SHEET 5.3 LO5. Draft Roof Plans Roof Plan A roof plan is one showing the outline of the roof and the major object lines indicating ridges, valleys, hips and openings. The roof plan is not a framing plan, but a plan view of the roof. To develop a roof framing plan, a roof must be stripped of its covering to expose the position of each structural member and each header. The roof plan can be used as the basic outline for the roof framing plan. Below are samples of blueprint drawings of roof plans, roof framing plan and other informative drawings. SAMPLE ROOF PLAN 99
  107. 107. Elements or features of roof and framing plans 1. Roof Plan The roof plan indicates the following: a. Roofing sheets are materials laid to cover the total area of roofing space of the building. b. Ridge roll is a plain G.I. sheet is usually laid at the center top of ridge of the building. c. Ridge cap is the material used when the roofing system is in the form of hip roof. d. Eaves line or gutter line is shown in the form of imaginary line to indicate the gutter line. ROOF PLAN 100
  108. 108. Different types of roofing sheets: 1. Corrogated G.I sheet 2. 4-V corrugated sheet 3. Ardex corrugated sheet 4. Kanalelas corrugated sheet. 5. Steel bricks 6. Colorbond custom orb MILANO LONGSPAN STEEL BRICKS 101
  109. 109. 102
  110. 110. 1. Roof framing plan There are important elements that must be shown in the roof framing plan. They are shown in the form of line symbols, such as: a. Trusses b. Purlins c. Ridge roll line d. Ridge cap line e. Eaves or gutter line f. Dimension ROOF FRAMING PLAN Each of these elements can be better understood as you recall your knowledge in the previous discussion particularly in the presentation of technical terms in the preceding modules. 103
  111. 111. ROOF FRAMING SHOWING THE THICKNESS OF EACH MEMBER 104
  112. 112. OPERATION SHEET 5.1 LO5. Draft a roof plan Roof plan is the upper part of the building. This can be drawn through the following steps (see the operating steps): 1. Given: a scaled floor plan. 105
  113. 113. 2. Draw or trace the given scale floor plan into a form of hidden lines without doors and windows. 3. From end line of the floor plan, lay out a standard 1.00 m. eave lines around the floor plan. 1.00 m. Eave line 106
  114. 114. 4. From eave lines, extend a 0.20 m. lines for gutter width, and analyze how many and where to indicate a 0.10 m. circular holes for downspout. 0.20 m. 0.20 m. 5. Select roof types required. From rectangular form of floor plan, get the center and project a line along the eave lines. center 107
  115. 115. 6. If hip roof types will be used, project a 450 angle in all corners of eave lines intersecting the center line to create a hip roof. From drawn hip roof layout, draw two lines at 0.10 m. width on both sides representing the ridge roll width. 7. Project a symbol (thin lines) for roof covering materials to be used, indicate from the center of roof slopes a perpendicular arrowheads with word label of slopes. 108
  116. 116. 8. Complete the drawings with proper dimensioning and labels, then finalize the drawing. 109
  117. 117. SELF CHECK 5.1 LO5. Draft Roof Plans Directions: Multiple Choice: Read each item carefully. Choose the letter of the best answer and write it on a separate sheet of paper. 1. A horizontal structural member which hold rafters together a. Rafter b. Purl in c. Rise d. Run 2. A prefabricated triangular shaped unit for supporting roof loads over long spans a. Truss b. Shingles c. Rise d. Ridge 3. The top edge of the roof where rafters meet a. Ridge b. Rafter c. Overhang d. Purlins 4. The internal angle formed by two slopes of a roof a. Ridge b. Rise c. Purlin d. Overhang 5. The angle between the top plate and the ridge board referred to as the rise over the run. a. Pitch b. Slope c. Valley d. Truss 9. A roof with four sloping sides a. Shed b. Hip c. Gable d. Mansard 10. The part of a roof that projects over a wall a. Overhang b. Eave c. Fascia d. Gutter 11. A surface finish material used to cover another surface a. Flashing b. Fascia c. Overhang d. Dormer 12. A flat roof slanting in one direction a. Gable b. Hip c. Dormer d. Shed 13. A diagonal rafter that extends from the plate to the ridge to form a hip roof type a. Purlins b. Hip Rafters c. Truss d. Flashing 14. The triangular end of an exterior wall above the eaves a. Gable b. Hip c. Overhang d. Mansard 15. The vertical height of a roof a. Rise b. Run c. Ridge d. Eave 110
  118. 118. SELF CHECK 5.2 LO5. Draft Roof Plans Problem Solving Directions: Given a floor plan as shown below, to draft a roof plan appropriate to the given sizes and shapes. Note: All sides must have an overhang of 1.50m. 111
  119. 119. Performance Assessment Scoring Rubrics Criteria Score (Tick the corresponding pts.) Accuracy 50 45 40 Speed 10 6 8 Neatness 25 20 15 Lettering/Labeling 15 12 10 8 Total Performance Criteria:  Accuracy 50 pts - the output is accurately done 45 pts - two to five errors are observed on the output 40 pts. - six to ten errors are observed on the output 10 pts - the output is done 5 minutes before the time 8 pts - the output is done on time 6 pts. - the output is done after the allotted time  Speed  Neatness 25 pts. - has no error 20 pts - has two to three erasures 15 pts - has four or more erasures 112
  120. 120. Lettering/Labeling 15 pts. - all pieces of information are completely indicated and legibly printed. 12 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing. 10 pts. - all pieces of information are legibly printed but some are missing and misspelled. 8 pts. - pieces of information are not legibly printed and words are missing and misspelled. 113
  121. 121. Program/ Course : DRAFTING TECHNOLOGY Unit of Competency : DRAFT ARCHITECTURAL LAYOUT AND DETAILS Module Title : Drafting Architectural Layout and Details Learning Outcome 6 : Draft Ceiling Plan Assessment Criteria: 1. Elements or important features of ceiling plan are properly identified. 2. Ceiling plan is drawn according to architectural drafting standards. 3. Lighting fixtures and fire protection devices are located according to architectural drafting standards. References: Earnest R. Weidhaas. Architectural Drafting and Design, 4th edition Paul I. Wallach. Basic Architectural Drafting,1982 French and Vierck. Engineering Drawing; McGraw, Hill Book Company,10th Edition; 1960 Emmanuel P. Cuntapay. Implementing Rules and Regulations of the National Building Code of the Philippines (PD 1096), 2005 German M. Manaois. Drafting 1 and 2; Phoenix Publishing; 1983 Norman Stirling. Introduction to Technical Drawing; Delmar Publishing, 1977 114
  122. 122. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome 3. Draft Site Development Learning Activities Special Instruction 1. Read Information Sheet no.  Try to answer the self-check  Try to answer the self-check  Try to answer the self-check  Perform operation 3.1 6.1 about the definition of terms in planning house ceiling 2. Answer Self Check no 6.1 3. Read Information Sheet no. 6.2 about ceiling plan fixtures 4. Answer Self Check no 6.2 5. Read Operation 6.1 6. Answer Self-Check no. 6.3 115
  123. 123. INFORMATION SHEET 6.1 LO6. DRAFT CEILING PLAN Definition of Terms Acoustic is the science of sounds in housing, materials used to keep down noise within a room or to prevent it from an over head lining inside of a room Ceiling Joist is the structural member in building construction that holds the ceiling board Ceiling board is a ceiling covering materials Cornice is a wood or any material project beyond the wall of the ceiling Fixtures is a piece of electric or plumbing equipment which is a part of the structure Gypsum board is a board made of plaster with covering of paper Hanger is an iron or wood strap used to support a joist. Insulation is a material obstructing the passage of sound, heat, or cold from one surface to another Lighting fixtures is the position or placement of lighting fixtures of the house. Reflected ceiling plan is a drawing of a room or building, looking down at the interior ceiling Smoke detectors is a fire protection device that is used to detect smoke or gasses produced by smoldering fires particles of combustion Soffit is the undersurface of a cornice, molding, or beam Specification is the written description accompanying the working drawing Sprinkler systems is a fire protection device that discharges water when the effects of a fire have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature has been reached. Ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space 116
  124. 124. The Importance and Purpose of Ceiling in the building Ceiling plan is an outline of the ceiling that shows the overhead interior surface of a room. Ceiling is designed with the following purpose: i.It prevents the penetration of the heat of the sun inside the building. ii.It adds beauty inside the building especially when it is well-designed. iii.It serves as thermal insulator that adds to the aesthetic beauty of a house. iv.Various lighting fixtures can be hanged or placed to highlight the interior design of the structure. Important features that are shown in the ceiling plan Ceiling plan can be shown into two presentations: a. Ordinary presentation of ceiling plan. This shows the following: 1. Ceiling board 2. Partitions 3. Ventilation 4. Label which indicates the type of ceiling materials 5. Dimensions b. Reflected ceiling plan. It is a drawing, which shows the items that are located on the ceiling of a room or space. It is referred to as a reflected ceiling plan since it is drawn to display a view of the ceiling as if it was reflected onto a mirror on the floor. This way the reflected ceiling plan has the same orientation as the floor plan associated with it. It is as if the ceiling was see-through and you could see right through it from the floor below. Interior designers draw reflected ceiling plans when designing spaces. 117
  125. 125. The following features that are shown in the reflected ceiling plan: 1. Lighting fixtures 2. Ventilation 3. Smoke detector 4. Wood moulding 5. Ceiling board Important considerations in ceiling plan There are many design elements to consider in designing the ceiling plan 1. Consider the distance from floor line to ceiling line level. 2. Study the 3-D aspects of volumes and space. 3. Consider using unexpected materials or finishes. 4. Consider the light reflection and sound absorption. In accordance with the National Building Code of the Philippines (PD 1096) Section 805: Ceiling Heights v. Habitable rooms provided with artificial ventilation have ceiling heights not less than 2.40meters. which is measured from the floor to the ceiling; provided that for buildings of more than one-storey, the minimum ceiling height of the first storey shall be 2.70meters. And that for the second storey 2.40 meters and succeeding storey shall have an unobstructed typical head-room clearance of not less than 2.10m above the finished floor. vi. Mezzanine floors shall have a clear ceiling height of not less than 1.80meters above and below it. 118
  126. 126. OPERATION SHEET 6.1 LO6 DRAFT CEILING PLAN Ceiling Plan is shown in outline form. It is made with the floor plan as its reference outline. Procedure in drafting ceiling plans Ceiling plan is drawn with the following steps: 1. Prepare and set a ready-made floor plan and analyze its size and shape. 119
  127. 127. 2. Sketch the ceiling area based on the general measurement of the floor plan. 3. Provide space for overhang for the four sides at your desired size. 120
  128. 128. 4. Sketch the partitions based on the measurements in the floor plan 5. Darken all the visible edges, indicate the dimensions and label the necessary information. REFLECTED CEILING PLAN 121
  129. 129. SELF CHECK 6.1 TEST I. Direction: Identify what is referred to in each number. Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. _______________1. is the undersurface of a cornice, molding, or beam. _______________2. is a drawing of a room or building, looking down at the interior ceiling. _______________3. is the process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space. _______________4. is the written description accompanying the working drawing _______________5. is a material obstructing the passage of sound, heat, or cold from one surface to another. _______________6. is a ceiling covering materials. _______________7. is the structural member in building construction that holds the ceiling board. _______________8. is a wood or any materials project beyond the wall of the ceiling. _______________9. is the science of sounds in housing, materials used to keep down noise within a room or to prevent it from an over head lining inside of a room. _______________10. is a piece of electric or plumbing equipment which is a part of the structure _______________ 11. is the over head inside lining of a room ________________12. is a piece of electric or plumbing equipment that is part of the structure. ________________13. is the process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means is called _____________ ________________14. is the science of sounds in housing ________________15. is the drawing of a room or a building looking down at the interior ceiling 122
  130. 130. TEST II. Enumeration Type: 1. Enumerate the Ceiling Plan features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 123
  131. 131. SELF CHECK 1.2 Direction: Given a floor plan, draw a ceiling plan 124
  132. 132. Program/Course : Drafting Technology Unit of Competency : Draft Architectural Layout and Details Module Title : Drafting Sanitary and Plumbing Layout and Details Learning Outcome 7 : Draft Elevations and Sections Assessment Criteria: 1. Vertical heights gradeline establish according to architectural drafting standards. 2. Offsets from right side, left and rear side of floor plan are projected according to architectural drafting standards. 3. Roof eaves and pitch on all elevations and sections established according to architectural drafting standards. 4. Doors and windows projected in all elevations and sections. 5. Cross and longitudinal sectional views projected from the floor plans and elevations. 6. Various material symbols and specifications indicated in all elevations and sections. Giesecke, Mitchell,Spencer,Hill,Dygdon. Technical Drawing; Prentice Hall Simon Schuster, 1998 French, Vierck, Foster. Engineering Drawing and Graphic Technology, Macgraw Hill Co., 1986 Fajardo, Max B. Jr., Plumbing Design and Estimate, 5138 Merchandizing, 1984. Hepler, Donald E and WALLACH, Paul I, Architecture: Drafting and Design, IMC Dress Incorporated, 1987 Fajardo, Max B. Jr., Building Construction, 5138 Merchandizing, 1984 125
  133. 133. LEARNING EXPERIENCES/ ACTIVITIES Learning Outcome No. 7: Draft Elevations and Sections Learning Activities 1. Read Information Sheet #1.1 Special Instruction  Take note of the details and remember the terminologies 2. Answer Self Check # 1.1 3. Compare your Answer to the Answer Key 4. Proceed to Activity #. 1.1  Try your best to perform the activity 126
  134. 134. INFORMATION SHEET # 7.1 LO7. Draft Elevation and Section An architectural elevation is a view of a building showing its height dimension. When elevations show the exterior of a residential unit, they are simply called elevations. Interior elevations show the inside of a building. Elevations are the exterior views of a building. They are necessary in as much as they show the height of the building and its appearance on each side. Normally, the four elevations are sufficient to describe the appearance of the residential building. Elevation drawings are orthographic drawings. They show the exterior of a building. The elevation s that part of the building that people see and observe, hence, it is the part they use to judge the structure. Normally, the design of the floor plan precedes the designs of the elevation, because both have a continual relationship in the entire design process. Flexibility is possible in the design of elevations, even those designed from the same floor plan. The designer should keep in mind that only horizontal distances can be established on the floor plan, while that of the vertical distances such as height of doors, windows and roofs must be shown on the elevation. As these heights are established, the appearance of the outside and functioning of heights as well as the internal functioning of the building must be considered. Preliminary Sketches The location and proportion of features are very important in the drawing of elevation. Main attention is given to the proportion of walls and openings. Some of the things to consider in the drawing of elevations are; 1. Proportion – which deals with the size and shape of areas and their relation to one another. 2. Fenestration – deals with the arrangements of windows and doors in a wall. 3. Harmony refers to all features that should harmonize to present a uniform elevation. 127
  135. 135. 4. Shadows refer to a simple elevation, which can become interesting when designed to take advantage of shadows. Finished Sketches The finished sketch may be carefully drawn with the use of drawing instruments. Since these are fairly large scale drawings the exact size of all features together with their correct representation must be considered. In the drafting of elevations, these are some of the things to consider: 1. Window and Door Size – must be chosen from a manufactures catalog which offers great variety of sizes. The sizes must be standard that it conforms to the provisions of the building code. 2. Window and Door Representation –in elevation may be drawn simply. 3. Material Representation – may be shown by drawing only a few lines, like bricks. 4. Footings and Walls are hidden lines used to indicate location of footings. 5. Labeling views can be done in two methods by labeling it with views as in front, rear, left and right side elevations, or by using compass orientation as in north, south, east, and west directions. 6. Dimensioning on elevations are limited to vertical dimensions are shown on the plan. 7. Changes are additions necessary after all the other drawings have been completed. 128
  136. 136. Elevations are the exterior views of the building. The front view of the building is always referred to as the front. The other elevations are named according to their position in relation to the front, i.e. right elevation, rear or back elevation, left elevation. Eave is the lower portion of a roof which extends beyond the wall. Pitch is the term applied to the amount of roof slope, It is found by dividing the heights of the span Elevation Projection Elevation drawings are projected from the floor plan of an architectural drawing just as the views are projected the front view of an orthographic drawing. All six views are rarely used to depict architectural structures, instead only four are used. These four elevations are normally projected on the floor plan. 129
  137. 137. FLOOR PLAN 130
  138. 138. FRONT ELEVATION REAR ELEVATION 131
  139. 139. LEFT SIDE ELEVATION RIGHT SIDE ELEVATION 132

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