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Sociology of Tourism


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Culture and Tourism in Azerbaijan

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Sociology of Tourism

  1. 1. NEAR EAST UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF TOURISM AND HOTEL MANAGENENT THM 422 – SOCIOLOGY OF TOURISM Student: Elchin MAMMADOV / 20090717 Instructor: Derviş YÜKSEL Project: Culture and Tourism in Azerbaijan
  2. 2. CULTURE AND TOURISM CULTURE:  Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted behavior that includes the ideas, values, customs, knowledge and habits shared by the members of a society.  “ The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category from those of another” • “Something that shapes behavior or structures one’s perceptions of the world.”
  3. 3. Cultural tourism - is the form of tourism concerned with a country or region's arts and culture. It generally focuses on traditional communities who have diverse customs, unique form of art and distinct social practices, which basically distinguishes it from other types/forms of culture.
  4. 4. 4 Cultural Dimensions People’s Relationship to Nature Individualism versus Collectivism Time Orientation Activity Orientation Degree of Formality Language Religion
  5. 5. About Azerbaijan  Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan, is the largest country in the Caucasus region located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe.  Capital: Baku  Population: 9.298 million (2012)  Government: Unitary state, Presidential system, Constitutional republic, Republic  Continent: Asia, Europe  Ethnic Makeup: Azeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census)  Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8%
  6. 6. Azerbaijan- Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette Language in Azerbaijan The official language is Azerbaijani or "Azeri", a Turkic language. In 1994 it was estimated that some 82% of Azerbaijan's citizens speak Azerbaijani as their first language. In addition, 38% of Azerbaijanis speak Russian fluently to accommodate Russian domination of the economy and politics. The Azerbaijani language is part of the 'Oghuz', or 'Western Turkic', group of Turkic languages, together with Anatolian Turkish (spoken in Turkey) and Turkmen (spoken in Turkmenistan). Dialectical differences between Azerbaijani and Anatolian Turkish have been attributed to Mongolian and Turkic influences. Despite these differences, Anatolian Turkish speakers and Azerbaijanis can often understand one another if they speak carefully. Spoken Azerbaijani includes several dialects. Since the nineteenth century, Russian loanwords (particularly technical terms) and grammatical and lexical structures have entered the Azerbaijani language in Russian-controlled Azerbaijan, as have Persian words in Iranian Azerbaijan. The resulting variants remain mutually intelligible, however.
  7. 7. Azeri Society & Culture The Family  The family forms the basic social structure in Azerbaijan.  This goes back to many Azeris' history as rural dwellers where a clan (hoj) would share land and work together to form a tight circle.  A hoj would sometimes consist of up to 40 members.  Nowadays the family is a lot smaller - usually a married couple with children and possibly grandparents.  Families still work as an interdependent unit andexpect to receive both financial and emotional support from others.  Gender roles are still fairly traditional in much of
  8. 8. Hierarchal Society Azeris are still a very hierarchical society. o Culture, traditions, family and religious affiliation often take precedence over official laws. o When the government has trouble resolving an issue, the president often appeals to the "agh sakkal" (prominent and respected people) to help find a solution. "Agh sakkal" means "white beard". Folklore and Superstition o Azeri culture, due to its rural roots and culturally rich tapestry, has many superstitions. Examples include: - A cat crossing your path means bad luck in business. - Salt accidentally spilled means you are about to quarrel. Sprinkle sugar on the salt to counter this. - Leaving scissors with opened blades brings misfortune and even death. - If you meet a person with empty buckets, you are bound for misfortune. - If you meet a person with bread and full bags, you will have good luck. - Never hurry to a funeral ceremony. - Do not cross the way the funeral train goes. - If the first person you meet on your way to work is male, you will have good luck. - Do not lend money or bread at night. - Throwing a bowl of water in the wake of a person who sets off for a business trip or long journey brings the person luck and helps them to return home safe and sound.
  9. 9. Azeri Customs and Etiquette Meeting and Greeting o Like most cultures in the area, Azeris like warm and friendly greetings. o Men greet each other with a handshake, a kiss on the cheek and "salaam" (literally 'peace' but meaning 'hello'). o Women hug and kiss each other once on the left cheek. Azeri women do not generally shake hands among themselves, although many will shake hands with a foreigner. o Males should wait and see if a woman extends her hand (although most will the more religious may not) - if they do shake it lightly. o Always take a moment to ask about family, health and business. o First names are generally used in social situations if the speakers are of similar ages. o If you do not know the person well, use their first name followed by an appropriate title. For women, use "hanum"
  10. 10. Gift Giving Etiquette o Azeris mainly exchange gifts for birthdays, weddings and anniversaries. o In Azeri culture it is the thought behind the gift, rather than the price, that matters. o It is customary to refuse a gift at least twice before reluctantly accepting it. Always insist it is too much and the giver should not have gone to any trouble. o If you are invited to an Azeri's home for dinner, bring flowers or pastries to the hostess. Ask the shop where you buy them to wrap them for you. It is considered polite to reciprocate hospitality with a small gift. o Always give an odd number of flowers. Even numbers are reserved for funerals. o Avoid giving alcohol unless you are certain your host partakes. o Gifts are generally not opened when received.
  11. 11. Dining Etiquette If you are invited to a Azeri home for food: o Remove your shoes before entering the house. You may be offered slippers to wear. o Punctuality is not paramount. Arriving within 30 minutes of the stipulated time is socially acceptable, o Dress casually but smartly. Never wear tight or revealing clothing. o If there are many people present shake hands with everyone. o Table manners are fairly formal. If in doubt watch what others do. o Remain standing until invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat. o Keep your elbows off the table and your hands above the table when eating. o The hostess generally serves the food. The elderly are served first, then the guests, and finally the children.
  12. 12. Cultural Tourism in Azerbaijan Azerbaijan is a country of rich cultural and historic heritage. Over thousands of years it cradled high culture and was in the thick of major historic events. Many caravan routs including the Great Silk Way run through Azerbaijan. They linked ancient civilizations like Sumer, Assyria, Greece, Rome, Iran, Turkey, India, China and other. Most of those civilizations left their mark on the history and culture of Azerbaijan. Today, more than 6 thousand historic and cultural monuments are scattered over the country, 65 of which belong to the monuments of universal importance. Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower, as well as Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape are included in the World Heritage List by UNESCO.
  13. 13. Currently, Azerbaijan is proposing a number of international historical and cultural routes, which are now prepared for international certification in collaboration with European cultural route institutions. These include the Wine Tour, Great Silk Way, Alexander Dumas in Caucasus, reflecting the variety of tastes and preferences. There is a tradition of announcement of cultural and art capitals of Azerbaijan in various areas for each year. For instance, in year 2012 Masalli is announced the "Capital of folklore", Guba the "Capital of Crafts" and Gedabek the "Capital of Legends". Also Baku was announced the Capital of Islamic Culture for year 2009 by OIC.
  14. 14. The people of Azerbaijan are among the oldest nations in the world with the rich culture, art and music. It is no coincidence that the richest museums in the world possess numerous pieces of Azerbaijani material and spiritual culture. Moreover, the traditional art of Azerbaijani carpet weaving, the art of Azerbaijani ashiqs, Novruz and Azerbaijani mugham are among the elements of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity, the list of which is held by UNESCO. There are 226 museums in the country itself, which offer their visitors a possibility to plunge into the world of history, culture and art of the Azerbaijani people.
  15. 15. At present, the day-to-day life in Azerbaijan is also rich of many cultural events both of national and of international importance. Exhibitions, literary evenings, theater festivals are of regular occurrence. Azerbaijan hosts each year annual international music festivals like Gabala International Music Festival, International Rostropovich Festival, International Vocalists Contest, Baku Jazz Festival, International Mugham Festival that attract world-famous music figures and connoisseurs. These festivals are justifiably ranked among authoritative international cultural events of a year. In 2012, the city of Baku hosted the "Eurovision" international song contest following its success in the last year's round. The number of guests who visited Azerbaijan during the Eurovision - 2012 song contest, including contestants and delegation, is in the range of 6000 to 7000 people. In addition 103,000 people had crossed the border of Azerbaijan during the 15 days.
  16. 16.  Baku will host the first European Games in 2015, FIDE World Cup 2015 and World Chess Olympiad 2016. These major events in the World of Sport will play a significant role in tourists attraction and the development of tourism infrastructure in Azerbaijan.  The number of tourists visiting Azerbaijan for the purpose of acquaintance with its national history and culture, as well as to participate in various cultural events is increasing fast.
  17. 17. THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION!!! Have any question?