   Lipids: a large and varied group of organic compounds.    Lipids include: Triglycerides Phospholipids Waxes Cholester...
   Triglycerides are one of the most common types of lipids    Triglycerides consist of one molecule of  glycerol   bond...
Fatty Acids: General Formula:  CH 3 (CH 2 ) n C O OH Carboxyl group H C C C H H H H H H C C C H H H H H H C O OH CH 3 CH 2
Can be drawn as: H C C C H H H H H H C C C H H H H H H C O OH C O OH
Forming a monoglyceride: +  H 2 O This is a  condensation  reaction C C C H OH H H H H OH O H C O OH C C C H OH H H H H OH...
A triglyceride: Can be drawn as: C C C H O H H H H O O C O C O C O Glycerol Fatty acid Fatty acid Fatty acid Ester bond
To split these ester bonds and separate a fatty acid from glycerol we need to add a molecule of water +  H 2 O This is a  ...
Uses of Lipids in Living Things 1. Long-term energy stores  Human Adipose Tissue Plant Oils
2. Buoyancy for marine  animals: lipids are less  dense than water so  help animals  float  3. Insulation: a layer of fat ...
4. Production of water: fatty acids produce a lot of  metabolic  water  when they are oxidised during respiration Camels’ ...
Homework : Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages to an organism of using carbohydrates and lipids as energy st...
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3.2 Lipids

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3.2 Lipids

  1. 1.  Lipids: a large and varied group of organic compounds.  Lipids include: Triglycerides Phospholipids Waxes Cholesterol and Steroids  Lipids are all non-polar and do not dissolve in water
  2. 2.  Triglycerides are one of the most common types of lipids  Triglycerides consist of one molecule of glycerol bonded to three fatty acid molecules  Each fatty acid is linked to the glycerol molecule by an ester bond C C C H OH H H H H OH OH Glycerol Hydroxyl groups
  3. 3. Fatty Acids: General Formula: CH 3 (CH 2 ) n C O OH Carboxyl group H C C C H H H H H H C C C H H H H H H C O OH CH 3 CH 2
  4. 4. Can be drawn as: H C C C H H H H H H C C C H H H H H H C O OH C O OH
  5. 5. Forming a monoglyceride: + H 2 O This is a condensation reaction C C C H OH H H H H OH O H C O OH C C C H OH H H H H OH O C O Ester bond Hydroxyl group and carboxyl group react
  6. 6. A triglyceride: Can be drawn as: C C C H O H H H H O O C O C O C O Glycerol Fatty acid Fatty acid Fatty acid Ester bond
  7. 7. To split these ester bonds and separate a fatty acid from glycerol we need to add a molecule of water + H 2 O This is a hydrolysis reaction C C C H OH H H H H OH O C O C C C H OH H H H H OH O H C O OH
  8. 8. Uses of Lipids in Living Things 1. Long-term energy stores Human Adipose Tissue Plant Oils
  9. 9. 2. Buoyancy for marine animals: lipids are less dense than water so help animals float 3. Insulation: a layer of fat beneath the skin cuts down heat loss
  10. 10. 4. Production of water: fatty acids produce a lot of metabolic water when they are oxidised during respiration Camels’ humps are made of fat e.g. C 17 H 35 COOH + 26 O 2  18 CO 2 + 18 H 2 O (a typical fatty acid)
  11. 11. Homework : Compare the relative advantages and disadvantages to an organism of using carbohydrates and lipids as energy stores To be handed in on a separate sheet of paper.

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