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Testing, assessing and teaching


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First Assessment entrance

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Testing, assessing and teaching

  1. 1. Lorena Peña Florez IMAGE TAKEN FROM :
  2. 2. Test It is a method of measuring a person’s ability , knowledge or performance in a given domain. Test : 1. Are a method 2. must measure 3. Measures performance 4. Measures a given domain. A well-constructed test is an instrument that provides an accurate measure of test-taker´s ability with a particular domain.
  3. 3. METHOD Set of techniques procedures or items Explicit Multiple choice questions with prescribed correct answers. Structured A writing prompt with a scoring rubric An Oral interview based on question scripts A checklist of expected responses to be filled by the administration.
  4. 4. Must Measure General ability Example Multi-skill proficiency test Specific competences, objectives or knowledge Example Quiz on recognizing correct use of definite articles
  5. 5. Measures Performance Linguistic competences Speaking Writing Reading Listening Knowledge about language Vocabulary Grammar rules Identify a rhetorical feature in written discourse.
  6. 6. Measures a Specific Domain Positive Negative Specific topics to measure the desired criterion Including factors inadvertently
  7. 7. Assessment & Teaching A good teacher never ceases to assess students whenever Tests Assessment those assessments areIt is an ongoing process that  They are prepared  INCIDENTAL administrative procedures or INTENDEDencompasses a much wider  They Occur at identifiable times in a curriculum  Learners muster all their faculties  Learners´responses are being measured and evaluated.  They are subsets of assessment. domain.  on each aspect about students the teacher makes assessment on students 'performance.  There are many procedures and tasks different from TEST to assess students.
  8. 8. Informal Assesment Suggestions Advicing about how to better pronounce words Responding to a draft of an essay Incidental, unplanned comments and responses Coaching Impromptu feedback Margianal comments on papers
  9. 9. Formal Assesment they are systematic planned sampling techniques It is constructed to give teacher and students an appraisal of student achievement.
  10. 10. Formative Assessment Evaluating SS in the process of forming their competence and skills. Focus on the ongoing development of the learner´s language. Occurs every time All kind of informal assessment are formative Delivery by teacher Internalized by student
  11. 11. Summative Assessment It measures or summarizes what a student has grasped. 2. Quizzes 1.General proficiency exams 3. Periodic review tests 4. mid-term exams Occurs at the end of a course unit or instruction The following 4 are examples of summative tests
  12. 12. Can Tests become Learning experiences ?
  13. 13. Norm-referenced & Criterion-referenced Tests
  14. 14. Norm-referenced Test criterion-referenced Test  Scores are interpreted in relation to     a mean, media and SD and percentile rank. The purpose is to place test-takers along a mathematical continuum in rank order. Scores are reported back to the test-taker in form of numerical scores. They are administered to large audiences. The responses are already predetermined. Examples:  Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)  Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)  They are designed to give test- takers feedback in the form of grades, on specific course or lesson objectives.  It is required much time and effort from the teacher (testadministrator).  Appropriate feedback.  Instructional value Oller(1979,p 52) Examples:  Classroom tests involving the students on only one class and connected to a curriculum.
  15. 15. Approaches to Language Testing 1950’s – Behaviorism Testing focused on specific language elements such as the phonological, grammatical and lexical contrasts between two languages. 1970’s- 1980’s Communicat ive theories brought a more integrative view of testing. Today Continues the challenge of more authentic valid instruments that simulate real world interaction.
  16. 16. Discrete-point Testing Language can be broken into its component parts and those parts can be tested successfully. evaluating certain points Decontextualization Oller(1979) • Language competence = unified set of abilities that cannot be tested separately.
  17. 17. Integrative testing Cloze test Dictations Reading passages (150-300 words) Listening passages (100-150) Those tests require a number of abilities. Knowledge of vocabulary Grammatical structures Discourse structure Oral reading without pauses Reading skills Strategies Oral reading with long pauses between every phrase Internalized “expectancy grammar ” Reading at normal speed
  18. 18. 1. Careful listening 4.Expectancy rules to aid short- term memory Integrative Test 3. Efficient short- term memory “UNITARY TRAIT HYPOTHESIS” 2. Reproduction in writing Which suggested an indivisible view of language proficiency: that vocabulary, grammar, phonology, the “four skills “and other discrete points of language could not be disentangled from each other in language performance.
  19. 19. Communicative Language Testing Language use Batchman and Palmer(1996,p9) Language test performance Weird(1990,p6) Integrative Test(cloze ) Bachman (1990) Proposed a model of language competence Organizational competence Tell about Candidate´s linguistic competence Don’t tell about Student´s performance ability Pragmatic competence Grammatical components Textual components Illocutionary components Sociolinguistic components Strategic competence
  20. 20. Performance-based Assessment Oral production Interactive tasks Integrated performance Timeconsuming Written production Openended responses Higher content validity is achieved Expensive Ss are assessed as they perform actual or simulated realworld tasks
  21. 21. Current Issues in Classroom Testing
  22. 22. New Theories of Intelligence Spatial intelligence Intrapersonal intelligence Musical intelligence Gardner (1983, 1999) Interpersonal intelligence Bodilykinesthetic intelligence
  23. 23. Robert Sternberg (1988,1997) Daniel Goleman’s (1995) Intelligence EQ= emotional Quotient Creative thinking Manipulative strategies Importance of emotions in cognitive processing
  24. 24. Alternative Assessment Continuous long-term assessment Untimed, free-response format Contextualized communicative tasks Individualized feedback and washback Criterion- referenced scores Open-ended, creative answers Formative Oriented to process Interactive performance Foster intrinsic motivation
  25. 25. Computer-based Testing Are also called computer- assisted or web-based testsAre small scale “home-grown” tests Available on web-sites Standardized large scale tests Almost all Computer-based testing items have fixed, closed-ended responses
  26. 26. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT PRACTICALITY RELIABILITY VALIDITY Student- related reliability Content- related evidence Rater reliability Criterion-related evidence Test administration reliability Constructed-related evidence test reliability Consequential Validity Face validity AUTHENTICITY WASHBACK
  27. 27. IMAGES TAKEN FROM: oHwBg&ved=0CAQQqi4oAg