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Шотландия

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Шотландия

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Шотландия

  1. 1. Scotland
  2. 2. Table of contents: <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Etymology </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Government and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative subdivisions </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland within UK </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Geography and natural history </li></ul><ul><li>Geology and geomorphology </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Demography </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Sport </li></ul><ul><li>National symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>I want to tell you about Scotland. I chose this theme because I want to travel there and it`s the beautiful and interesting country. </li></ul>Introduction
  4. 4. <ul><li>The word Scotland is derived from the Latin Scoti, the term applied to Gaels. The Late Latin word Scotia (land of the Gaels), was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest Scotia was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, both derived from the Gaelic Alba.The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages. </li></ul>Etymology
  5. 5. Geography <ul><li>Scotland comprises the northern part of the island of Great Britain, bordering to the south on England. Scotland consists of a mainland area plus several island groups, including the Shetlands, the Orkneys, and the Hebrides, divided into the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. Three main geographical and geological areas make up the mainland: from north to south, the generally mountainous Highlands, the low-lying Central Belt, and the hilly Southern Uplands. The majority of the Scottish population resides in the Central Belt, which contains three of the country's five main cities, and many large towns. </li></ul>
  6. 6. History <ul><li>The founders of Scotland of late medieval legend, Scota with Goídel Glas, voyaging from Egypt, as depicted in a 15th century manuscript of the Scotichronicon of Walter Bower. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically, from at least the reign of David I (ruled 1124 - 1153), Scotland began to show a split into two cultural areas - the mainly Scots, latterly English-speaking Lowlands, and the mainly-Gaelic speaking Highlands. This caused divisions in the country where the Lowlands remained, historically, more influenced by the English to the south: the Lowlands lay more open to attack by invading armies from the south and absorbed English influence through their proximity to and their trading relations with their southern neighbours. </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>In 1707 the Scottish and English Parliaments signed a Treaty of Union. Implementing the treaty involved dissolving both the English and the Scottish Parliaments, and transferring all their powers to a new Parliament in London which then became the United Kingdom Parliament. A customs and currency union also took place. This state of affairs continued until May 1999 when Scotland gained a new Scottish Parliament. Whereas the old Scottish parliament had functioned as a full national parliament of a sovereign state, the new parliament governs the country only on domestic matters, the United Kingdom parliament having retained responsibility for Scotland's defence and international relations. </li></ul>David Morier's painting on the &quot;Battle of Culloden&quot;.
  8. 8. Government and politics <ul><li>Scotland is governed as an integral part of Great Britain. It is represented by 72 members in the House of Commons and by 16 Scottish peers in the House of Lords. </li></ul><ul><li>As part of the United Kingdom, the head of state in Scotland is the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth (since 1952). </li></ul>The Scottish Parliament Building.
  9. 9. Government and politics <ul><li>The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature comprising 129 Members, 73 of whom represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first past the post system; 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system, serving for a four year period. The Queen appoints one Member of the Scottish Parliament, (MSP), on the nomination of the Parliament, to be First Minister. Other Ministers are also appointed by the Queen on the nomination of the Parliament and together with the First Minister they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.The Scotland office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom, the current incumbent being Des Browne. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Administrative subdivisions <ul><li>Historical subdivisions of Scotland include the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts. The names of these areas are still sometimes used as geographical descriptors. </li></ul><ul><li>For the Scottish Parliament, there are 73 constituencies and eight regions. For the Parliament of the United Kingdom there are 59 constituencies. The Scottish fire brigades and police forces are still based on the system of regions introduced in 1975. City status in the United Kingdom is determined by letters patent.There are six cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow and more recently Inverness. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scotland within UK <ul><li>A policy of devolution had been advocated by all three GB-wide parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history and Labour leader John Smith described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the &quot;settled will of the Scottish people&quot;. The constitutional status of Scotland is nonetheless subject to ongoing debate. In 2007, the Scottish Government established a National Сonversation on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the latter option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament have proposed a separate Constitutional Commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Law <ul><li>Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the House of Lords. The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court. Both courts are housed at Parliament House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country.District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences. The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry. </li></ul><ul><li>Scots law is also unique in that it allows three verdicts in criminal cases including the controversial 'not proven' verdict. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Geography and natural history <ul><li>The main land of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the northwest coast of Continental Europe. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only 30 kilometres (20 mi) from the southwestern peninsula of Kintyre. </li></ul><ul><li>The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and England and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.Important exceptions include the Isle of Man, which having been lost to England in the 14th century is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482. </li></ul><ul><li>The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Geology and geomorphology <ul><li>The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective the country has three main sub-divisions. The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, the remnants of which have formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins. A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands, divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Geology and geomorphology <ul><li>The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are to be found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur’s Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view. </li></ul><ul><li>The Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost 200 kilometres (125 mi) long, interspersed with broad valleys. </li></ul>Ben Nevis, the highest peak in the British Isles
  16. 16. Climate <ul><li>The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. It is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, and as such has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, for example Copenhagen, Moscow, or the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK. Winter maximums average 6 °C (42.8 °F) in the lowlands, with summer maximums averaging 18 °C (64.4 °F). </li></ul><ul><li>In general, the west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, due to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had 300 days of sunshine in 1975. Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest place, with annual rainfall exceeding 3,000 mm (120 in). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Flora and fauna <ul><li>Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the Lynx, Brown Bear, Wolf, Elk and Walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as Gannets.The Golden Eagle is something of a national icon. </li></ul><ul><li>On the high mountain tops species including Ptarmigan, Mountain Hare and Stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months. Remnants of native Scots Pine forest exist and within these areas the Scottish Crossbill, Britain's only endemic bird, can be found alongside Capercaillie, Wildcat, Red Squirrel and Pine Marten. </li></ul><ul><li>The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland and moorland and tundra species. The Fortingall Yew may be 5,000 years old and is probably the oldest living thing in Europe. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Economy and infrastructure <ul><li>Scotland has a western style open mixed economy which is closely linked with that of the rest of Europe and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by the shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United States, The Netherlands, Germany, France and Spain constitute the country's major export markets. In 2006, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Scotland was just over £86 billion, giving a per capita GDP of £16,900. Tourism is widely recognised as a key contributor to the Scottish economy. </li></ul>Victoria Street's rainbow of stores keeps shoppers happy
  19. 19. Currency <ul><li>Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks still issue their own Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland; the Royal Bank of Scotland; and the Clydesdale Bank. The current value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation is £1.5 billion. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Transport <ul><li>Scotland has five main international airports (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow Prestwick and Inverness) which together serve 150 international destinations with a wide variety of scheduled and chartered flights. </li></ul><ul><li>The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland. The rest of the road network is managed by the Scottish local authorities in each of their areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and island communities. These services are mostly run by Caledonian MacBrayne, but some are operated by local councils. Other ferry routes, served by multiple companies, connect to Northern Ireland, Belgium, Norway, the Faroe Islands and also Iceland. Scotland's rail network is managed by Transport Scotland.The East Coast and West Coast Main Railway lines and the Cross Country Line connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by First Scotrail. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Demography <ul><li>The population of Scotland in the 2001 census was 5,062,011. This has risen to 5,116,900 according to June 2006 estimates.This would make Scotland the 112th largest country by population if it were a sovereign state. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland it is not the largest city. With a population of just over 600,000 this honour falls to Glasgow. Indeed, the Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of over 1.1 million. The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2001, there are 16,310 ethnic Chinese residents in Scotland.The ethnic groups within Scotland are as follows: White - 97.99%,South Asian - 1.09%, Black - 0.16%, Mixed - 0.25%, Chinese - 0.32% and Other - 0.19%. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Education <ul><li>The Scottish education system has always remained distinct from education in the rest of United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.Scotland was the first country since Sparta in classical Greece to implement a system of general public education. Schooling was made compulsory for the first time in Scotland with the Education Act of 1496. Education continued to be a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education Act of 1872. </li></ul>Marischal College, University of Aberdeen
  23. 23. Religion <ul><li>Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the Church of Scotland, also known as The Kirk, has been Scotland's national church. The Church is Protestant and Reformed with a Presbyterian system of church government, and enjoys independence from the state. About 12% of the population are currently members of the Church of Scotland. The Church operates a territorial parish structure, with every community in Scotland having a local congregation. Scotland also has a significant Roman Catholic population, particularly in the west. Other Christian denominations in Scotland include the Free Church of Scotland, various other Presbyterian offshoots, and the Scottish Episcopal Church. Islam is the largest non-Christian religion (estimated at around 40,000, which is less than 0.9% of the population),and there are also significant Jewish, Hindu and Sikh communities, especially in Glasgow. In the 2001 census, 28% of the population professed 'no religion' whatsoever. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Culture <ul><li>Clans, the traditional keystone of Scottish society, are no longer powerful.Originally, the clan, a grouping of an entire family with one head, or laird, was also important as a fighting unit. The solidarity associated with clan membership has been expanded into a strong national pride. The Puritan zea of Scottish Presbyterianism, which is traceable to John Knox, the 16th-century religious reformer and statesman, is also strong. Popular sports of Scottish origin include curling and golf. Bagpipes, usually associated with Scottish music, were probably introduced by the Romans, who acquired them in the Middle East. Scottish music is noted for the wide use of a five-tone, or pentatonic, scale. Folk tunes are not standardized, and a single song may have hundreds of variations in lyrics and music. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Sport <ul><li>Sport is an important element in Scottish culture, with the country hosting many of its own national sporting competitions, and enjoying independent representation at many international sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup, the Cricket World Cup and the Commonwealth Games (although not the Olympic Games). Scotland has its own national governing bodies, such as the Scottish Football Association (the second oldest national football association in the world)and the Scottish Rugby Union. Association football is now the national sport and the Scottish Cup is the world's oldest national. The Fife town of St. Andrews is known internationally as the Home of Golf and to many golfers the Old Course, an ancient links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. Other distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. Scotland played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and will do so again in 2014. </li></ul>
  26. 26. National symbols <ul><li>The Flag of Scotland, known as the Saltire or St. Andrew's Cross, dates (at least in legend) from the 9th century, and is thus the oldest national flag still in use. The Saltire now also forms part of the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem, the 6 April, 1320 statement of political independence the Declaration of Arbroath, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan, and the Lion Rampant flag. </li></ul>
  27. 27. National symbols <ul><li>Flower of Scotland is popularly held to be the National Anthem of Scotland, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Scotland national team. However, since devolution, more serious discussion of the issue has led to this being disputed. Other candidates include Highland Cathedral, Scotland the Brave and A Man's A Man for A' That. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Almost all residents of Scotland speak English, although many speak various Scots dialects which differ markedly from Scottish Standard English. Approximately 2% of the population use Scots Gaelic as their language of every-day use, primarily in the northern and western regions of the country. Almost all Gaelic speakers also know some English. By the time of James VI's accession to the English throne the old Scottish Court and Parliament spoke Scots, also known as Lallans. Scots developed from the Anglian spoken in the Northumbrian kingdom of Bernicia, which in the 6th century conquered the Brythonic kingdom of Gododdin and renamed its capital of Dunedin to Edinburgh. </li></ul>Language

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