Sustainable Agriculture & Food Security lecture to CSULB 4-26-2013

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Invited guest lecture to California State University, Long Beach honors course UHP201, 4-26-2013

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Sustainable Agriculture & Food Security lecture to CSULB 4-26-2013

  1. 1. LONG BEACH GROWSGrowing a more sustainable futurewww.longbeachgrows.orgLONG BEACH GROWS has 501(c)(3) non-profit status(Tax ID # 20-4583660) thanks to our partnership withCatalyst Long Beach Network of Communities, our fiscalsponsor; your donations to LONG BEACH GROWS aretax deductible.!All donations are greatly appreciated.!
  2. 2. LONG BEACH GROWSFood security through urban agriculturewww.longbeachgrows.orgLongBeachGrows.OrgLong BeachGROWSLBGROWS Mission is to advocate fora just and equitable food system & topromote green, healthy, sustainableurban agriculture in LB, CA and otheractivities that educate, enhance, andgrow our communities by ensuringand safeguarding local food security.©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWS
  3. 3. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainability & Securityof our Food SystemSUSTAINABLEmeeting current environmental, economic, andsocial needs without compromising the well-beingof future generations (Center for Ecoliteracy)FOOD SECURITYaffordable, nutritious, culturally appropriate*food for all people at all times (USDA** NationalInstitute of Food and Agriculture)
  4. 4. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCommunity Food SecurityThe Community Food Security Coalition (www.foodsecurity.org) statesthat, “at a basic level, CFS is about making healthy food accessible toall, including low-income people. It’s about making nutritious &culturally appropriate food accessible, not just any food. It is aboutpromoting social justice & more equitable access to resources, &building & revitalizing local communities & economies. It’s aboutsupporting local, regional, family-scale, & sustainable farmers &businesses. It’s about empowering diverse people to work together tocreate positive changes in the food system & their communities... andmuch more.”
  5. 5. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFOOD SYSTEMSG R O W I N G H A R V E S T I N G TRANSPORTING PR OCE S S I N G PA C K A G I N G WHOLESALING R E TA I L I N G E AT I N G D I S P O S I N GGrowers useheavyequipmentto preparesoil, andplant andmaintaincrops onhuge farmsof single“monocrops.”Farmworkersgather theripenedcrop fromthe fieldusing largemachinery,harvestinggreatquantitiesat once.Foodprocessorsuse factoryequipmentto chop,grind, dry,boil, can, orfreeze foodto preserveit or to makeit moreconvenient.Processedfood isoften greatlyaltered fromits naturalstate.Workersoperatemachineryto putfood intocans, bags,boxes,or othercontainersfor sale.Thepackagingprotectsfood andhelps sellit.Peoplebuy,prepare,and eatthe food.Peoplediscardleftoverfood andpackaging.While mostis recyclableor com-postable,much of itends up inlandfills.Wholesalerssell anddistributelargequantitiesof foods tostores.Retailerssell foods tocustomers,usually insupermarkets,grocerystores, orother stores.Transporta-tion workersmove thefood byair, truck,train, ship,or barge.Transportingmayhappen atmany stepsand for verylong hauls.I N D U S T R I A L F O O D S Y S T E MXNourish Curriculum Guide © WorldLink Developed by the Center for Ecoliteracy
  6. 6. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsOverpopulationThreatens FoodSecurityGlobal population issues7 billion late 2011+80 million more per year9 billion people in <40 yearsCarrying capacityMax load or population size the environmentcan sustain w/o degradation, given limits offood, water, habitat & other resources1 billion*4.2 billion in 1976 (epi)World Population, 1800-2010, with Projection to 2100
  7. 7. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFood SecurityGlobal IssuesK-selectioninitial rapid growth,eventual zero growthequilibriumregulatory factorslower birth ratereduced foodr-selectionrapid growthexhausts resourcespopulations collapseboom and bust cycleregulatory factorsmortality
  8. 8. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFood SecurityGlobal IssuesHUNGER~1 billion people hungry worldwide> 50 million hungry in U.S. (1 in 6)Stunts children’s physical & mentalgrowth (e.g. 48% of all children in India)33.8%-37.7% of LA county residentscannot afford enough to eat (HealthyCity.org)In LB, 55% of our youth live in poverty.Percent of Familieswith Foodless DaysIndia 24Nigeria 27Peru 14Source: GlobeScan Inc. via EPISource: Press-TelegramLB Salvation Army food pantry
  9. 9. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsU.S. Farmers & FarmlandDwindling1935, 6.8 million U.S. farms to feed ~127 million people2011, 2.1 million U.S. farms to feed >285 million people<1% of U.S. population are farmers40% of U.S. farmers are "55 years oldUSDA 2010 US trade totaled $116 billionCA AgVision 2010, CA alone produces 1/8 of US total agoutput
  10. 10. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCurrent rural/urban dividethreatens food securityTotal land area of U.S. 9.14759E+12 square metersLand area of U.S. rural areas 8.87205E+1280.7% of the U.S. population live on 3% of the land
  11. 11. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFood Waste33 million tons of food dumped inU.S. landfills in 2010, ~200pounds/year/person (EPA)this accounts for 1/4 of allfreshwater used in U.S. (PLOS)decomposing waste in landfillsyields GHG methane (20X worsethan CO2)the food wasted could feed 50million people (USDA)
  12. 12. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFood Waste ReductionReduce commercialwaste by reducingoverstocking atgroceriesChange people’swasteful habits; mostblemished food is stilledible; could even be asign that it’s “Organic”Biodiesel
  13. 13. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsMonocropsthreaten foodsecurityIndustrial agriculture favors monocropsBiodiversity is the buffer needed for resilienceA clonal crop can be wiped out by disease, ifsusceptible (Great Potato Famine 1845-1852)Monocrops endanger us during times of environmentalstress (2012 drought decimates U.S. corn & soy,hottest July on record, 60% of contiguous U.S.)
  14. 14. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsBiodiversity safeguardsfood securitySource: National Geographic Society, July 2011A 1983 study by theRural AdvancementFoundation Internationalsuggests that 93% ofvarieties for 66 cropshad gone extinct.Millenium Seed BankPartnership (RoyalBotanical Gardens Kew)estimates 60,000 -100,000 plant speciesthreatened withextinction.
  15. 15. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsBiodiversity safeguardsfood securityCompanies that introduce most new unique varieties:Seed Savers ExchangeSand Hill PreservationNative Seed SearchHortus BotanicalsBaker Creek Heirloom Seeds
  16. 16. GMOCrops©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsGenetically ModifiedOrganism~75% of processed foodsin U.S. contain geneticallyengineered ingredientsthreatenfood security
  17. 17. GMO Crops©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsEven non-organic baby formula has GMOingredients (soy)Soy (>94%), cotton (>90%), canola (>90%), sugarbeets (>95%), corn (>88%), Hawaiian papaya(>50%), zucchini & yellow squash (>24,000 acres)rbGH in milk, food additives, enzymes, rennet etc
  18. 18. GMOCrops©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsGMO foods have not been adequately tested for long-term human health or environmental safetyMonsanto’s Roundup Ready™ (herbicide resistant) seedsrequire poisoning the environment with glyophosphateGMO-seeds can contaminate neighboring non-GMO andorganic crops and result in herbicide resistant weedsCorporate greed, monopoly, and monocropping of our foodsupply
  19. 19. GMO Crops©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsBt toxin (insecticide)Bacillus thuringiensis toxinSafety is debatableDangersRoundup Ready™(herbicide resistant)GlyophosphateSafety is debatable
  20. 20. GMO food animals©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsAquabounty’s AquAdvantage™ salmonGrows twice as fast as normal b/c it grows all yearChinook salmon growth hormone gene controlled by apromoter from eel-like ocean pout, in Atlantic salmonSupposed to be all female and sterileFDA approve 12/21/12: “it is recognized” that #5% eggs maybe fertile, “meets standard of identity for Atlanticsalmon,” “no material differences,” “there is a reasonablecertainty of no harm”
  21. 21. GMO Crops©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrows1 Possible Advantage"A single bowl of this new golden ricecan supply 60 percent of a childsdaily requirement of vitamin A."actually beta-carotene
  22. 22. GMO Crops©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrows
  23. 23. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsGlobal WarmingThreatensFood Security• The massive burningof fossil fuels isincreasing the level ofcarbon dioxide (CO2)in the atmosphere,raising the earth’stemperature anddisrupting climatePhoto Credit: Yann Arthus-BertrandAverage Global Temperature and AtmosphericCarbon Dioxide Concentrations, 1880-2012
  24. 24. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsGlobal WarmingThreatensFood SecurityEvery 1$ rise in temperature above a crop’s growingoptimum is expected to reduce yields of wheat, rice, cornby 10% (API)Melting glaciers will eliminate reservoirs of irrigationwater; melting Greenland ice sheet will raise sea level andflood rice fields/river deltasIndustrial agricultural practices contribute to globalwarming
  25. 25. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainable AgricultureRequiresClean Energy for aCooler PlanetThe Sun that heats our planet can be our saviorSolar energy should replace fossil fuels1.22x10^34 joules per yearEarth intercepts 2 billionths, 2.44x10^25 joules/yearSunlight hitting the Earth in 1 hour could power globaleconomy for 1 year (EPI)
  26. 26. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainable EnergyBiofuel cropsare not the solutionBetween 2005 and 2011, the amount of grain used to produce fuel for cars in theUnited States climbed from 41 million to 127 million tons—nearly a third of the U.S.grain harvest. (EPI)U.S. corn is largest crop of any grain worldwide, critical to world food suppliesClose to 1/3 U.S. grain now going to ethanol to feed cars instead of peopleGrain used to fuel U.S. cars in 2011 could have fed 400 million peopleThe grain needed to fill an SUV’s 25-gallon tank with ethanol once could feed oneperson for a year.Entire U.S. grain harvest could only supply 18% of current U.S. gasoline demandBiofuel crops worldwide destroy rain forests, don’t solve the GHG emission problem,and can have low net yields of energy once the input is accounted for
  27. 27. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFood MilesThe distance food travels fromfarm to forkSustainable Agriculture Food and Environment (SAFE)Alliance, Professor Tim LangDifficult to calculate, difficult to judgeIt seems intuitive that the fossil fuels required forglobal transport/food trade make long distance foodproduction environmentally unsustainable (i.e. depletesenergy reserves, contributes to GHG emissions & globalwarming)But method of travel and bulk of food transported ineach trip matters
  28. 28. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsDespite the uncertain math of GHG emissionsgains/losses, reducing the food mile certainlyhelps the local economyPlus food that travels shorter distances requiresless time to transport, so must be fresherFood that travels shorter distances can be pickedripe from the vine, so is of higher qualityFood MilesThe distance food travels fromfarm to fork
  29. 29. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainabilityRequiresWaterWorldwide 70% of water used for agriculture~40% of world grain harvest irrigated>50% world’s people live in countries wherewater tables are falling as aquifers aredepleted. (Full Planet, Empty Plates, Lester Brown)San Joaquin Valley water crisis due topumping - by 1972, 1/2 valley dropping asmuch as 28 ftSubsidence
  30. 30. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSwitch to efficient irrigation methods (dripirrigation)Replace water hungry crops (like rice) with morewater-efficient crops (like wheat)Recycle waterUse economic disincentives to discourage wateroveruseReduce reliance on animal products and feed viarotating pastures rather than water-hungry grainSustainable AgricultureRequiresWater Conservation
  31. 31. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainable AgricultureRequiresTop Soil"A nation that destroys its soils destroys itself. Forests are the lungs of our land,purifying the air and giving fresh strength to our people." ~ Franklin D. RooseveltMaya Empire: forest clearing led to soil erosion, loss of soil fertility & food1930’s U.S. Great Plains Dust BowlOverplowing, overgrazing, and deforestation result in soil erosion1/3 of world’s cropland losing topsoil and is not sustainable
  32. 32. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainable AgricultureRequiresSoil ConservationPhoto Credit: USDA ARSPhoto Credit: Yann Arthus-BertrandPhoto Credit: USDA/Dave ClarkNo-till farmingTerracingReplenish grasslands to prevent soilerosionTerracingPant tree shelterbelts (blocks winderosion)Strip cropping (alternate heavy-rooted &loosely rooted plants)No-till farming
  33. 33. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainable AgricultureRequiresNutrient-Rich Soil butFertilizer that isEnvironmentally SustainableSource: Washington Post 4-18-13Fertilizer a dangerous $10 billion U.S. industryApril 2013, West, TX retail factory explosion ofammonium nitrate (270 tons)Ammonium nitrate and other Nitrogenfertilizers made by combustion of natural gasand N2 in air into ammoniaPhosphate (P2O5) fertilizers by acid miningPotash (K2O) fertilizers by miningSource: Mother Jones/Tom Philpott 1-30-13Pollutes water ways, destroys organic matter in soil, emits NO greenhousegas 300X worse than CO2, hydraulic fracking for natural gas destroys theenvironment, as does acid mining
  34. 34. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSustainable AgricultureRequiresEarth-Friendly Fertilizersand ApproachesReplace or rotate nitrogen-hungry crops (like corn) with cropsthat use less nitrogen (oats, wheat)Use green cover crops that create usable nitrogen by nitrogenfixation (legumes: alfalfa, peas, beans, clover, lupin, etc.)Use compost and composted manureRock phosphate (also has calcium) & bonemealPotash (potassium carbonate, K2CO3) - widespread - somesources are wood ash, seaweedSource: LSU AgCenter
  35. 35. USDA Certified Organic©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsOrganic Foods Production Act, 1990 Farm BillNational Organic ProgramUSDA Nat’l Organic Standards Board, April 1995“Organic agriculture is an ecological productionmanagement system that promotes and enhancesbiodiversity, biological cycles and soil biologicalactivity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputsand on management practices that restore, maintainand enhance ecological harmony.”
  36. 36. USDA Certified Organic©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsOrganic PracticesUse of cover crops, green manures, animal manures andcrop rotations to fertilize the soil, maximize biologicalactivity, maintain long-term soil healthUse of biological control, crop rotations, othertechniques to manage weeds, insects, diseases(Integrated Pest Management)Emphasis on biodiversity of agricultural system andsurrounding environmentRotational grazing and mixed forage pastures forlivestock and alternative health care for animal well-being
  37. 37. USDA Certified Organic©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsOrganic PracticesReduction of external and off-farm inputs andelimination of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers andother materials, such as hormones and antibioticsFocus on renewable resources, soil and waterconservation, and management practices that restore,maintain, and enhance ecological balanceSpecifically excludes synthetic fertilizers, sewagesludge, irradiation, and genetic engineering (see Nat’lList of Allowed and Prohibited Substances)Small organic farms and businesses, i.e. gross sales <$5,000/yr are “exempt” from certification requirementsbut still need to follow all USDA requirements includingthe 3 years of records before calling themselvesorganic
  38. 38. USDA Certified Organic©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsOrganic Animal ProductsLivestock products must have been raised organicallyfrom the last third gestation or hatchingPoultry - continuous organic from 2nd day of lifeDairy- from 1 year prior to production of milk, withexceptions
  39. 39. Non-organicanimal husbandrypractices©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFeeding processed downer cattle to other ruminants(now prohibited) led to the evolution of mad cowdiseaseHowever, still feed chicken feathers, bones, &carcasses to herbivoresThe use of chemotherapy to kill worms, insects, andother parasitesThe routine use of antibiotics on otherwise healthyanimalsThe routine use of hormonesThe use of GMO-feed
  40. 40. Truly* Organic & SustainableAnimal Husbandry©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsJoel Salatin, Polyface Farms550 acres of farm, forest, pond, hills inVirginia’s Shenandoah ValleyHe calls himself a grass farmer (i.e. 12 ft tall),sequesters carbon faster than shrubs thantreesYearly yield: 40,000 lbs of beef, 30,000 lbs ofpork, 10,000 broilers, 1200 turkeys, 1000rabbits, 35,000 dozen eggs
  41. 41. Truly OrganicSustainableAnimal Husbandry©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsPolyface Cows & PigeratorsWinter: cows under simple awnings with wood chips“carbonaceous diaper” - absorbs the waste, preventsvolatilization or runoff- 50 lbs per cow per day - gets3-4 feet deep - add cornEat hay out of raised sanitary clean boxThe mix composts anaerobically, ferments the cornSpring - cows go to pasture, pigs seek corn, aerate thecompost - then spread on the fieldsPigs then used to disturb the pre-pasture and oakforest- this wakes up latent seed bank, never seededThis allows more carbon sequestrationContrasts with 75% of U.S. manure never usedSource: Joel Salatin, Polyface Farm, Edible Education 103
  42. 42. Truly Organic SustainableAnimal Husbandry©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsExample: Cows Moving, Mobbing, MowingRotates cattle daily, 100 per new 1/4 acre restedpaddock enclosed with cheap electric fencing & gravityfed water from ponds through plastic piped waterIn 3 days, 300 hens (sanitation crew) brought in henmobile, eat larvae out of cow patties, disperse themanure, add their own fertilizerIn 6 weeks new grass cut for hay or used for pastureGrass maintains root-shoot ratio, sheds roots, feeds soilmicrobesEach year generates more biodiversity, more fertility,more soil, not lessAchieves 400 cow days per acre, 5x county averageSource: Joel Salatin, Polyface Farm, Edible Education 103
  43. 43. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCurrent rural/urban dividethreatens food securityTotal land area of U.S. 9.14759E+12 square metersLand area of U.S. rural areas 8.87205E+1280.7% of the U.S. population live on 3% of the land
  44. 44. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCurrent rural/urban dividethreatens food security1910, LA county was the most productive agriculturalcounty in the country.1955 was the last time LA county could feed itself.Now, most people living in “the city” are disconnectedfrom the source of their nourishment.
  45. 45. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCities Can (& should) Feed ThemselvesUC Berkeley’s Nobel-prize winningenergy scientist Daniel Kammenhost of Discovery Channel’s “Ecopolis”has rated urban farming as one ofthe top five priority solutionsfor a sustainable future.Although he estimates only a2% reduction in the carbon footprint?
  46. 46. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security2011 Ohio State University study, Professor ParwinderGrewal calculates that Cleveland and other cities cangrow 100% of their fresh produce, 94% of theirpoultry & eggs, & 100% of their honeyCleveland has >3000 acres of vacant lotsCleveland has 2900 acres of flat roof topsCleveland has >200 community gardens (50 acres)©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCities Can (& should) Feed Themselves
  47. 47. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCities Can (& should) Feed ThemselvesRooftopsBrooklyn Grange, NYC40,000 sq ftfor-profit farmUpGarden, Seattle30,000 sq ftpublic community garden
  48. 48. Cities should farm all oftheir underutilized space©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsLong Beach CivicCenterRooftop
  49. 49. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsCities Can (& should) Feed ThemselvesVertical & High Tech GreenhousesPlantagon GreenhouseAtlanta Botanical Gardenvertical herb garden
  50. 50. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrows
  51. 51. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsUrban Ag
  52. 52. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsLand estimates don’t include land neededto grow animal feed. Corn would require 2640 sq ft.
  53. 53. Urban AgricultureLocal Food Security©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsEstimates 0.5 acres of arable land per person.Includes wheat but not corn. Globally, this amountsto ~4 billion acres of land, about the area of Russia.
  54. 54. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsFOOD SYSTEMSG R O W I N G H A R V E S T I N G TRANSPORTING PR OCE S S I N G PA C K A G I N G WHOLESALING R E TA I L I N G E AT I N G D I S P O S I N GGrowers useheavyequipmentto preparesoil, andplant andmaintaincrops onhuge farmsof single“monocrops.”Farmworkersgather theripenedcrop fromthe fieldusing largemachinery,harvestinggreatquantitiesat once.Foodprocessorsuse factoryequipmentto chop,grind, dry,boil, can, orfreeze foodto preserveit or to makeit moreconvenient.Processedfood isoften greatlyaltered fromits naturalstate.Workersoperatemachineryto putfood intocans, bags,boxes,or othercontainersfor sale.Thepackagingprotectsfood andhelps sellit.Peoplebuy,prepare,and eatthe food.Peoplediscardleftoverfood andpackaging.While mostis recyclableor com-postable,much of itends up inlandfills.Wholesalerssell anddistributelargequantitiesof foods tostores.Retailerssell foods tocustomers,usually insupermarkets,grocerystores, orother stores.Transporta-tion workersmove thefood byair, truck,train, ship,or barge.Transportingmayhappen atmany stepsand for verylong hauls.I N D U S T R I A L F O O D S Y S T E MXNourish Curriculum Guide © WorldLink Developed by the Center for Ecoliteracy
  55. 55. SustainableOrganicSafe©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsSOS
  56. 56. ©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsLBGROWSUnity Farm5450 Atherton St
  57. 57. LONG BEACH GROWSGrowing a more sustainable futurewww.longbeachgrows.orgLONG BEACH GROWS has 501(c)(3) non-profit status(Tax ID # 20-4583660) thanks to our partnership withCatalyst Long Beach Network of Communities, our fiscalsponsor; your donations to LONG BEACH GROWS aretax deductible.!All donations are greatly appreciated.!
  58. 58. References©2013, D. Marykwas, LBGROWSLBGrowsEarth Policy Institute, www.earth-policy.orgEdible Education 103: “Farming as Dance, The Choreography ofPolyculture,” Joel SalatinFeeding America, feedingamerica.orgGreen, A NYTimes Blog About Energy and theEnvironment, “A War Against Food Waste,” 9-15-11Institute for Responsible Technology,www.responsibletechnology.orgMetropolitan Water District of Southern CaliforniaMother Jones. Tom Philpott, “The Surprising Connection between Food andFracking,” 1-30-2013Nourish Curriculum Guide © Worldlink Developed by the Center forEcoliteracy (Food Systems Diagram)sustainablescale.org (Carrying Capacity Diagram)Sustainable Food News, “Study: Cities can produce most of their food,”9-10-11United States Census Bureau (www.census.gov)United States Department of Agriculture

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