Initial contact Peak stance M male F female
A anticipated U unanticipated
Changes in lower limb landing biomechanics
following a functional fatiguing programme:
Contributions to anterior cruciate ligament injury
• Five male and five female recreational athletes
• Lower limb biomechanics were analysed two
dimensionally at both the initial contact and peak
stance phases of landing (figure 1).
Figure 1. hip flexion (A), knee flexion (B), ankle
dorsiflexion (C) and knee valgus (D).
Jump landing task
Jump landing task
M F A U
• The results of this study have highlighted the
potential hazardous role of fatigue in inducing
ACL injury risk positions.
• As this is the first study that aimed to replicate
game fatigue the results can be applied more
confidently to an ACL prevention programme.
• By exposing athletes to more complex
movement tasks in training it may counter the
deleterious impact of fatigue on movement
patterns (Borotikar et al., 2008).
• There are an estimated 80-100,000 ACL injuries
occurring annually within the United States
(Griffin et al., 2000).
• This high frequency of ACL injuries still remains
(Kernozek, Torry, and Iwasaki, 2008),
highlighting that current prevention programmes
may be excluding vital factors linked to the true
mechanism of injury.
• Literature has recently focussed on
neuromuscular fatigue as a mechanism of ACL
injury but all studies lack validity.
• AIM: To examine the changes in lower limb
biomechanics following a functional fatiguing
programme. To examine if the changes differed
between genders and between landing type when
controlling for the stage of the hormonal cycle.
• Borotikar, B.S., Newcomer, R., Koppes, R. and McLean, S.G. (2008) Combined effects of fatigue and decisions making on female lower limb landing postures: central and peripheral contributions to ACL injury risk.
Clinical Biomechanics, 23(1), pp. 81-92.
• Griffin, L., Agel, J., Albolhm, M., Arendt, L., Ireland, M., Johnson, R., Kibler, B., Lephart, S., Lewis, J., Lindenfeld, T., Madelbaum, B., Marchak, P., Teitz, C. and Wojtys, E. (2000) Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament
injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 8(3), pp.141-50.
• Kernozek, T.W., Torry, M.R. and Iwasaki, M. (2008) Gender differences in lower extremity landing mechanics caused by neuromuscular fatigue. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(3), pp. 554-65.
Fatigue increases ACL risk
factors; prevention programmes
need to incorporate fatigue into
Claire Stevens – firstname.lastname@example.org
Supervisor – Kevin Campbell-Karn