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THE MIND - BODY PROBLEM
The Mind <ul><li>- The mental aspect consists of consciousness.  </li></ul><ul><li>What is consciousness? </li></ul><ul><l...
Consciousness <ul><li>How did consciousness come to be? </li></ul><ul><li>God gave it :) </li></ul><ul><li>The elementary ...
Consciousness <ul><li>Descartes believed that consciousness was an ‘observer in the head’, a higher function seperate from...
The Physical Aspect
What is the Mind- Body problem? <ul><li>The mind- body problem is simply the question of how the mind and body are connect...
Mind over matter... Astral projection
Traditional solutions to the mind- body problem: <ul><li>Monism </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism </li...
 
MONISM <ul><li>Reality,whatever it is, is all  one piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Material and nonmaterial parts cannot be seper...
Hinduism Buddhism Islam Judaism Christianity                                                                              ...
Oppositional forms of monism <ul><li>MATERIALISM : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matter is important. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
History of Materialism <ul><li>Axial Age </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient Idian philosophy, it developed around 600 BCE by Aji...
European enlightment <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes & Pierre Gassendi </li></ul><ul><li>Denis Didorit, Ludwig Feuebarch & John “Wal...
Karl Marx & Friederich Engels <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of Social metarialism </li></ul>                    
<ul><li>IDEALISM : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reality based on mind or ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reality i...
<ul><li>EPIPHENOMENALISM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Type-E dualism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental even...
HISTORY OF EPIPHENOMALISM <ul><li>Post-Cartesian  </li></ul><ul><li>Shadworth Hodgson:First formulation of epiphenomalism....
DUAL ISM 11/03/08
3 positions of dualism <ul><li>Interactionism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychophsical Parallelism </li></ul><ul><li>Emergentism (E...
Interactionism <ul><li>POSITION:  Mental states influence each   other and bodily events, and   vice versa. </li></ul><ul>...
Psychophysical Parallelism POSITION:  Mental states influence each    other. Bodily events also      influence each other....
Emergentism (Epiphenomenalism) POSITION:  Mental processes are produced by   brain processes, but are qualitatively    dif...
Why give up dualism? <ul><li>Mental depends on the physical </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained aspects (not informative) </li><...
Pluralism <ul><li>What is Pluralism? </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism embraces the reality of mind and body but also insists th...
<ul><li>Attributive Pluralism emphasizes the relationship between an object and the words that are used to describe the ob...
Psychogeny
Psychogeny : the origin of psuche mind,spirit,soul principle of life, existence associated with mental processes (consciou...
<ul><li>IT:individuals’ role related behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>SIT: group processes and ingroup relations  </li></ul><u...
Identity = Sameness <ul><li>Arbitrary Time of Infusion </li></ul><ul><li>after 40 days if male </li></ul><ul><li>after 80 ...
...that spirits are standing by at the mating and birth of animals- a numberless number of immortals on the look-out for m...
Emergentism:  unity of physical and mental worlds John Stuart Mill   System of Logic(1843) C.D. Broad  The Mind and its Pl...
How much complexity is required? Are they conscious without a circulatory system? Is colony of cells without a nervous sys...
 
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presentation of historical context of psychology

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presentation of historical context of psychology

  1. 1. THE MIND - BODY PROBLEM
  2. 2. The Mind <ul><li>- The mental aspect consists of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>What is consciousness? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a type of mental state which involves thoughts, sensations, perceptions, moods, emotions, dreams and self-awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Sensation of the color red </li></ul>
  3. 3. Consciousness <ul><li>How did consciousness come to be? </li></ul><ul><li>God gave it :) </li></ul><ul><li>The elementary particles of the Big Bang made us so. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians believed it was connected to the existence of the spiritual. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Consciousness <ul><li>Descartes believed that consciousness was an ‘observer in the head’, a higher function seperate from the workings of the physical brain. </li></ul>‘ Cogito Ergo Sum’ Descartes <ul><li>‘ Consciousness is axiomatic.’ You can not deny your mind because the act of denying your mind requires your mind. Consciousness doesnt rest upon anything to be valid. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Physical Aspect
  6. 6. What is the Mind- Body problem? <ul><li>The mind- body problem is simply the question of how the mind and body are connected to each other. We believe they are connected somehow. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical events may affect mental state </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Drinking too much </li></ul><ul><li>Mental states may affect physical </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Thinking of raising an arm </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mind over matter... Astral projection
  8. 8. Traditional solutions to the mind- body problem: <ul><li>Monism </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychogeny </li></ul>
  9. 10. MONISM <ul><li>Reality,whatever it is, is all one piece. </li></ul><ul><li>Material and nonmaterial parts cannot be seperated. </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing is foreign. </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between monists. </li></ul><ul><li>Monism in religious and spiritual systems. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hinduism Buddhism Islam Judaism Christianity                                                                                                                      
  11. 12. Oppositional forms of monism <ul><li>MATERIALISM : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matter is important. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only material and physical things. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reference of Matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body exists not the mind. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. History of Materialism <ul><li>Axial Age </li></ul><ul><li>In ancient Idian philosophy, it developed around 600 BCE by Ajita Kesakambali,Payasi & Kanada. </li></ul><ul><li>Thales, Parmenides, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Epicurus. </li></ul><ul><li>The poem of Lucretius. </li></ul>
  13. 14. European enlightment <ul><li>Thomas Hobbes & Pierre Gassendi </li></ul><ul><li>Denis Didorit, Ludwig Feuebarch & John “Walking” Stewart </li></ul>Pierre Gassendi Thomas Hobbes                                                 
  14. 15. Karl Marx & Friederich Engels <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of Social metarialism </li></ul>                    
  15. 16. <ul><li>IDEALISM : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reality based on mind or ideas. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reality is inseperable from mind,consciousness or perception. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contrasted with materialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>History of Idealism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hegel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berkeley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royce </li></ul></ul>PLATO                       
  16. 17. <ul><li>EPIPHENOMENALISM </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Type-E dualism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental events are caused by or a by product physical events. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One way interaction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The body makes things happen. </li></ul></ul></ul>MIND is a byproduct of BODY
  17. 18. HISTORY OF EPIPHENOMALISM <ul><li>Post-Cartesian </li></ul><ul><li>Shadworth Hodgson:First formulation of epiphenomalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Huxley:Locomotive </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Jackson: Mary’s room </li></ul>Thomas Huxley                                                                               
  18. 19. DUAL ISM 11/03/08
  19. 20. 3 positions of dualism <ul><li>Interactionism </li></ul><ul><li>Psychophsical Parallelism </li></ul><ul><li>Emergentism (Epiphenomenalism) </li></ul>11/03/08
  20. 21. Interactionism <ul><li>POSITION: Mental states influence each other and bodily events, and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS: </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of causation </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of interaction </li></ul>11/03/08
  21. 22. Psychophysical Parallelism POSITION: Mental states influence each other. Bodily events also influence each other. BUT these two cannot influence each other. PROBLEMS: 1. Commonsense? 2. A pre-established harmony 11/03/08
  22. 23. Emergentism (Epiphenomenalism) POSITION: Mental processes are produced by brain processes, but are qualitatively different. 11/03/08 The physical can effect the mental and each other but otherwise is not acceptable.
  23. 24. Why give up dualism? <ul><li>Mental depends on the physical </li></ul><ul><li>Unexplained aspects (not informative) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Pluralism <ul><li>What is Pluralism? </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism embraces the reality of mind and body but also insists that these two orders are not the only possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralism </li></ul>Many Realities !!!
  25. 26. <ul><li>Attributive Pluralism emphasizes the relationship between an object and the words that are used to describe the object. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a sunset? </li></ul>Attributive Pluralism
  26. 27. Psychogeny
  27. 28. Psychogeny : the origin of psuche mind,spirit,soul principle of life, existence associated with mental processes (consciousness, perception, self-awearness,memory...)
  28. 29. <ul><li>IT:individuals’ role related behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>SIT: group processes and ingroup relations </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>George Herbert Mead (1934) “society shapes self shapes social behaviour” </li></ul><ul><li>punctuated and complete instatiation of pusche into a material substrate at a given instant time </li></ul><ul><li>continuity between the “besouled” that is the starting of the individual life and later conscious and self-reflective person </li></ul><ul><li>continuity between fertilized egg and the later individual </li></ul>
  29. 30. Identity = Sameness <ul><li>Arbitrary Time of Infusion </li></ul><ul><li>after 40 days if male </li></ul><ul><li>after 80 days if female </li></ul><ul><li>quickening </li></ul>Colony of cells; morula or blastocyst = twins, artificial fertilization
  30. 31. ...that spirits are standing by at the mating and birth of animals- a numberless number of immortals on the look-out for mortal frames, jostling to get in first... Or is there perhaps an established compact that first come will be first served? ( Lucretius,1959)
  31. 32. Emergentism: unity of physical and mental worlds John Stuart Mill System of Logic(1843) C.D. Broad The Mind and its Place in Nature(1925) Llyod Morgan & Samuel Alexander Space, Time and Deity (1920) Ludwig von Bertalanffy General System Theory <ul><li>Arbitrary Time of Emergence </li></ul><ul><li>colony of cells has an apparent sense of boundaries and these boundaries constitutes primitive awareness. </li></ul><ul><li>there is no primitive awareness without a reasonably well developed nervous system </li></ul>
  32. 33. How much complexity is required? Are they conscious without a circulatory system? Is colony of cells without a nervous system conscious? Is it same me today as it was years ago? Is a high school student less of a person than a proffessor? How should happy adults with rich personal experiences but low intellegence be treated? Emergentism devalues psuche?

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