Photoshop cs4摄影师专业技术教程

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Photoshop cs4摄影师专业技术教程

  1. 1. Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers
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  3. 3. Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers A professional image editor’s guide to the creative use of Photoshop for the Macintosh and PC Martin Evening AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG • LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD PARIS • SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO • SINGAPORE • SYDNEY • TOKYO Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier
  4. 4. Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803, USA First published 2009 Copyright © 2009, Martin Evening. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved The right of Martin Evening to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone (+44) (0) 1865 843830; fax (+44) (0) 1865 853333; email: permissions@ elsevier.com. Alternatively visit the Science and Technology Books website at www.elsevierdirect.com/rights for further information Notice No responsibility is assumed by the publisher for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Evening Martin Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers : learn photoshop the Martin Evening way! 1. Adobe Photoshop 2. Photography – Digital techniques I. Title 775'.02856686 Library of Congress Control Number: 2008938834 ISBN: 978-0-240-52125-1 ForinformationonallFocalPresspublicationsvisitourwebsiteat: www.focalpress.com Trademarks/Registered Trademarks Brand names mentioned in this book are protected by their respective trademarks and are acknowledged Printed and bound in Canada 09 10 11 12 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  5. 5. v Contents Foreword.............................................................................................................................xxi Introduction.......................................................................................................................xxiii Book and DVD contents ..............................................................................................xxv Photoshop for Photographers website ........................................................................xxv Chapter 1: Photoshop Fundamentals 1 An overview of the book chapters ......................................................................................... 2 How to use this book............................................................................................................. 4 Photoshop installation .......................................................................................................... 7 The Photoshop interface........................................................................................................ 8 Tabbed document windows.......................................................................................... 10 Managing document windows ..................................................................................... 12 Image document window details .................................................................................. 14 Dynamic zoom views ............................................................................................ 14 Title bar proxy icons (Macintosh) ......................................................................... 15 Rulers, Guides & Grid.................................................................................................. 16 ‘Snap to’ behavior ........................................................................................................ 17 Pixel Grid view............................................................................................................. 17 Application bar............................................................................................................. 18 The Photoshop panels.................................................................................................. 19 Panel arrangements and docking .......................................................................... 20 Workspace settings...................................................................................................... 22 Customizing the menu options ............................................................................ 23 Customizing the keyboard shortcuts..................................................................... 24 Working with a dual monitor setup ....................................................................... 25 Photoshop CS4 Tools panel................................................................................................ 26 Options bar.................................................................................................................. 28 Tool Presets panel........................................................................................................ 29 Selection tools .................................................................................................................... 30 Color Range................................................................................................................. 32 Modifier keys ............................................................................................................... 34 Painting tools...................................................................................................................... 36 On-the-fly brush changes............................................................................................. 37 Brushes panel.............................................................................................................. 39 Brushes panel options ......................................................................................... 40 Pressure sensitive control............................................................................................ 41 Brush tool presets........................................................................................................ 41 Tools for filling.................................................................................................................... 42 Tools for drawing ................................................................................................................ 43 Image editing tools.............................................................................................................. 44
  6. 6. Contents vi Working with Layers............................................................................................................ 46 Automating Photoshop........................................................................................................ 47 Move tool..................................................................................................................... 48 Layer selection using the move tool............................................................................. 48 Navigation and information tools ........................................................................................ 50 Flick panning ............................................................................................................... 51 Bird’s-eye view............................................................................................................. 51 Rotate view tool............................................................................................................ 52 Notes tool .................................................................................................................... 53 Screen view modes...................................................................................................... 54 Preset Manager................................................................................................................... 55 History................................................................................................................................ 56 The History panel......................................................................................................... 56 History settings and memory usage............................................................................. 57 History brush............................................................................................................... 59 Use of history versus undo.......................................................................................... 59 Snapshots.................................................................................................................... 60 Non-linear history........................................................................................................ 61 When files won’t open.................................................................................................. 62 Save often.................................................................................................................... 63 Using Save As... to save images ........................................................................... 64 File formats.................................................................................................................. 65 Photoshop native file format ................................................................................. 65 PSB (Large Document Format).............................................................................. 66 TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)........................................................................... 66 Flattened TIFFs ..................................................................................................... 67 Photoshop PDF............................................................................................................ 68 PDF security ......................................................................................................... 69 Adobe Bridge CS4............................................................................................................... 72 The Bridge interface ..................................................................................................... 73 Custom workspaces in Bridge............................................................................... 74 Slideshows ........................................................................................................... 74 Opening photos via Camera Raw ................................................................................. 76 What’s new in Camera Raw 5.0.................................................................................... 77 Easter eggs.......................................................................................................................... 78 Chapter 2: Configuring Photoshop 79 What you will need.............................................................................................................. 80 Macintosh.................................................................................................................... 80 Windows...................................................................................................................... 80 The ideal computer setup.................................................................................................... 81
  7. 7. vii Contents Choosing a display...................................................................................................... 82 Wide dynamic range displays ...................................................................................... 83 Video cards........................................................................................................... 83 Display calibration and profiling.................................................................................. 84 Calibration hardware............................................................................................. 86 The calibration/profiling procedure.............................................................................. 87 White point ........................................................................................................... 87 Gamma ................................................................................................................. 88 Luminance............................................................................................................ 88 Device calibration and measurement............................................................................ 89 The profiling process ................................................................................................... 90 Do you want good color or just OK color?............................................................ 90 Color management settings ......................................................................................... 92 Extras........................................................................................................................... 93 Backing up image data................................................................................................. 94 Photoshop preferences........................................................................................................ 95 General preferences ..................................................................................................... 95 Interface....................................................................................................................... 97 File Handling ............................................................................................................... 99 File compatibility .................................................................................................. 99 Performance............................................................................................................... 102 GPU settings....................................................................................................... 103 RAM memory and scratch disks ................................................................................ 104 Enhancing memory and performance.................................................................. 105 Scratch disks ...................................................................................................... 105 Scratch disk performance........................................................................................... 107 Interface connections.......................................................................................... 107 RAID setups............................................................................................................... 108 RAID 0 (striping)................................................................................................. 108 RAID 1 (mirroring).............................................................................................. 108 Internal RAID....................................................................................................... 109 External RAID...................................................................................................... 109 Image Cache .............................................................................................................. 110 Cache pyramid structure..................................................................................... 110 Cursors...................................................................................................................... 111 Transparency & Gamut............................................................................................... 112 Units & Rulers............................................................................................................ 113 Guides, Grid & Slices ......................................................................................... 114 Plug-ins..................................................................................................................... 115 Type preferences........................................................................................................ 116
  8. 8. Contents viii Chapter 3: Camera Raw Image Processing 117 Camera Raw advantages .................................................................................................. 118 The new Camera Raw workflow.................................................................................. 118 Does the order matter?........................................................................................ 120 Raw capture ........................................................................................................ 120 JPEG capture ...................................................................................................... 121 Editing JPEGs and TIFFs in Camera Raw............................................................ 121 Alternative Raw processors................................................................................. 122 A basic Camera Raw/Photoshop workflow................................................................. 123 A Lightroom/Photoshop workflow.............................................................................. 126 Camera Raw support.................................................................................................. 128 DNG compatibility............................................................................................... 128 Getting raw images into Photoshop .................................................................................. 129 Image ingestion.......................................................................................................... 129 Importing images via Photo Downloader............................................................ 130 Tethered shoot imports....................................................................................... 135 Importing images via other programs................................................................. 139 Lightroom imports..................................................................................................... 140 Importing photos via Lightroom 2 ...................................................................... 141 Basic Camera Raw image editing ..................................................................................... 144 Working with Bridge and Camera Raw....................................................................... 144 General controls for single file opening...................................................................... 146 Full size window view ......................................................................................... 148 General controls for multiple file opening .................................................................. 148 Opening raw files as Smart Objects ........................................................................... 150 Saving photos from Camera Raw............................................................................... 154 The histogram display................................................................................................ 155 Image browsing with Camera Raw ............................................................................. 156 Camera Raw preferences............................................................................................ 158 Auto corrections.................................................................................................. 159 Camera-specific default settings......................................................................... 159 Camera Raw cache size....................................................................................... 161 DNG file handling ............................................................................................... 161 Basic panel controls.......................................................................................................... 162 White balance ............................................................................................................ 162 Using the white balance tool............................................................................... 163 The tone adjustment controls .................................................................................... 164 Exposure............................................................................................................. 164 Recovery............................................................................................................. 164 Blacks................................................................................................................. 164 Fill Light ............................................................................................................. 165
  9. 9. ix Contents Suggested order for the basic adjustments ......................................................... 165 Basic image adjustment procedure ............................................................................ 166 Preserving the highlight detail................................................................................... 168 When to clip the highlights ........................................................................................ 170 How to clip the shadows ............................................................................................ 171 Shadow levels after a conversion............................................................................... 172 Digital exposure.................................................................................................. 174 Brightness.................................................................................................................. 176 Contrast..................................................................................................................... 178 Clarity........................................................................................................................ 179 Negative clarity.................................................................................................... 180 Vibrance and Saturation............................................................................................. 182 Tone Curve panel....................................................................................................... 184 Correcting a high contrast image............................................................................... 186 HSL/Grayscale panel.................................................................................................. 188 Recovering out-of-gamut colors.......................................................................... 189 Adjusting the hue and saturation......................................................................... 190 Lens Corrections panel.............................................................................................. 192 Defringe.............................................................................................................. 193 Lens Vignetting control....................................................................................... 194 Post Crop vignetting control............................................................................... 196 Camera Calibration panel........................................................................................... 198 The ACR Calibrator script ................................................................................... 199 New Camera Raw profiles................................................................................... 202 Spot removal tool....................................................................................................... 204 Synchronized spotting with Camera Raw ............................................................ 205 Red eye removal......................................................................................................... 206 Localized adjustments....................................................................................................... 207 Adjustment brush....................................................................................................... 207 Initial Adjustment brush options................................................................................ 208 Brush settings..................................................................................................... 208 Adding a new brush effect.......................................................................................... 209 Editing brush adjustments ......................................................................................... 210 Previewing the brush stroke areas....................................................................... 210 Auto masking...................................................................................................... 212 Hand-coloring in Color mode.................................................................................... 214 Sharpness slider................................................................................................. 216 Graduated filter tool ................................................................................................... 217 Angled gradients........................................................................................................ 220 Adding clarity and contrast ................................................................................. 220 Camera Raw cropping and straightening.................................................................... 222
  10. 10. Contents x Camera Raw settings menu........................................................................................ 223 Export settings to XMP....................................................................................... 224 Update DNG previews......................................................................................... 224 Load/Save Settings............................................................................................. 224 Camera Raw defaults .......................................................................................... 225 Presets panel ............................................................................................................. 225 Saving and applying presets ..................................................................................... 226 Copying and synchronizing settings................................................................... 227 DNG file format ................................................................................................................. 228 The DNG solution....................................................................................................... 229 DNG adoption............................................................................................................ 229 DNG Converter .......................................................................................................... 230 Chapter 4: Sharpening and Noise Reduction 231 When to sharpen............................................................................................................... 232 Capture sharpening.................................................................................................... 232 Capture sharpening for scanned images............................................................. 233 Sample sharpening image................................................................................... 234 Detail panel................................................................................................................ 235 The sharpening effect sliders .............................................................................. 235 Amount slider ..................................................................................................... 236 Radius slider....................................................................................................... 237 The suppression controls.................................................................................... 238 Detail slider......................................................................................................... 238 Interpreting the grayscale previews..................................................................... 240 Radius and Detail grayscale preview................................................................... 240 Masking slider........................................................................................................... 241 Masking slider example...................................................................................... 242 Some real world sharpening examples....................................................................... 243 Sharpening a portrait.......................................................................................... 243 Sharpening a landscape...................................................................................... 244 Sharpening a fine-detailed subject...................................................................... 245 How to save sharpening settings as presets............................................................... 246 Capture sharpening roundup ..................................................................................... 247 Selective sharpening......................................................................................................... 248 Smart Sharpen filter................................................................................................... 248 Basic Smart Sharpen mode................................................................................. 248 Advanced Smart Sharpen mode................................................................................. 250 Removing Motion Blur........................................................................................ 251 Creating a depth of field brush................................................................................... 252
  11. 11. xi Contents Removing noise ................................................................................................................ 255 Reducing film grain noise .......................................................................................... 256 Noise removal in Camera Raw ............................................................................ 257 Reduce Noise filter..................................................................................................... 258 Advanced mode noise reduction......................................................................... 259 JPEG noise removal............................................................................................ 260 Saving the Reduce Noise settings....................................................................... 260 Chapter 5: Image Editing Essentials 261 Pixels versus vectors......................................................................................................... 262 Terminology............................................................................................................... 263 ppi: pixels per inch ............................................................................................. 263 lpi: lines per inch................................................................................................ 263 dpi: dots per inch................................................................................................ 264 Desktop printer resolution................................................................................... 264 Choosing the right pixel resolution for print ....................................................... 265 Image resolution ............................................................................................................... 265 Repro considerations ................................................................................................. 266 The relationship between ppi and lpi.......................................................................... 267 Creating a new document........................................................................................... 269 Altering the image size............................................................................................... 270 Image interpolation .................................................................................................... 271 Nearest Neighbor................................................................................................ 271 Bilinear interpolation........................................................................................... 271 Bicubic interpolation........................................................................................... 271 Bicubic interpolation methods ................................................................................... 272 Bicubic Smoother ............................................................................................... 272 Bicubic Sharper .................................................................................................. 272 Step interpolation....................................................................................................... 272 Basic pixel editing............................................................................................................. 274 The image histogram.................................................................................................. 274 Basic Levels editing and the histogram...................................................................... 277 Bit depth .................................................................................................................... 278 8-bit versus 16-bit image editing........................................................................ 279 Comparing 8-bit with 16-bit editing.................................................................... 280 16-bit and color space selection......................................................................... 281 The RGB edit space and color gamut.......................................................................... 282 Direct image adjustments........................................................................................... 284 Adjustment layers and Adjustments panel........................................................... 284 Adding an adjustment layer procedure................................................................ 285 Adjustment panel controls .................................................................................. 287
  12. 12. Contents xii Levels adjustments .................................................................................................... 288 Using Levels to improve the contrast.................................................................. 290 Curves adjustment layers........................................................................................... 292 On-image Curves editing.................................................................................... 294 Direct Curves dialog.................................................................................................. 296 Saving and loading curves......................................................................................... 296 Using Curves in place of Levels ......................................................................... 298 Using Curves to improve contrast....................................................................... 300 Curves luminance and saturation........................................................................ 300 Luminosity and Color blending modes............................................................... 302 Curve presets...................................................................................................... 304 Locking down portions of the curve ................................................................... 306 Creating a dual contrast curve ............................................................................ 307 Brightness and Contrast............................................................................................. 308 Correcting shadow and highlight detail...................................................................... 310 Amount............................................................................................................... 310 Tonal Width......................................................................................................... 310 Radius................................................................................................................. 311 Color Correction................................................................................................. 313 Midtone Contrast................................................................................................ 313 Color corrections.............................................................................................................. 314 Basic color balancing with Levels.............................................................................. 315 Auto image adjustments............................................................................................. 316 Color correction with Levels or Curves...................................................................... 318 Precise color correction using Curves....................................................................... 320 Hue/Saturation........................................................................................................... 324 Colorize mode..................................................................................................... 324 Vibrance..................................................................................................................... 327 Photo Filter................................................................................................................ 328 Multiple adjustment layers......................................................................................... 329 Adjustment layer masks............................................................................................. 330 Masks panel controls................................................................................................. 330 Masks panel editing............................................................................................ 332 Color Range adjustment layer masking............................................................... 334 Blend mode adjustments............................................................................................ 336 Cropping........................................................................................................................... 338 Selection-based cropping.......................................................................................... 340 Perspective cropping.................................................................................................. 341 Image rotation............................................................................................................ 342 Canvas size................................................................................................................ 343
  13. 13. xiii Contents Content-Aware Scaling .............................................................................................. 344 How to protect skin tones.................................................................................... 346 How to remove objects from a scene................................................................... 347 Big data...................................................................................................................... 348 Chapter 6: Black and White 349 Converting color to black and white.................................................................................. 350 The dumb black and white conversions...................................................................... 350 Smarter black and white conversions......................................................................... 350 Black & White adjustment presets.............................................................................. 353 Split color toning with Color Balance......................................................................... 354 Curves adjustment layer split toning.......................................................................... 356 Camera Raw black and white conversions.................................................................. 358 Pros and cons of the Camera Raw approach....................................................... 359 Camera Raw Split Toning panel ................................................................................. 360 Camera Raw color image split toning.................................................................. 361 Black and white output...................................................................................................... 362 Chapter 7: Extending the Dynamic Range 363 Multiple raw conversions.................................................................................................. 364 Place-A-Matic script.................................................................................................. 367 High dynamic range imaging ............................................................................................ 368 HDR essentials........................................................................................................... 369 Fuji Super CCD................................................................................................... 370 Alternative approaches........................................................................................ 370 Bracketed exposures........................................................................................... 371 Displaying deep-bit color.................................................................................... 371 Capturing a complete scenic tonal range ................................................................... 372 HDR shooting tips...................................................................................................... 374 HDR File formats................................................................................................. 375 Merge to HDR ............................................................................................................ 376 Tone mapping HDR images........................................................................................ 378 Local Adaptation................................................................................................. 378 Local Adaptation tone mapping........................................................................... 380 Manual tone mapping......................................................................................... 382 Chapter 8: Image Retouching 383 Basic cloning methods...................................................................................................... 384 Clone stamp tool........................................................................................................ 384 Clone stamp brush settings ................................................................................ 384 Healing brush ............................................................................................................ 386
  14. 14. Contents xiv Choosing an appropriate alignment mode ................................................................. 388 Clone Source panel and clone overlays ..................................................................... 388 Upside down cloning ................................................................................................. 390 Better healing edges................................................................................................... 392 Spot healing brush..................................................................................................... 394 Clone and healing sample options...................................................................... 395 Patch tool................................................................................................................... 396 Layer blending with Auto-Align layers ....................................................................... 398 Alternative history brush spotting technique.............................................................. 400 Portrait retouching............................................................................................................ 402 Beauty retouching ............................................................................................................. 404 Liquify............................................................................................................................... 406 Liquify tool controls................................................................................................... 408 Reconstructions.................................................................................................. 408 Mask options...................................................................................................... 409 View options....................................................................................................... 410 Saving the mesh ................................................................................................. 410 Straightening a fringe with Liquify ............................................................................. 412 Warp Transforms........................................................................................................ 414 Chapter 9: Layers, Selections and Masking 415 Selections and channels.................................................................................................... 416 Selections.................................................................................................................. 416 Quick Mask mode ...................................................................................................... 418 Creating an image selection....................................................................................... 419 Modifying selections.................................................................................................. 420 Alpha channels........................................................................................................... 420 Adding to an image selection..................................................................................... 421 Selections, alpha channels and masks....................................................................... 423 Expanding and shrinking selections........................................................................... 424 Smoothing a selection ............................................................................................... 424 Anti-aliasing .............................................................................................................. 426 Feathering.................................................................................................................. 426 Layers............................................................................................................................... 427 Layer basics............................................................................................................... 427 Image layers............................................................................................................... 427 Shape layers .............................................................................................................. 428 Text layers.................................................................................................................. 428 Adjustment layers ...................................................................................................... 428 Layers panel controls................................................................................................. 428 Masking layers........................................................................................................... 431
  15. 15. xv Contents Adding a layer mask............................................................................................ 431 Viewing in Mask or Rubylith mode ..................................................................... 432 Removing a layer mask....................................................................................... 432 Adding an empty image layer mask..................................................................... 432 Masks Panel............................................................................................................... 434 Refine Edge command................................................................................................ 435 Working with the quick selection tool......................................................................... 436 Combining quick selection with Refine Edge.............................................................. 438 Color Range masking................................................................................................. 440 Layer blending modes....................................................................................................... 444 Advanced Blending options ....................................................................................... 450 Knockout options................................................................................................ 450 Blend Interior effects........................................................................................... 450 Creating panoramas with Photomerge ....................................................................... 452 Depth of field blending............................................................................................... 454 Working with multiple layers............................................................................................. 456 Color coding layers.................................................................................................... 456 Layer group management........................................................................................... 456 Managing layers in a group ................................................................................ 458 Clipping masks.......................................................................................................... 459 Creating a new clipping mask............................................................................. 459 Masking layers within a group................................................................................... 460 Clipping layers and adjustment layers ....................................................................... 460 Layer linking.............................................................................................................. 462 Layer selection with the move tool ............................................................................ 463 Layer mask linking..................................................................................................... 464 Layer locking ............................................................................................................. 465 Lock Transparent Pixels...................................................................................... 465 Lock Image Pixels............................................................................................... 465 Lock Layer Position ............................................................................................ 465 Lock All............................................................................................................... 465 Transform commands........................................................................................................ 466 Repeat Transforms...................................................................................................... 468 Numeric Transforms................................................................................................... 469 Transforming selections and paths............................................................................. 469 Warp transforms......................................................................................................... 470 Transforms and alignment.......................................................................................... 472 Using transforms to create a kaleidoscope pattern..................................................... 473 Smart Objects ................................................................................................................... 476 Photoshop paths............................................................................................................... 480 Path modes................................................................................................................ 481
  16. 16. Contents xvi Drawing paths with the pen tool................................................................................. 481 Guidelines for drawing pen paths............................................................................... 481 Pen tool shortcuts summary............................................................................... 483 Rubber Band mode.............................................................................................. 483 Vector masks.............................................................................................................. 484 Isolating an object from the background............................................................. 485 Chapter 10: Essential Filters for Photo Editing 487 Filter essentials................................................................................................................. 488 Blur filters.................................................................................................................. 488 Adding a Radial Blur or Spin Blur to a photo ...................................................... 488 Gaussian Blur ..................................................................................................... 490 Average Blur........................................................................................................ 490 Motion Blur......................................................................................................... 490 Surface Blur........................................................................................................ 493 Box Blur.............................................................................................................. 493 Shape Blur.......................................................................................................... 493 Smart Filters ..................................................................................................................... 494 Applying Smart Filters to pixel layers ........................................................................ 495 Lens Blur ............................................................................................................ 498 Depth of field effects........................................................................................... 498 Applying Lens Blur to a composite image........................................................... 500 Adding noise to disguise retouching.......................................................................... 502 Adding noise to create a grain effect ................................................................... 503 Lens Corrections........................................................................................................ 504 Filter Gallery ..................................................................................................................... 506 Chapter 11: ImageManagement 507 The Bridge solution........................................................................................................... 508 Configuring the General preferences.......................................................................... 508 Launching Bridge....................................................................................................... 510 Rotating the thumbnails and preview ......................................................................... 510 Arranging the Bridge contents........................................................................................... 512 Customizing the panels and content area................................................................... 514 Bridge workspace examples....................................................................................... 516 Working with multiple windows ................................................................................. 518 Slideshow mode ........................................................................................................ 519 Thumbnail settings..................................................................................................... 520 Cache management.................................................................................................... 521 Advanced and miscellaneous preferences.................................................................. 523 One-click previews..................................................................................................... 524 Deleting contents....................................................................................................... 524
  17. 17. xvii Contents Stacking images......................................................................................................... 524 Auto-stacking............................................................................................................. 526 Bridge panels.................................................................................................................... 528 Folders panel ............................................................................................................. 528 Favorites panel........................................................................................................... 528 Preview panel............................................................................................................. 529 Review mode.............................................................................................................. 530 Managing images in Bridge .............................................................................................. 531 Image rating and labeling........................................................................................... 532 Sorting images in Bridge ........................................................................................... 534 Filter panel................................................................................................................. 535 Metadata panel........................................................................................................... 536 Image metadata................................................................................................... 537 File Info metadata................................................................................................ 537 Other types of metadata ...................................................................................... 540 Edit history log ................................................................................................... 541 Hidden metadata................................................................................................. 541 Keywording................................................................................................................ 542 Keywords panel.......................................................................................................... 543 Image searches .......................................................................................................... 544 Collections panel....................................................................................................... 546 Smart Collections............................................................................................... 547 Output to Web and PDF..................................................................................................... 548 Web output................................................................................................................. 548 Output gallery styles........................................................................................... 550 Output gallery settings........................................................................................ 550 Output preferences.............................................................................................. 554 PDF Output................................................................................................................ 555 The PDF Output panels....................................................................................... 556 PDF Output options ............................................................................................ 557 Bridge automation............................................................................................................. 558 Renaming images....................................................................................................... 559 Renaming schemes............................................................................................. 560 Undoing a Batch Rename.................................................................................... 560 Applying Camera Raw settings................................................................................... 560 Chapter 12: Color Management 561 The need for color management........................................................................................ 562 The way things were .................................................................................................. 562 RGB devices............................................................................................................... 564 The versatility of RGB.......................................................................................... 565 Output-centric color management.............................................................................. 566
  18. 18. Contents xviii Profiled color management ............................................................................................... 567 Color Management Modules...................................................................................... 568 The Profile Connection Space.................................................................................... 568 Choosing an RGB workspace..................................................................................... 570 Apple RGB .......................................................................................................... 570 sRGB IEC-61966-2.1.......................................................................................... 570 ColorMatch RGB................................................................................................. 571 ProPhoto RGB..................................................................................................... 571 Adobe RGB (1998).............................................................................................. 571 Profiling the display................................................................................................... 572 Calibration and profiling..................................................................................... 573 Profiling the input...................................................................................................... 574 Profiling the output.................................................................................................... 575 Photoshop color management interface ............................................................................ 577 The Color Settings ..................................................................................................... 577 Color management policies ................................................................................ 578 Preserve embedded profiles................................................................................ 578 Profile mismatches and missing profiles ............................................................ 579 Convert to Working space................................................................................... 580 Color Management Off........................................................................................ 581 Profile conversions.................................................................................................... 582 Convert to Profile................................................................................................ 582 Assign Profile ..................................................................................................... 584 Profile mismatches when pasting........................................................................ 585 Saving a Color Setting............................................................................................... 586 Reducing the opportunities for error .......................................................................... 587 Working with Grayscale ............................................................................................. 590 Advanced Color Settings............................................................................................ 591 Conversion options............................................................................................. 592 Rendering intents................................................................................................ 592 Black Point Compensation.................................................................................. 592 Use Dither (8-bit per channel images) ................................................................ 592 Blend RGB colors using gamma ......................................................................... 593 Custom RGB and workspace gamma .................................................................. 594 RGB to CMYK ................................................................................................................... 595 CMYK setup............................................................................................................... 595 Creating a custom CMYK setting............................................................................... 595 Ink Colors........................................................................................................... 596 Dot gain .............................................................................................................. 597 Gray Component Replacement (GCR)................................................................. 598
  19. 19. xix Contents Black generation ................................................................................................. 598 Undercolor Addition (UCA)................................................................................. 599 Undercolor Removal (UCR)................................................................................. 599 Choosing a suitable RGB workspace................................................................................. 601 Rendering intents....................................................................................................... 602 Perceptual........................................................................................................... 602 Saturation (Graphics).......................................................................................... 602 Relative Colorimetric........................................................................................... 603 Absolute Colorimetric......................................................................................... 603 Fine-tuning the CMYK endpoints........................................................................ 606 CMYK to CMYK......................................................................................................... 608 Lab Color................................................................................................................... 608 Info panel................................................................................................................... 609 Keeping it simple ....................................................................................................... 610 Chapter 13: Print Output 611 Print sharpening................................................................................................................ 612 Judge the print, not the monitor................................................................................. 613 High Pass filter edge sharpening technique ............................................................... 613 Soft proof before printing........................................................................................... 616 Making a print................................................................................................................... 618 Page Setup................................................................................................................. 619 Ensuring your prints are centered ....................................................................... 620 Photoshop Print dialog.............................................................................................. 621 Output settings.................................................................................................... 621 Color Management ............................................................................................. 623 Setting the Proof Setup in the Print dialog.......................................................... 625 Proof print or aim print? ..................................................................................... 625 About the print dialogs............................................................................................... 625 System Print dialog settings ...................................................................................... 626 Custom print profiles................................................................................................. 628 Chapter 14: Output for the Web 629 Sending images over the Internet...................................................................................... 630 Email attachments...................................................................................................... 630 Uploading to a server................................................................................................. 631 File formats for the Web............................................................................................. 633 JPEG................................................................................................................... 633 Choosing the right compression type ................................................................ 636 TIFF compression for FTP transfer............................................................................. 637 GIF............................................................................................................................. 638
  20. 20. Contents xx PNG (Portable Network Graphics).............................................................................. 638 Save for Web & Devices............................................................................................. 639 Web browser previews........................................................................................ 640 Optimize image settings...................................................................................... 640 ‘Save’ options...................................................................................................... 641 GIF Save for Web & Devices............................................................................... 642 Zoomify™ Export....................................................................................................... 644 Chapter 15: Automating Photoshop 645 Working with actions......................................................................................................... 646 Playing an action ....................................................................................................... 646 Recording actions ...................................................................................................... 647 Troubleshooting actions............................................................................................. 649 Limitations when recording actions .................................................................... 650 Actions only record changed settings ................................................................. 650 Backgrounds and bit depth ................................................................................. 650 Action recording tips.................................................................................................. 651 Inserting menu items................................................................................................. 651 Batch processing actions ........................................................................................... 652 Creating a droplet ...................................................................................................... 654 Image Processor ........................................................................................................ 655 Scripting ........................................................................................................................... 656 Script Event Manager................................................................................................. 656 Automated plug-ins........................................................................................................... 657 Crop and Straighten Photos....................................................................................... 657 Fit Image.................................................................................................................... 657 How To help files............................................................................................................... 658 Adobe™ Configurator application ..................................................................................... 659 Index 660 Remote profiling for RGB printers ..................................................................................... 676 Consultancy services........................................................................................................ 676 Pixel Genius PhotoKit plug-in........................................................................................... 677
  21. 21. xxi Foreword Foreword by John Nack I s Photoshop for photographers? And do photographers really need Photoshop? A couple of years ago, these questions might have seemed a little silly. No professional photographer would seriously consider foregoing Photoshop’s image-manipulation power, whether to apply subtle color corrections or to make radical image alterations. Now, however, new workflow-centric applications like Adobe Lightroom have come into the market. With these tools focusing purely on photographers’ needs, how relevant does Photoshop remain? To me the situation is a bit like what I’ve found with photography: yes, you can start out and sometimes get by with a limited set of equipment but, the more you know, the more you value specialized tools that can make the difference in critical scenarios. It’s quite true that many photographers will spend more time in Bridge/Camera Raw, Lightroom, and the like, and less in Photoshop proper but, for many demanding shots, only the full power of Photoshop will do. Martin is in a unique position to explain the new balance of power – when to use a raw converter/image manager, and when to use the imaging tools in Photoshop itself. Throughout his long and intimate relationship with both the Photoshop and Lightroom development teams, he’s helped shape today’s digital imaging world. You know the old cliché ‘Those who can’t do, teach,’ right? No one says that about Martin Evening. He earns his knowledge the hard way, making a living as a highly regarded fashion photographer. His workflow advice comes not from theory, but from the practice of keeping a business in motion.
  22. 22. xxii Foreword I came to work on Photoshop only after logging many years earning a living with the product day in and day out, and I greatly value the insights that come only from those who really practice their craft. Martin is one of the best examples of those teacher-practitioners. I could not have been more honored than to have stood beside him as we were both inducted into the Photoshop Hall of Fame in 2008. When it’s all said and done, tools – whether hardware or software – are just tools, and it’s your ideas and images that matter. You’ll find that Martin knows both sides of the equation and never lets the techniques distract from the vision. I think you’ll find his perspective and experience invaluable. John Nack Principal Product Manager, Adobe Photoshop Adobe Systems
  23. 23. xxiii Introduction Introduction W hen I first started using Photoshop, it was a much simpler program to get to grips with compared to what we see today. Adobe Photoshop CS4 has evolved to provide photographers with all the tools they need, and my aim is to provide you with a working photographer’s perspective of what Photoshop CS4 can do and how you can make the most effective use of the program. One of the biggest problems writing a book about Photoshop is that while new features are added, Adobe rarely remove anything from the program. Hence, Photoshop has got bigger and more detailed over the last 12 years I have been writing this series of books. When it has come to updating each edition, this has left the question, should I make the book bigger, or should I take things out? For this particular edition I decided to have a complete rethink about the way the book’s subject matter was tackled. This edition of the book is the same size as the previous versions, but it is now completely focused on all the essential information you need to know about Photoshop, Camera Raw and Bridge, plus all that’s new in Photoshop CS4 for photographers. Consequently, if you have bought a previous edition of this book, you’ll find a lot of the content here is new and goes into greater detail than before on subjects such as Camera Raw editing and high dynamic range imaging. As a result of this editing process, a lot of the older favorite techniques had to be removed. To make up for this I decided to get together with Jeff Schewe to co-write a new Photoshop for Photographers book, which we are calling The Ultimate Workshop. This is a book in which Jeff and I hammer out a series of techniques designed for professional Photoshop users which, as the title suggests, will be like attending the ultimate training workshop on Photoshop techniques.
  24. 24. xxiv Introduction One of the main selling points of this book is that I work mostly as a professional studio photographer, running a busy photographic business close to the heart of London. On the days when I am not shooting or working on a production I use that time to study Photoshop, write articles and present seminars, which may be one of the reasons why this series of Photoshop books has become so successful. This is because like you, I too had to learn all this stuff from scratch! I make no grandiose claims to have written the best book ever on the subject. I simply write from personal experience and aim to offer a detailed manual on the subject of digital photography and Photoshop, written by somebody who has first-hand professional experience and a close involvement with the people in San Jose who make the Adobe Photoshop program. This book was initially aimed at intermediate to advanced users, but it soon became apparent that all sorts of people were enjoying the book. Over the years I have adapted the content to satisfy the requirements of a broad readership. I still provide good solid professional-level advice, but at the same time I try not to assume too much prior knowledge and ensure that everything is explained as clearly and simply as possible. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised to ensure that you are provided with an updated account of everything that is new in Photoshop CS4. As the program has evolved over the years, the book content has had to undergo regular changes in order to reflect the new ways of working. The techniques shown here are based on the knowledge I have gained from working alongside some of the greatest Photoshop experts in the industry – people such as Jeff Schewe and the late Bruce Fraser, who I have regarded as true Photoshop masters. I have drawn on this information to provide you with the latest thinking on how to use Photoshop to its full advantage. So rather than me just tell you ‘this is what you should do, because that’s the way I do it’, you will find frequent references to how the program works. These discussions are often accompanied
  25. 25. xxv Introduction About the images on the disk You can access most of the images shown in this book, but not all of them. The reason for this is that some of the photographs, especially where models are featured in the picture, do have restricted usages that do not permit me to simply give them away. And some of the other images were kindly released by fellow photographers for use in the book only. So although there are quite a few pictures you can play with, you won’t be able to access every photograph you see in this book. by diagrams that will help improve your understanding of the Photoshop CS4 program. We have recently seen the greatest changes ever in the history of photography and, for many photographers, it has been a real challenge to keep up with all the latest developments. My philosophy is to find out which tools in Photoshop allow you to work as efficiently and as non-destructively as possible, plus take into account the changing factors that require us to use Photoshop differently. Hopefully, the key points you will learn from this book are that Camera Raw is the ideal, initial editing environment for all raw (and sometimes non-raw) images. Once an image has been optimized in Camera Raw you can use Photoshop to carry out fine-tuned corrections, or more complex retouching. Although there are lots of ways to approach using Photoshop, you’ll generally find with Photoshop CS4 that the best tools for the job are often the simplest to use! There is much to cover in this book, but you should find that the chapter order plus the accompanying content on the DVD will help enlighten you to the joys of working with Photoshop CS4. Book and DVD contents The DVD contents are presented in the form of a Photoshop CS4 Help Guide. Load the DVD into your computer and for improved performance copy the contents across to your hard drive. Double-click on the start.htm file to launch the DVD contents into your web browser. The Photoshop Help Guide contains movie versions of many of the step-by-step techniques shown in this book, is designed to run on Macintosh and PC systems, and only requires you to install Flash and QuickTime on your computer in order to view them. If you should experience any problems running the disk, please always refer to the FAQ section on the disk or on the website for guidance on how to configure your computer for optimum viewing. Educators may also be interested to know that the images used in the movies are provided on the DVD, along with the relevant extracts from the book in PDF format. Book website There is also a website set up to promote this book where you can find many active links (including those mentioned in the book) and Help pages should you encounter problems running the movies from the DVD: www.photoshopforphotographers.com
  26. 26. xxvi Introduction Rod Wynne-Powell Over the several editions of this series of books, I have been able to elicit the technical help of Rod Wynne-Powell to check the accuracy of what I have written, and double-check, and sometimes modify, the techniques I have discussed. His enthusiasm and dedication to this task continues to be invaluable – if I am puzzled by some aspect and ask his advice, he will diligently seek out the answer, either through his contacts or via the Web, and provide me with a comprehensive reply accompanied by his own evaluation. I put his name forward to my publishers, Focal Press, when they were considering their forthcoming Workflow series, and he was accepted, so he is now to join their team of authors by writing about the other aspect of many photographers’ lives – the operating system that underpins the Mac user’s platform for Photoshop, Bridge and Lightroom – Mac OS X. The book, Mac OS X for Photographers was published in 2008 and I wish it every success. Rod offers training, consultancy and retouching under the banner ‘SOLUTIONS photographic’ and is able to boast having trained photographers in both France and Italy as well as those from all over the UK, mostly on a one-to-one basis. Rod can be contacted via email, Skype and telephone: Email: rod@solphoto.co.uk Skype: rodders63 T: +44(0)1582-725065 M: +44(0)7836-248126 Acknowledgments I must first thank Andrea Bruno of Adobe Europe for her suggestion that I write a book about Photoshop aimed at photographers and thank you to all at Focal Press: David Albon, Ben Denne and Hayley Salter. None of this would have got started without the founding work of Adam Woolfitt and Mike Laye who helped form the Digital Imaging Group (DIG) forum for UK digital photographers. The production of this book was done with the help of Rod Wynne-Powell, who reviewed the final manuscript and provided help with technical advice and assistance, David Field who provided PC tech edit advice, Matt Wreford who helped with the separations, Soo Hamilton for the proof reading and Jason Simmons, who came up with the book layout template. I must give a special mention to fellow Photoshop alpha tester Jeff Schewe for all his guidance and help over the years (and wife Becky), not to mention the other members of the ‘pixel mafia’: Katrin Eismann, Seth Resnick, Andrew Rodney and Bruce Fraser, who sadly passed away in December of 2006. Thank you also to the following clients, companies and individuals: Adobe Systems Inc., Neil Barstow, Russell Brown, Steve Caplin, Ansell Cizic, Kevin Connor, Harriet Cotterill, Chris Cox, Eylure, Claire Garner, Greg Gorman, Mark Hamburg, Peter Hince, Thomas Holm, Ed Horwich, Carol Johnson, Julieanne Kost, Peter Krogh, John Nack, Imacon, Thomas Knoll, Bob Marchant, Marc Pawliger, Pixl, Herb Paynter, Red or Dead Ltd, Eric Richmond, Addy Roff, Martin Soan, Tresemme, Gwyn Weisberg, Russell Williams, What Digital Camera and X-Rite. Thank you to the models, Courtney Hooper, Natasha De Ruyter and Alex Kordek, who featured in this book, plus my assistant Harry Dutton (who also stars as a model in a few shots!). Lastly, thanks to all my friends and family, my wife Camilla who has been so supportive over the last year, and especially my late mother for all her love and encouragement. Martin Evening
  27. 27. 1 Photoshop Fundamentals L et’s begin by looking at some of the essentials of working with Photoshop, such as how to install the program, the Photoshop interface and what all the different tools and panels do, as well as introducing the Bridge and Camera Raw interfaces. There have been a lot of big changes made to the Photoshop CS4 interface, so even if you are already quite familiar with how Photoshop works, or have read previous editions of this book, I would still recommend you begin reading here to learn about some of the things that are new in this latest version of Photoshop. You can also use this chapter as a reference as you work through the remainder of the book. Chapter 1
  28. 28. Martin Evening Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers 2 An overview of the book chapters Chapter 1: Photoshop fundamentals The chapter you are reading now introduces the Photoshop interface and its main features such as the tools, panels, layers, and Bridge image browsing. This is a general introduction to how Photoshop works. Chapter 2: Configuring Photoshop This provides a guide to all the Photoshop preference panels, plus how to optimize your computer system, how much RAM is required, and what sort of accessories you need. Chapter 3: Camera Raw image processing If you shoot digitally, you will most likely want to shoot in raw mode and this chapter is essential reading on how to prepare digital raw images before opening them in Photoshop and includes information on all the new Camera Raw 5.0 features. Chapter 4: Sharpening and noise reduction This chapter is all about how to use the sharpening sliders in Camera Raw to apply capture sharpening to your photographs, before they are edited in Photoshop, plus how to reduce noise. Chapter 5: Image editing essentials This is where we start looking at the general Photoshop image editing controls such as how to adjust the levels to improve the tone contrast, and how to adjust the colors. The foundation skills taught in this chapter are all essential learning whether or not you process your photos in Camera Raw. Chapter 6: Black and white This chapter shows you how to create optimum black and white conversions from a color original, how to produce the ‘cross process’ look, fake an infrared effect as well as how to produce other traditional darkroom techniques. Chapter 7: Extending the dynamic range This is a new chapter, in which I discuss high dynamic range image editing and other techniques for extending the dynamic range of images that have been captured digitally.
  29. 29. 3 Photoshop fundamentals Chapter 1 Chapter 8: Image retouching This chapter shows various retouching techniques and strategies for removing blemishes and larger objects from a picture, as well as how to retouch in perspective using Vanishing Point. Chapter 9: Layers, selections and masking This chapter focuses on the use of channels, layers, layer masks and layer styles and how these can be used to seamlessly mask different image elements. Chapter 10: Essential filters for Photoshop editing This chapter explores some of the filters in Photoshop that are useful for photographic retouching work, such as ‘Liquify’. Chapter 11: Image management These days, photographers can end up with hundreds of images to process from a day’s shoot. Good image management can help you keep track of your work easily and quickly, and help avoid problems when hardware devices fail. Chapter 12: Color management Everyone needs to know a little about color management. It should be a simple matter of calibrating the monitor and selecting the correct color settings in Photoshop, but somehow life is never that easy! This chapter provides an intermediate level guide to managing colors successfully. Chapter 13: Print output This chapter follows on from the previous one in showing you how to make a perfect print that matches what you see on the screen and the importance of tailored output sharpening. Chapter 14: Output for the Web Alternatively, you may be interested in outputting your images for screen display. This chapter covers preparing images for email or websites. Chapter 15: Automating Photoshop This chapter shows you some of the ways you can work more efficiently in Photoshop and simplify the handling of repetitive tasks.
  30. 30. Martin Evening Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers 4 How to use this book In writing this book I have tried not to assume too much prior Photoshop knowledge and have structured the chapter order so that it follows a typical Photoshop workflow, starting with an introduction to the Photoshop interface through to image management and print output. This is in many ways a personal guide and one that highlights the areas of Photoshop that I find most interesting, or those which I feel would be of interest to other photographers. It is not a complete comprehensive guide about everything that’s in the program, but it is one of the most thorough and established books out there – especially designed for photographers. The guiding philosophy throughout this book is to offer you the most up-to-date advice on how to use the photographic tools in Photoshop. Over the years I have been writing this series Photoshop has changed quite a lot, as has digital camera technology. Therefore with each new edition I have had to re-evaluate what each new version of the program has to offer and as a result revised the techniques and workflow steps described in the book. It is inevitable in a book like this for the author to put forward their own personal views on how you should or shouldn’t do things. In some ways I am perhaps just as guilty of doing this myself, but I would point out that the advice I give is based on over 15 years of experience in which I have worked intensively with the Photoshop engineering team at all stages of the program’s development, as well as working closely with some of the leading Photoshop gurus such as Katrin Eismann, the late Bruce Fraser, Andrew Rodney, Seth Resnick, Jeff Schewe and Rod Wynne-Powell. The techniques described here have therefore evolved over time and the methods taught in this book reflect the most current expert thinking about Photoshop. What you will read in this book is a condensed version of that accumulated knowledge and for the benefit of my readers I have aimed to keep the explanations simple and relevant to the kind of work most photographers do. Task-based workflow In all the talk about what’s new in CS4 you will most probably hear the term task-based workflow, which partly refers to the way the new Photoshop interface can be customized to suit the different ways individual users work with Photoshop, as well as offering easier and more direct access to image adjustments and adjustment preset settings. For example, if you are mainly interested in doing video editing work, you can select the Video workspace setting, which will provide access to those panels that are most important for video editing work. For general photographic retouching work you are better off selecting the Essentials or Color and Tone workspaces as these layouts display the more commonly used panels for Photoshop image editing. The other interesting new feature is the way both the Mac and PC layouts are now contained in an application window giving the added benefit of making the workspace layout choices more robust. This is because as you resize the application window, the panel positions will adjust to suit. Adjustment layers are now applied via a new Adjustments panel. This makes the adjustment editing process more direct. You can select an image adjustment to work with and quickly switch back and forth between editing the adjustment settings and working on the image. You also have direct access to all the different adjustment presets that ship with Photoshop and can quickly experiment to see what happens when you choose different adjustment effects.
  31. 31. 5 Photoshop fundamentals Chapter 1 Macintosh and PC keys Throughout this book I refer to the keyboard modifier keys used on the Macintosh and PC computers. Where the keys used are the same, such as the S key, these will be printed in gray. Where the keys used are different on each system, I use the Macintosh key first in magenta followed by the PC equivalent in blue. So, if the shortcut used is Command (Mac) and Control (PC) this appears abbreviated in the text as: C and L. Other keys will be explained as you progress through this and subsequent chapters. My approach to digital imaging is to preserve all of the information that was captured in the original and (wherever possible) work non-destructively, so that my options are always kept open. In this book I recommend that you shoot in raw mode where it is appropriate to do so and make full use of the tools in Camera Raw to prepare an image, before you open it up in Photoshop. For example, the sharpening tools added to Camera Raw mean that this is the only place where you should need to pre-sharpen an image. I recommend using the wide gamut ProPhoto RGB work space because this can help preserve more color detail through to print and I also suggest editing your images in 16-bits per channel so that you can preserve the maximum number of levels of tone information and keep your options open for whatever you might want to do to an image in the future. Later in this book I will also be showing you how to use adjustment layers and Smart Object layers to keep your pixel image edits reversible. This particular version of the book has been re-edited to put most of its emphasis on the essential Photoshop tools as well as what’s new in Photoshop CS4 that is of interest to photographers. There is also a Photoshop for Photographers Help Guide on the DVD that accompanies the book, where you will find a lot of extra material with descriptions of all the tools and Photoshop panels. Just load the DVD into your computer, or for improved performance copy the contents across to your hard drive. Then double- click on the start.htm file to launch the DVD contents into your web browser. In Figure 1.1 you can see how the Help Guide should appear in a web browser window. From there you can then visit the various sub-sections. For example, in the Tool Panels section you can click on a tool icon to be taken to a page that has a complete, illustrated description of what each tool does. In the other sections, you can find complete descriptions of the Photoshop panels, image adjustments and a guide to all the keyboard shortcuts in Photoshop. Plus of course, there are also the movie tutorials, which have always been a popular feature. Chapters on the DVD Also on the DVD is a whole chapter on digital capture and how digital cameras work, a summary of Photoshop, Bridge and Camera Raw shortcuts, a chapter on sharpening scanned images in Photoshop, plus a copy of Chapter 12 on color management. These are available as PDF documents which can be read and printed out using Adobe Acrobat or Adobe Reader programs.
  32. 32. Martin Evening Adobe Photoshop CS4 for Photographers 6 Figure 1.1 The Photoshop for Photographers Help Guide can be accessed from the Help Guide on the DVD and launched via a web browser. Click to select a topic such as the Tools and Panels section shown here and navigate to the subject of interest to learn more about a particular tool or panel. Figure 1 1 The Photoshop for Photographers Help Guide can be accessed frome

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