Mr. Benjamin A. Cabrido Jr., LLB, LLM-C  Professor, Environmental Law University of San Jose-Recoletos College of Law Cebu...
Dolphins v. Secretary Reyes, et al, SC-G.R. No. 180771
PETITIONERS <ul><li>Resident Marine Mammals of Tañon Strait Protected Seascape, e.g. Toothed Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises &...
RESPONDENTS <ul><li>Energy Secretary Reyes </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Secretary Atienza </li></ul><ul><li>Japan Petrole...
BATTLEGROUND: Tañon Strait <ul><li>A narrow body of sea separating the Philippine Islands of Negros and Cebu </li></ul><ul...
Resident Cetaceans in Tañon Strait <ul><li>Spinner dolphins  (Stenella longirostris)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Spotted dolphins  ...
THE PROBLEM CREATED BY THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Phil. Gov’t awarded Service Contract No. 46 to JAPEX (Dec. 21, 20...
AFTER-SEISMIC SURVEY FINDINGS <ul><li>Reduced Fish Catch (50-70%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Kills </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of ...
MAJOR ISSUES <ul><li>LOCUS STANDI OF DOLPHINS, ET AL. </li></ul><ul><li>VIOLATION OF PHIL. CONSTITUTION & INTERNATIONAL CO...
I. LOCUS STANDI (Legal Standing of Dolphins & Whales)‏
LOCUS STANDI <ul><li>A right of appearance in a court of justice on a given question. </li></ul><ul><li>Mere procedural te...
Two Classes of Locus Standi in The Philippines <ul><li>Private Suits </li></ul><ul><li>Public Suits </li></ul>
PRIVATE SUITS <ul><li>Section 2, Rule 3, Rules of Court:  “Every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the ...
PUBLIC SUITS <ul><li>Citizen’s Suit </li></ul><ul><li>- Concerned Citizen’s suit </li></ul><ul><li>- Voter’s Suit </li></u...
CITIZEN’S SUIT <ul><li>Matter of mere public right; </li></ul><ul><li>People are real parties-in-interest; and </li></ul><...
TAXPAYER’S SUIT <ul><li>Right of a citizen and a taxpayer to maintain an action in courts;  </li></ul><ul><li>To restrain ...
DIRECT INJURY TESTS <ul><li>A personal and substantial interest in the case; and </li></ul><ul><li>Has sustained, or will ...
DOCTRINE ON TRANSCEDENTAL IMPORTANCE <ul><li>Applies if Petitioners fail in showing direct injury; </li></ul><ul><li>Allow...
Chavez v. Public Estates Authority <ul><li>The enforcement of the constitutional right to information and the equitable di...
Oposa v. Factoran <ul><li>(T)he right to a balanced and healthy ecology belongs to a different category of rights altogeth...
LEGAL THEORIES <ul><li>Stipulations Pour Autrui </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of International Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Ha...
STIPULATION  POUR AUTRUI <ul><li>A stipulation conferring a clear and deliberate right or benefit to a third ‘party’ in a ...
Requisites for Application of Stipulation Pour Autrui <ul><li>Intent by the promise to secure some benefit to the third pa...
INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CONFERRING BENEFITS TO  DOLPHINS & WHALES <ul><li>United Nations Charter for Nature  </li></ul><...
PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE UN Charter for Nature <ul><li>Respect of nature and non-impairment of its essential processes. </l...
Agenda 21 UNCTAD <ul><li>Government must take action for the conservation of biological diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>In si...
1992 Bonn Convention on Biological Diversity  <ul><li>In situ conservation: Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural ...
APPLICABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES <ul><li>Doctrine of Incorporation: Sec. 2, Art. II, 1987 Philippine...
VIOLATIONS IN THE CONSTITUTION & LAWS <ul><li>Jura Regalia (Sec. 2, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>R.A. 9...
Regalian Doctrine <ul><li>The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full contr...
Mineral Exploration in Tañon Strait is Illegal <ul><li>SEC. 27, R.A. 9147 </li></ul><ul><li>It shall be unlawful for any p...
Fishermen’s Preferential Use Over Tañon Strait  <ul><li>Sec. 2(d), R.A. 8550: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the rights of fish...
HARD LOOK DOCTRINE <ul><li>All agencies &quot;to the fullest extent possible&quot; must provide a detailed environmental i...
On Behalf of My Clients: Thank you
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Why Dolphins May Sue In The Philippines

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Why Dolphins May Sue In The Philippines

  1. 1. Mr. Benjamin A. Cabrido Jr., LLB, LLM-C Professor, Environmental Law University of San Jose-Recoletos College of Law Cebu City, Philippines WHY DOLPHINS MAY SUE IN THE PHILIPPINES
  2. 2. Dolphins v. Secretary Reyes, et al, SC-G.R. No. 180771
  3. 3. PETITIONERS <ul><li>Resident Marine Mammals of Tañon Strait Protected Seascape, e.g. Toothed Whales, Dolphins, Porpoises & other cetacean species. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Guardians: Gloria Estenzo Ramos and Rose-Liza Eisma Osorio. </li></ul><ul><li>President Arroyo, Unwilling Guardian </li></ul>
  4. 4. RESPONDENTS <ul><li>Energy Secretary Reyes </li></ul><ul><li>Environment Secretary Atienza </li></ul><ul><li>Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd. </li></ul>
  5. 5. BATTLEGROUND: Tañon Strait <ul><li>A narrow body of sea separating the Philippine Islands of Negros and Cebu </li></ul><ul><li>It is home to 11 out of the 24 known cetacean species </li></ul><ul><li>Declared as Protected Seascape in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated Oil Reserve: 1B barrels; recoverable: 100 million barrels </li></ul>
  6. 6. Resident Cetaceans in Tañon Strait <ul><li>Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Common bottlenose dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Risso’s dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Fraser’s dolphins </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot whales </li></ul><ul><li>Pymy killer whales </li></ul><ul><li>False killer whales </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Melon Headed (Peponocephala electra)‏ </li></ul>
  7. 7. THE PROBLEM CREATED BY THE PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Phil. Gov’t awarded Service Contract No. 46 to JAPEX (Dec. 21, 2004)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage area: 2,850 sq.km. (almost the entire Tañon Strait)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>May 2005: M/S Veritas Searcher of JAPEX started the 751-km multi-channel sub-bottom profiling survey </li></ul><ul><li>Nov.10, 2007: JAPEX started exploration drilling of 3,150m depth </li></ul>
  8. 8. AFTER-SEISMIC SURVEY FINDINGS <ul><li>Reduced Fish Catch (50-70%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Kills </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of public participation from stakeholders in the preparation of ECC </li></ul>
  9. 9. MAJOR ISSUES <ul><li>LOCUS STANDI OF DOLPHINS, ET AL. </li></ul><ul><li>VIOLATION OF PHIL. CONSTITUTION & INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>NON-CORFORMANCE TO EIA LAW </li></ul>
  10. 10. I. LOCUS STANDI (Legal Standing of Dolphins & Whales)‏
  11. 11. LOCUS STANDI <ul><li>A right of appearance in a court of justice on a given question. </li></ul><ul><li>Mere procedural technicality. </li></ul><ul><li>Court Discretion. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Two Classes of Locus Standi in The Philippines <ul><li>Private Suits </li></ul><ul><li>Public Suits </li></ul>
  13. 13. PRIVATE SUITS <ul><li>Section 2, Rule 3, Rules of Court: “Every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the real party in interest.”  </li></ul><ul><li>Real Party In Interest: “The party who stands to be benefited or injured by the judgment in the suit or the party entitled to the avails of the suit.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. PUBLIC SUITS <ul><li>Citizen’s Suit </li></ul><ul><li>- Concerned Citizen’s suit </li></ul><ul><li>- Voter’s Suit </li></ul><ul><li>- Legislator’s Suit </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayer’s Suit </li></ul>
  15. 15. CITIZEN’S SUIT <ul><li>Matter of mere public right; </li></ul><ul><li>People are real parties-in-interest; and </li></ul><ul><li>Right & Duty of every citizen to interfere and see that public offence be properly pursued and punished and grievance remedied. </li></ul>
  16. 16. TAXPAYER’S SUIT <ul><li>Right of a citizen and a taxpayer to maintain an action in courts; </li></ul><ul><li>To restrain the unlawful use of public funds to his injury. </li></ul>
  17. 17. DIRECT INJURY TESTS <ul><li>A personal and substantial interest in the case; and </li></ul><ul><li>Has sustained, or will sustain direct injury as a result </li></ul>
  18. 18. DOCTRINE ON TRANSCEDENTAL IMPORTANCE <ul><li>Applies if Petitioners fail in showing direct injury; </li></ul><ul><li>Allows ordinary citizens, members of Congress, and civic organizations to prosecute actions involving the constitutionality or validity of laws, regulations and rulings; </li></ul><ul><li>Due to far-reaching implications.  </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chavez v. Public Estates Authority <ul><li>The enforcement of the constitutional right to information and the equitable diffusion of natural resources are matters of transcendental importance which clothe the petitioner with locus standi. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Oposa v. Factoran <ul><li>(T)he right to a balanced and healthy ecology belongs to a different category of rights altogether for it concerns nothing less than self-preservation and self-perpetuation, the advancement of which predate all government and constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>These basic rights need not even be written in the Constitution for they are assumed to exist from the inception of humankind. </li></ul>
  21. 21. LEGAL THEORIES <ul><li>Stipulations Pour Autrui </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation of International Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Look Doctrine </li></ul>
  22. 22. STIPULATION POUR AUTRUI <ul><li>A stipulation conferring a clear and deliberate right or benefit to a third ‘party’ in a contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficiary may demand its fulfillment before revoked. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Requisites for Application of Stipulation Pour Autrui <ul><li>Intent by the promise to secure some benefit to the third party ; </li></ul><ul><li>Privity between the promise and the party to be benefited; </li></ul><ul><li>Obligation or duty due from the promisee; and </li></ul><ul><li>Legal or equitable claim to the benefit of the promise or an equivalent from him personally. </li></ul>
  24. 24. INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CONFERRING BENEFITS TO DOLPHINS & WHALES <ul><li>United Nations Charter for Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 15, Agenda 21 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development </li></ul><ul><li>1992 Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>1979 Bonn Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals </li></ul>
  25. 25. PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE UN Charter for Nature <ul><li>Respect of nature and non-impairment of its essential processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Not to compromise the genetic viability on the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguard the habitats of all life forms, whether wild or domesticated in order that their population levels would at least be sufficient for their survival . </li></ul><ul><li>Special protection to unique areas, to representative samples of all the different types of ecosystems and to the habitats of rare or endangered species. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain sustainable productivity that would not in any way endanger the integrity of those other ecosystems or species with which they coexist. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Agenda 21 UNCTAD <ul><li>Government must take action for the conservation of biological diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>In situ conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats, as well as primitive cultivars and their wild relatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings, and implement ex situ measures. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 1992 Bonn Convention on Biological Diversity <ul><li>In situ conservation: Promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex situ conservation: Adopt measures for the recovery and rehabilitation of threatened species and for their reintroduction into their natural habitats under appropriate conditions. </li></ul>
  28. 28. APPLICABILITY OF INTERNATIONAL LAWS IN THE PHILIPPINES <ul><li>Doctrine of Incorporation: Sec. 2, Art. II, 1987 Philippine Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Santos III vs. Northwest Orient Airlines, 210 SCRA 261 [1992]: “Convention which is a Treaty commitment voluntarily assumed by the Philippine government has the force and effect of law in this country.” </li></ul><ul><li>Tanada vs. Angara (272 SCRA , 1997): “In the event that a treaty obligation conflicts with local legislation, such a state is “bound to make in its legislations such modifications as may be necessary to ensure the fulfillment of the obligations undertaken.” </li></ul>
  29. 29. VIOLATIONS IN THE CONSTITUTION & LAWS <ul><li>Jura Regalia (Sec. 2, Art. XII, 1987 Constitution)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>R.A. 9147 (Wildlife Resources Conservation & Protection Act)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Fisheries Code of 1998 (R.A. 8550)‏ </li></ul>
  30. 30. Regalian Doctrine <ul><li>The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. </li></ul><ul><li>State’s direct undertaking; or </li></ul><ul><li>co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mineral Exploration in Tañon Strait is Illegal <ul><li>SEC. 27, R.A. 9147 </li></ul><ul><li>It shall be unlawful for any person to undertake the following acts: </li></ul><ul><li>c. effecting any of the following acts in critical habitat(s): </li></ul><ul><li>- mineral exploration and/or extraction. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fishermen’s Preferential Use Over Tañon Strait <ul><li>Sec. 2(d), R.A. 8550: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the rights of fisher folks. </li></ul><ul><li>By giving them preferential use of the municipal waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent with international treaties and agreements. </li></ul>
  33. 33. HARD LOOK DOCTRINE <ul><li>All agencies &quot;to the fullest extent possible&quot; must provide a detailed environmental impact statement (EIS). </li></ul><ul><li>Courts should carefully check every EIS for completeness of information and detail, soundness of analysis, thorough discussion of alternatives, and disclosure of sources </li></ul>
  34. 34. On Behalf of My Clients: Thank you

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