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Gas Turbine Nuclear Power Plants

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Gas Turbine Nuclear Power Plants

  1. 1. Closed Cycle Gas Turbines - Nuclear Adam Doligalski ESS-38-19 1
  2. 2. Presentation schedule 1. Introduction 2. Main features of the technology 3. Working medium 4. Fuel 5. Reactor types 6. Turbomachinery 7. Safety 8. Additional applications ESS-38-19 2
  3. 3. ESS-38-19 3 ENERGY CHEAPCLEAN PREDICTABLE SAFE ABUNDANT
  4. 4. How to get it? ESS-38-19 4 Public acceptance?, Efficiency? NEW TECHNOLOGIES AHEAD BWR PWR NUCLEAR FISSION POWER
  5. 5.  HTGR – High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor  Closed Gas Turbine cycle  Helium – working medium  High Thermal Efficiency  Inherent safety  Modularity GT-HTGR ESS-38-19 5
  6. 6. Working medium ESS-38-19 6 Inert Gas (Helium)  Completely transparent for neutrons • No secondary radiation • Neutron flux unaffected in case of pressure changes  Corrosion is eliminated  No multiphase problems  Excellent heat transfer  Slow thermal response – easy to predict  Improved Safety
  7. 7. GT-HTGR Thermodynamic Cycles (1/4) ESS-38-19 7  Gas Turbine driving generator  Reactor – top source of heat  Precooler – bottom source of heat Simple Closed Brayton Cycle
  8. 8. GT-HTGR Thermodynamic Cycles (2/4) Recupperated Closed Brayton Cycle ESS-38-19 8 Japan: HTTR300  Recuperator incorporated Thermal Efficiency ηth = 46.8 %
  9. 9. GT-HTGR Thermodynamic Cycles (3/4) Intercooled Recuperated Brayton Cycle ESS-38-19 9 South Africa – MPBR, US-Russia GT-MHR: Recuperator – waste heat recovery  Intercooler - reduction of compression work  Thermal Efficiency ηth = 47.6 %
  10. 10. GT-HTGR Thermodynamic Cycles (4/4) Intercooled and Recuperated Closed Brayton Cycle with Intermediate Heat Exchanger ESS-38-19 10 • Improved safety • Easier maintenance • Higher cost and complexity
  11. 11. Thermal Efficiency ESS-38-19 11 Maximum efficiency (Carnot):  GT-HTGR plants advantageous over 600°C of TET  Need for high reactor outlet temperature  Temperatures in HTGRs as high as 1000°C  Pressures up to 7 MPa – lower than in currently used PWR’s
  12. 12. Fuel (1/2) ESS-38-19 12  Fine fissile material particles, diameter = 1 mm (about)  Tri-layer ceramic coating (SiC + Graphite)  Dispersed in graphite matrix  Fuel elements similar for both types of nuclear reactor
  13. 13. Fuel (2/2) ESS-38-19 13  Able to withstand extreeme pressures  Refractory ceramic coating – up to 1600°C  Total freedom of shape and composition - Fissile - Fertile (energy for 20,000 years) - Burnable poison  Very high level of burn-up
  14. 14. Nuclear reactor types  Prismatic core  Pebble bed - graphite moderates neutrons in both ESS-38-## 14
  15. 15. Reactors (1/2): Prismatic core ESS-38-19 15  Construction similar to water reactors  Modules of fuel, control rods and reflector  Cilindric Fuel Compacts
  16. 16. Reactors (2/2): Pebble bed ESS-38-19 16  Spherical fuel and moderator elements  Continuous on-line refueling – improved availability
  17. 17. Power Conversion Unit ESS-38-19 17  A separated vessel  Magnetic rather than oil bearings  Horizontal or vertical arrangement  Generator and turbine may be enclosed in one vessel
  18. 18. Helium Turbomachinery ESS-38-19 18 High enthalpy changes in comparison to air Low pressure ratios ( 2 - 3 ) Large number of stages (~ 20 for compressor) ‘Slim’ Turbomachines  High aspect ratio – BL losses • γ = Cp/Cv = 1.67 - high • High specific heat capacity (5 x Air) High sonic velocity  Reduced shockwave losses
  19. 19. Turbomachinery: Helium Compressor ESS-38-19 19 Parameter Symbol Unit Helium Air Rotational speed N Rpm 3000 3000 Number of stages - - 22 3 Tangential velocity U m/s 236 236 Inlet pressure p1 bar 38 38 Pressure ratio PR - 2.5 2.5 Inlet temperature T1 °C 50 50 Outlet temperature T2 °C 212.4 159.1 Temperature rise ΔTreal °C 162.4 109.1 Enthalpy Rise ΔH kJ 844.2 109.6 Stage loading ΔHstage/U2 - 0.69 0.66
  20. 20. Safety of HTGR ESS-38-19 20 Safety Test  All cooling shut off  Withdraw all control rods  No emergency cooling  No operator action  Inherently safe  Negative temperature coefficient of reactivity  Passive safety systems  Radiation and nautral convection  Accident prevention and mitigation
  21. 21. GT-HTGR Modularity: MIT Pebble Bed ESS-38-19 21
  22. 22. GT-HTGR Additional Applications ESS-38-19 22 Energy required for water dissosiation
  23. 23. ESS-38-19 23 GT-HTGR Plants Advantages SAFETY  Passive heat removal from reactor core  Slow thermal response  Lower pressures  Accident prevention and mitigation ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS  Steam combined cycle, district heating  Oil refining, synthetic fuels production  Hydrogen production MODULARITY  Ease of production, transport and assembly  Lower cost, reduced construction time
  24. 24. References (1/2) Breeze, P. (2005) Power Generation Technologies. Elsevier, Amsterdam Barré, B. (2010) Gas-Cooled Reactors, in: Cacuci, D.G. (ed.) Handbook of Nuclear Engineering. Springer, New York Diamant, R.M.E. (1982) Atomic Energy, Ann Arbor Science, Coolingwood, Michigan Kadak, A.C. High Temperature Gas Reactors, presentation available at: http://web.mit.edu/pebble- bed/Presentation/HTGR.pdf Banjelloun, M. (2010) Technical Economic analysis of a 4th generation Nuclear Power Plant: Gas fast Cooled Reactor coupled with Supercritical – CO2 Brayton cycle, (unpublished MSc. Thesis) Cranfield University, Cranfield Wu, Z., Yu, S. (2007) HTGR projects in China. In: Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 39 (2), 103-110. Grochowina, F. (2011) Performance Evaluation of Gas Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants, (unpublished MSc. Thesis) Cranfield University, Cranfield Yan, X. et al. (2003) GTHTR300 design and development. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 222 (2-3), 247-262. Kadak, A.C. (2007) Mit Pebble Bed Reactor Project. In: Nuclear Engineering and Technology, 39 (2), 95-102. Koster A., Matzner H.D., Nicholsi D.R. (2003) PBMR design for the future. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 222, 231–245. ESS-38-19 24
  25. 25. References (2/2) Ueta, S. et al. (2011) Development of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel in Japan. In: Nuclear Energy, 53(7), 788-793. Kiryushin, A.I. et al. (1997), Project of the GT-MHR high-temperature helium reactor with gas turbine. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 173, 119-129. Shiozawa, S. et al. (2004) Overview of HTTR design features. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 23: 11-21. Cho, N.Z., Kim, H.G. (2010) Pressurized LWRs and HWRs in the Republic of Korea. In: Cacuci, D.G. (ed.) Handbook of Nuclear Engineering. Springer, New York PBMR company website: www.pbmr.co.za/ - accessed 22.02.2013 No, H.C. et al.(2007), A Review of Helium Gas Turbine Technology for Hith-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. In: Nuclear Engineering and Technology, . 39(1), 21-30. Zheng, Q., Ke, T. (2012) Highly loaded aerodynamic design and three dimensional performance enhancement of a HTGR helium compressor. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 249, 256-267. McDonald, C.F., Orlando, R.J., Cotzas, G.M. (1994) Helium Turbomachine Design for GT-MHR Power Plant. Source: http://www.stratosolar.com/uploads/5/6/7/1/5671050/22_gt-mhr_helium_turbomachine.pdf Accessed 24.02.2012 Ball, S. (2006) Sensitivity studies of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor postulated accident. In: Nuclear Engineering and Design, 236, 454-462. ESS-38-19 25
  26. 26. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ESS-38-19 26

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