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The roaring twenties in america


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The roaring twenties in america

  2. 2. • Starting roughly from 1918 to 1929• 1918: The end of World War I• 1929: The Great DepressionThe era was distinguished byseveral important inventions anddiscoveries, unprecedentedindustrial growth, high consumerdemand and aspirations, andsignificant changes in lifestyle andTIMELINE
  3. 3. CHANGING WAYS OF LIFE During the 1920s,urbanizationcontinued toaccelerate For the first time,more Americans livedin cities than in ruralareas New York City washome to over 5million people in 1920 Chicago had nearly3 million
  4. 4. URBAN VS. RURAL Throughout the 1920s,Americans foundthemselves caughtbetween urban and ruralcultures Urban life wasconsidered a world ofanonymous crowds,strangers, moneymakers,and pleasure seekers Rural life wasconsidered to be safe,with close personal ties,hard work and moralsCities were impersonalFarms were innocent
  5. 5. PROHIBITION One example of theclash between city &farm was the passageof the 18thAmendmentin 1920 This Amendmentlaunched the eraknown as Prohibition The new law made itillegal to make, sell ortransport liquor Prohibition lasted from 1920to 1933 when it was repealedby the 21stAmendment
  6. 6. SUPPORT FORPROHIBITION Reformers had longbelieved alcohol led tocrime, child & wife abuse,and accidents Supporters were largelyfrom the rural south andwest The church affiliated Anti-Saloon League and theWomen’s ChristianTemperance Union helpedpush the 18thAmendmentthrough
  7. 7. Postersupportingprohibition
  8. 8. SPEAKEASIES ANDBOOTLEGGERS Many Americans did notbelieve drinking was a sin Most immigrant groupswere not willing to give updrinking To obtain liquor illegally,drinkers went undergroundto hidden saloons known asspeakeasies People also bought liquorfrom bootleggers whosmuggled it in from Canada,Cuba and the West Indies
  9. 9. ORGANIZEDCRIME Prohibition contributedto the growth oforganized crime in everymajor city Chicago becamenotorious as the home ofAl Capone – a famousbootlegger Capone took control ofthe Chicago liquorbusiness by killing off hiscompetitionAl Capone was finally convictedon tax evasion charges in 1931
  10. 10. GOVERNMENT FAILSTO CONTROL LIQUORthe government,failed to budgetenough money toenforce the law The task ofenforcing Prohibitionfell to 1,500 poorly paidfederal agents ---clearly an impossibletaskFederal agents pour winedown a sewer
  11. 11. SUPPORT FADES,PROHIBITION REPEALED By the mid-1920s,only 19% ofAmericans supportedProhibition Many feltProhibition causedmore problems thanit solved The 21stAmendment finallyrepealed Prohibitionin 1933
  12. 12. SCIENCE ANDRELIGION CLASH Another battlegroundduring the 1920s wasbetween fundamentalistreligious groups andsecular thinkers over thetruths of science The Protestantmovement grounded inthe literal interpretationof the bible is known asfundamentalism Fundamentalistsfound all truth in thebible – including science& evolution
  13. 13. SCOPES TRIAL In March 1925,Tennessee passed thenation’s first law thatmade it a crime to teachevolutionThe American CivilLiberties Union(ACLU)promised to defend anyteacher willing tochallenge the law –John Scopes didScopes was a biology teacher whodared to teach his students that manderived from lower species
  14. 14. SECTION 2: THE TWENTIESWOMAN After the tumult ofWorld War I, Americanswere looking for a littlefun in the 1920s Women werebecoming moreindependent andachieving greaterfreedoms (right to vote,more employment,freedom of the auto)Chicago1926
  15. 15. THE FLAPPER During the 1920s, anew ideal emergedfor some women: theFlapper A Flapper was anemancipated youngwoman whoembraced the newfashions and urbanattitudes
  16. 16. NEW ROLES FOR WOMEN The fast-changing world of the 1920sproduced new roles for women Many women entered the workplace asnurses, teachers, librarians, & secretaries However, women earned less than men andwere kept out of many traditional male jobs(management) and faced discriminationEarly 20thCentury teachers
  17. 17. THE CHANGING FAMILY American birthratesdeclined for severaldecades before the1920s During the 1920s thattrend increased as birthcontrol informationbecame widely available Birth control clinicsopened and theAmerican Birth ControlLeague was founded in1921Margaret Sanger and otherfounders of the American BirthControl League - 1921
  18. 18. MODERN FAMILYEMERGES As the 1920sunfolded, many featuresof the modern familyemerged Marriage was basedon romantic love,women managed thehousehold andfinances, and childrenwere not consideredlaborers/ wage earnersbut rather developingchildren who needednurturing and education
  19. 19. SECTION 3:EDUCATIONAND POPULARCULTURE  During the 1920s,developments in educationhad a powerful impact onthe nation Enrollment in highschools quadrupledbetween 1914 and 1926 Public schools met thechallenge of educatingmillions of immigrants
  20. 20. EXPANDING NEWSCOVERAGE As literacyincreased,newspapercirculation rose andmass-circulationmagazines flourished By the end of the1920s, ten Americanmagazines --including Reader’sDigest and Time –boasted circulationsof over 2 million
  21. 21. RADIO COMESOF AGE Although print mediawas popular, radio wasthe most powerfulcommunicationsmedium to emerge inthe 1920s News was deliveredfaster and to a largeraudience Americans could hearthe voice of thepresident or listen tothe World Series live
  22. 22. AMERICAN HEROES OFTHE 20s In 1929, Americansspent $4.5 billion onentertainment (includessports) People crowded intobaseball games to see theirheroes Babe Ruth was a largerthan life American herowho played for Yankees He hit 60 homers in 1927
  23. 23. LINDBERGH’SFLIGHT America’s mostbeloved hero of the timewasn’t an athlete but asmall-town pilot namedCharles Lindbergh Lindbergh made thefirst nonstop solo trans-atlantic flight He took off from NYCin the Spirit of St. Louisand arrived in Paris 33hours later to a hero’swelcome
  24. 24. ENTERTAINMENT ANDARTS Even before sound,movies offered a means ofescape through romanceand comedy First sound movies: JazzSinger (1927) First animated withsound: Steamboat Willie(1928) By 1930 millions ofAmericans went to themovies each weekWalt Disneys animatedSteamboat Willie marked thedebut of Mickey Mouse. It wasa seven minute long black andwhite cartoon.
  25. 25. MUSIC AND ART Famed composerGeorge Gershwinmerged traditionalelements withAmerican Jazz Painters likeEdward Hopperdepicted theloneliness ofAmerican life Georgia O’ Keeffecaptured thegrandeur of New Yorkusing intenselycolored canvasesGershwinHopper’s famous “Nighthawks”Radiator Building,Night, New York , 1927Georgia OKeeffe
  26. 26. WRITERS OFTHE 1920s Writer F. ScottFitzgerald coined thephrase “Jazz Age” todescribe the 1920s Fitzgerald wroteParadise Lost and TheGreat Gatsby The Great Gatsbyreflected theemptiness of New Yorkelite society
  27. 27. WRITERS OF THE1920 Ernest Hemingway,wounded in World War I,became one of the best-known authors of the era In his novels, The SunAlso Rises and A Farewellto Arms, he criticized theglorification of war His simple,straightforward style ofwriting set the literarystandardHemingway - 1929
  28. 28. THE LOST GENERATION Some writerssuch as Hemingwayand John DosPassos were sosoured by Americanculture that theychose to settle inEurope In Paris theyformed a group thatone writer called,“The LostGeneration”John Dos Passos self – portrait.He was a good amateur painter.
  29. 29. SECTION 4: THE HARLEMRENAISSANCE Between 1910 and1920, the GreatMigration sawhundreds of thousandsof African Americansmove north to big cities By 1920 over5 million of the nation’s12 million blacks (over40%) lived in citiesMigration of the Negro byJacob Lawrence
  30. 30. HARLEM, NEW YORK Harlem, NY becamethe largest black urbancommunity Harlem suffered fromovercrowding,unemployment andpoverty However, in the1920s it was home to aliterary and artisticrevival known as theHarlem Renaissance
  31. 31. LOUISARMSTRONG Jazz was born in theearly 20thcentury In 1922, a young trumpetplayer named LouisArmstrong joined theCreole Jazz Band Later he joined FletcherHenderson’s band in NYC Armstrong is consideredthe most important andinfluential musician in thehistory of jazz
  32. 32. EDWARDKENNEDY “DUKE”ELLINGTON In the late 1920s,Duke Ellington, ajazz pianist andcomposer, led histen-piece orchestraat the famousCotton Club Ellington wonrenown as one ofAmerica’s greatestcomposers
  33. 33. BESSIESMITH Bessie Smith,blues singer, wasperhaps the mostoutstanding vocalistof the decade She achievedenormous popularityand by 1927 shebecame the highest-paid black artist inthe world