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D AR W I N
A sum m ary
in 43 slides
IES LLANESIES LLANES
History workshop.History workshop.
IES LLANESIES LLANES
History workshopHistory workshop
WeWe areare
Aníbal Ibáñez GordilloAníbal Ibáñez Gordillo
Beatriz Fer...
Ssssh!
We
are
going
to
talk
about
Charl
DARWIN was born in the English town of ShrewsburyDARWIN was born in the English town of Shrewsbury
(12(12thth
February, 18...
 In that time thereIn that time there
weren't anyweren't any
computers.computers.
 And tuenti didn'tAnd tuenti didn't
ex...
* Darwin's family was as
strange and interesting as
their insects and pigeons
collections.
* This is his grandfather,
ERAS...
What Erasmus Darwin loved more was nature
and its origin, this means natural history.
• In this book calledIn this book ca...
Darwin's mother,
Susana
Wedgewood, was
a very sensitive
and religious
person, and an
active member of
Shrewsbury's
church.
Darwin said that there
might be more cultured
people, but his father was
the smartest person he
had ever known.
In that in...
 Darwin's father wanted his son to be a doctor, as allDarwin's father wanted his son to be a doctor, as all
the family ha...
BUT DARWIN SAID:
 “The classes at 8 AM are a
nightmare”
and he added…
 “I can't bear the sight of
blood”
… bad situatio...
Darwin didn't study so much but…Darwin didn't study so much but…
 He learnt to dissect
birds with a black
taxidermist who...
The young DarwinThe young Darwin
Darwin wasn't a good student, but he wasDarwin wasn't a good student, but he was
extreme...
In reference to his
studies...
 He didn't do very well,
but he used to go to
the Scientific Society’s
meetings.
 And whe...
 In the end he gave up
medicine.
 His father conviced him to
study to be a vicar. Charles
Darwin believed in God and
bei...
And he went to
Cambridge:
He was going to study to
be a vicar for the anglican
church.
At that time most teachers prefer...
He met Henslow (His professor of
Botany)
•The theology classes were
usually boring, so on Fridays
he attended Henslow´ s
c...
 Henslow was the person who invited Darwin to
participate on the trip around the world on the H.M.S.
Beagle. From 1831 to...
Galápagos Islands
 Darwin was fascinated in particular by the land
tortoises and marine iguanas in the Galápagos.
Giant t...
In the Galápagos he also observed the small
differences between the species of the finches.
• He observed earthquakes, fos...
In his house in 1836 Darwin ordered and classified his
collection because Henslow guided all his research,
 He gave conferences
about fossils and reefs
and he had scientific
meetings with his
friends Lyell, Owen,
Henslow…
He wro...
In 1837 Darwin started writing his “Diary of a
voyage on the Beagle”.
It was the best well known voyage book in the 19th
c...
That year Gould told
Darwin that the finches
that Darwin had given
him from three different
islands of the
Galapagos, bel...
And he concluded
that a new
species can
evolve if that
species is isolated
from its own
species.
Then if the three species...
IT is the EVOLUTION tree .
Species alive today descended with modification from species
that lived in the past.
All organi...
Darwin read Malthus, who considered that human beings will
grow in a geometrical progression while the food grows in
aritm...
Reflections
 Observation 1: Organisms generally have more
offspring than can survive to adulthood.
 Observation 2: Offsp...
This can be applied to all living beings:
When there are bad conditions only those who adapt better are
able to survive. F...
 Aged 30, Darwin
married his cousin,
Emma.
 They had 10 children
and lived happily in their
house near Kent county.
 Em...
 In 1844 he wrote to his wife:
“I have just finished the sketch
of the species theory.
Please, publish it if I die”.
 An...
Darwin was hesitant to
publish his theories because of
the violent reactions that
previous authors had received.
•He want...
 But in 1858 the naturalist Wallace
,from Malayo islands sent him a paper
with the main elements of Darwin's
theory.
 Wa...
 Darwin wrote a new version of his
book “Origin of the species”
 It was published in 1859, and
became “the book that rev...
Wallace was very elegant: he accepted
Darwin's supremacy and he called
“darwinism” the new theory.
In the 20th century, ad...
Darwin was responsible for a very clear difference
between society before and after his book's publications.
Fights betwee...
 In those times, almost everyone, the “Official Science”In those times, almost everyone, the “Official Science” included,...
Some radical evolutionists have defended theSome radical evolutionists have defended the
natural selection and the surviva...
Although his work caused a great
controversy , Darwin didn't stop
receiving honours and distinctions
until his death in 18...
Today we celebrate
200 YEARS of that THEORY
which is so important for
science.
Happily and without any
dogma.
THE IES LLANES HISTORY WORKSHOP
DEDICATES THIS WORK TO THE
TEACHERS: MANUEL F. BORDAS and
VIDAL BÁÑEZ
2009 Charles Darwin'...
Darwin, a summary in 43 slides
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Darwin, a summary in 43 slides

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Darwin, a summary in 43 slides

  1. 1. D AR W I N A sum m ary in 43 slides IES LLANESIES LLANES History workshop.History workshop.
  2. 2. IES LLANESIES LLANES History workshopHistory workshop WeWe areare Aníbal Ibáñez GordilloAníbal Ibáñez Gordillo Beatriz Fernández SantosBeatriz Fernández Santos Carlos Barrena BeltránCarlos Barrena Beltrán Emilio Beltrán MartínezEmilio Beltrán Martínez Ester Benjumea DomínguezEster Benjumea Domínguez Eva María Martínez LópezEva María Martínez López Fco. Javier Carmona MoleroFco. Javier Carmona Molero Gonzalo Morales MorenoGonzalo Morales Moreno J. C. Hernández RodríguezJ. C. Hernández Rodríguez Marcos Ibáñez GordilloMarcos Ibáñez Gordillo andand Marta Calderón ÁlvarezMarta Calderón Álvarez (Coordinator: Miguel(Coordinator: Miguel Camacho)Camacho)
  3. 3. Ssssh! We are going to talk about Charl
  4. 4. DARWIN was born in the English town of ShrewsburyDARWIN was born in the English town of Shrewsbury (12(12thth February, 1809),February, 1809), 200 years ago. Our greatgrandparent's grandparents200 years ago. Our greatgrandparent's grandparents time.time.
  5. 5.  In that time thereIn that time there weren't anyweren't any computers.computers.  And tuenti didn'tAnd tuenti didn't exist.exist.  The mail wasn'tThe mail wasn't electronic.electronic.  There were noThere were no telephones ortelephones or planes.planes.  And the ships didn'tAnd the ships didn't have an enginehave an engine
  6. 6. * Darwin's family was as strange and interesting as their insects and pigeons collections. * This is his grandfather, ERASMUS DARWIN so famous as a doctor that George III, the king, invited him to be his personal doctor, but Darwin refused. *Darwin's grandfather was very critical.
  7. 7. What Erasmus Darwin loved more was nature and its origin, this means natural history. • In this book calledIn this book called ZOONOMY he defendedZOONOMY he defended that all living beingsthat all living beings EVOLVED to perfection.EVOLVED to perfection. • That idea was against theThat idea was against the church ideas in that time.church ideas in that time.
  8. 8. Darwin's mother, Susana Wedgewood, was a very sensitive and religious person, and an active member of Shrewsbury's church.
  9. 9. Darwin said that there might be more cultured people, but his father was the smartest person he had ever known. In that inusual family environment, cultured, tolerant and free, the young Darwin grew up. His father, the doctor Robert Darwin, wasn't aHis father, the doctor Robert Darwin, wasn't a religious believer at all.religious believer at all.
  10. 10.  Darwin's father wanted his son to be a doctor, as allDarwin's father wanted his son to be a doctor, as all the family had been, and decided to take him tothe family had been, and decided to take him to his medical visits to get him used to it.his medical visits to get him used to it.  When he was 16 his father sent him to Edimburgh toWhen he was 16 his father sent him to Edimburgh to study medicinestudy medicine..
  11. 11. BUT DARWIN SAID:  “The classes at 8 AM are a nightmare” and he added…  “I can't bear the sight of blood” … bad situation for someone who was going to be a doctor...
  12. 12. Darwin didn't study so much but…Darwin didn't study so much but…  He learnt to dissect birds with a black taxidermist who was his friend.  And he got really interested in biology and wildlife.
  13. 13. The young DarwinThe young Darwin Darwin wasn't a good student, but he wasDarwin wasn't a good student, but he was extremely interested in nature, plants andextremely interested in nature, plants and animals… and in his collections.animals… and in his collections.
  14. 14. In reference to his studies...  He didn't do very well, but he used to go to the Scientific Society’s meetings.  And when he was 18, he gave his first lecture about leech larvae.
  15. 15.  In the end he gave up medicine.  His father conviced him to study to be a vicar. Charles Darwin believed in God and being a vicar was a very respectable job that might allow him some time to be able to investigate.  Charles went to live in the country and he dedicated part of his time hunting and studying the Natural History.
  16. 16. And he went to Cambridge: He was going to study to be a vicar for the anglican church. At that time most teachers preferred religion to science or new ideas.
  17. 17. He met Henslow (His professor of Botany) •The theology classes were usually boring, so on Fridays he attended Henslow´ s classes that were quite different. As a teacher, both in the classroom and in the field, he was eminently successful •Henslow was an inquiring scientist at heart and did things such as looking after a botanical garden in Cambridge or improving agriculture and farming by teaching the villagers.
  18. 18.  Henslow was the person who invited Darwin to participate on the trip around the world on the H.M.S. Beagle. From 1831 to 1836 Darwin served as naturalist aboard the H.M.S. Beagle on a British science expedition around the world. He was 22 years old. Unfortunately 3 of the 5 years, he had to be inland (He got very ill on the ship) He dedicated that time to think, write and pick up more plants, minerals and animals.
  19. 19. Galápagos Islands  Darwin was fascinated in particular by the land tortoises and marine iguanas in the Galápagos. Giant tortoises varied in predictable ways from one island to another.  The shape of a tortoise's shell could be used to identify which island a particular tortoise inhabited.  He observed much variation in related or similar species of plants and animals that were geographically isolated from each other.  These observations were the basis for his ideas.
  20. 20. In the Galápagos he also observed the small differences between the species of the finches. • He observed earthquakes, fossils or shells at sea level, even coral islands that had sunk. Darwin agreed with Lyell: the world is formed by gradual changes, sometimes sudden, about a permanent change.
  21. 21. In his house in 1836 Darwin ordered and classified his collection because Henslow guided all his research,
  22. 22.  He gave conferences about fossils and reefs and he had scientific meetings with his friends Lyell, Owen, Henslow… He wrote a report about the coral islands.
  23. 23. In 1837 Darwin started writing his “Diary of a voyage on the Beagle”. It was the best well known voyage book in the 19th century.
  24. 24. That year Gould told Darwin that the finches that Darwin had given him from three different islands of the Galapagos, belonged to three different species. So they were not three varieties of the same species, as Darwin thought.
  25. 25. And he concluded that a new species can evolve if that species is isolated from its own species. Then if the three species of finches from the Galapago islands come from a common ancestor… all the finches of America come from a common species Hypothesis: Separate species may have arose from an original ancestor
  26. 26. IT is the EVOLUTION tree . Species alive today descended with modification from species that lived in the past. All organisms on earth are united into a single family tree of life by common descent And so on……..
  27. 27. Darwin read Malthus, who considered that human beings will grow in a geometrical progression while the food grows in aritmethical progression. In the end there will be more people than food. And the excess of people will be reduced due to famine, diseases or wars. Darwin was surprised with the ideas of Malthus, because he saw the big force of nature. A lot of creatures multiply in great amounts, but only a few survive.
  28. 28. Reflections  Observation 1: Organisms generally have more offspring than can survive to adulthood.  Observation 2: Offspring are not identical. There is variation in their appearance, size, and other characteristics.  Inference: Those organisms that are better adapted to their environment have a greater likelihood of surviving to adulthood and passing these characteristics on to their offspring.  Survival of the “fittest
  29. 29. This can be applied to all living beings: When there are bad conditions only those who adapt better are able to survive. For example, in a bird community not all of them are equal, those ones with a harder beak, and those who are more able to change their diet and eat seeds, will survive better and will reproduce more, and transmit that ability to their offspring. • “I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection.” —Charles Darwin from "The Origin of Species“, 1859  This is the evolution mechanism.
  30. 30.  Aged 30, Darwin married his cousin, Emma.  They had 10 children and lived happily in their house near Kent county.  Emma was very o religious and asked Darwin in a letter to consider changing his vision about against creationism.  Darwin didn't accept but he cried each time he saw the letter.
  31. 31.  In 1844 he wrote to his wife: “I have just finished the sketch of the species theory. Please, publish it if I die”.  And he wrote to a botanist friend, Hooker: ” I am watching the light coming and I' m convinced (disagreeing with my initial thinking) that the species are not... unchangeable”  Only his scientific colleagues knew a part of his work that still took 15 years to be finished and published
  32. 32. Darwin was hesitant to publish his theories because of the violent reactions that previous authors had received. •He wanted that time and that energy to continue investigating, storing more data, and researching. •Another disadvantage was an illness he had been suffering since he got back to Britain: he suffered from frequent headaches, vomiting, shivers and convulsions.
  33. 33.  But in 1858 the naturalist Wallace ,from Malayo islands sent him a paper with the main elements of Darwin's theory.  Wallace asked Darwin to read it, to know if he agreed with it to publish it. Wallace had discovered Darwin's secret! •Darwin, with a strong sense of honour, arranged for a simultaneous reading of his and Wallace’s papers before the Linnean Society. The readings were met with silence, so Darwin published the full text of his ideas. …then it hit the fan.
  34. 34.  Darwin wrote a new version of his book “Origin of the species”  It was published in 1859, and became “the book that revolutionized the world”  The first day all the books were sold. There were crowds of people waiting for the coming of more books.  In Darwin’s lifetime he would be recognized as one of the great masters of science. By the 1870s almost all serious scientists in England had accepted evolution.  It was translated into 30 languages but it didn't come to Spain until 1877, but its controversy arrived much sooner.
  35. 35. Wallace was very elegant: he accepted Darwin's supremacy and he called “darwinism” the new theory. In the 20th century, advances in palaeontology and genetics reinforced and completed the original theory . It's the current Theory of Neodarwinism. “Nothing has any sense in biology if it is not considered under the eyes of evolution". T. Dobzhansky
  36. 36. Darwin was responsible for a very clear difference between society before and after his book's publications. Fights between evolutionists and creationists had started. Some people said church couldn't agree with the evolutionism and believe in God at the same time.
  37. 37.  In those times, almost everyone, the “Official Science”In those times, almost everyone, the “Official Science” included,included, thought that the world was like God had made it the day ofthought that the world was like God had made it the day of CREATION,CREATION, just 6,000 years ago!just 6,000 years ago!  Today we know that the Earth is 4600 million years old.Today we know that the Earth is 4600 million years old.  Nowadays fundamentalist religious societies still think in aNowadays fundamentalist religious societies still think in a similar way and try to attack evolutionism with a false science,similar way and try to attack evolutionism with a false science, known asknown as Intelligent DesignIntelligent Design, a modern creationism ., a modern creationism .
  38. 38. Some radical evolutionists have defended theSome radical evolutionists have defended the natural selection and the survival of the fittest tonatural selection and the survival of the fittest to explain the domination of some men above others.explain the domination of some men above others. This is called Social Darwinism and those whoThis is called Social Darwinism and those who defend it say: “defend it say: “If natural selection works with theIf natural selection works with the wildlife why not in society?”wildlife why not in society?” This wasn't Charles Darwin's idea.
  39. 39. Although his work caused a great controversy , Darwin didn't stop receiving honours and distinctions until his death in 1882, aged 73. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, next to Isaac Newton’s memorial. It is the maximun honour that an Englishman can receive after his death. Nowadays museums, libraries and universities all over the world have his name.
  40. 40. Today we celebrate 200 YEARS of that THEORY which is so important for science. Happily and without any dogma.
  41. 41. THE IES LLANES HISTORY WORKSHOP DEDICATES THIS WORK TO THE TEACHERS: MANUEL F. BORDAS and VIDAL BÁÑEZ 2009 Charles Darwin's Bicentenary

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