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Cardamom loki


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history,ecologyand propagation of cardamom.

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Cardamom loki

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES, BAGALKOT. Ch. Lokesh , Uhs14pgm433, Dept. of pma.
  3. 3. CARDAMOM  B.N : Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Family : Zingiberaceae C.N. : 2n=48.  Origin : Western Ghats of South India.  Common names : Elakkayi (Telugu), Yelakki(Kannada),Ela (Sanskrit). Plant profile:
  4. 4.  Cardamom is often named as the third most expensive spice in the world.  Cardamom is therapeutic in nature, broadly used to treat infections in teeth and gums, digestive disorders, throat troubles, skin conditions etc.  In South Asia, green cardamom is largely included in traditional Indian sweets and in the making of tea.  Although India is the largest producer of cardamom, only a small share of the Indian production is exported because of the large domestic demand.  The main exporting country is Guatemala, where cardamom cultivation has been introduced to less than a century ago and where all cardamom is grown for export.
  5. 5. Uses:  It is used for flavoring various food preparations, confectionary, beverages and liquors.  It is also used for medicinal purpose, both in Allopathy and Ayurveda systems.  Cardamom seeds are chewed to prevent bad smell in mouth.  It improves eye-sight and strengthens nervous system.
  6. 6.  Cardamom seeds are chewed to prevent bad smell in mouth , pyrosis and indigestion.
  7. 7. composition Moisture 7 -10% Protein 7-14% Carbohydrate 42.1% crude fibre 6.7-12.8% Starch 39.0-49.9% Volatile oil 7.4% Calcium 0.3% Iron 0.012% phosphorus 0.21% Per 100 gram of dried seeds Active principle: 1,8-cineol.
  8. 8. History The history of Indian spices dates back to the beginning of the human civilization. Spices were the symbols of royalty and luxury in olden days and also inducements for war, voyages and expeditions in shaping the course of world events and history. The world doesn’t know the actual time period when cardamom originated but it is considered that the cardamom plants firstly came into existence in the monsoon forests of western ghats in southern India as wild herbs. A medicinal literature summary written in between 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD in India named Charak Samhita provides us with the first ever written inscriptions about cardamom. . .
  9. 9.  Cardamom was written in an article of Greek trade during the 4th century B.C.  It is also mentioned in Sanskrit texts of the 4th century B.C. in a treatise on politics called Kautilaya’s Arthasashasthra and in Taitirriya Samhitha where it is used in offering during ceremonies.  The Susrutha Samhita, the ancient Indian Ayurvedic text, written in the post-Vedic period (1400-1600 BC) make mention of cardamom.  Assyrians and Babylonians were also familiar with the uses of cardamom.  It says that cardamom is a significant constituent in many medicines and preparations.
  10. 10. Cardamom has been used as a medicine and in cooking since ancient times. It enjoys a long and fascinating history dating back to Vedic times, about 3000 years B.C…  It was used in the manufacture of perfumes during the Greek and Roman times (Prabhakaran Nair, 2000). Greeks when initiated their exploration at this time, started importing cardamom as a digestive medicinal herb. It started to get used vastly in a number of recipes and drinks due to its flavour and fragrance. In the 11th century in Indian cardamom was included in the list of ingredients for panchasugandha-thambula.
  11. 11.  It was brought to an article of international traders like Arab traders and according to the Portuguese traveller Barbosa, in 1524 the international trade of cardamom was well developed.  Most of the countries started to import this spice from India with the emergence of 16th century.  The cultivation of cardamom in India was actively taken up by the Travancore Government in 1823 A.D.  Till 19th century, cardamom grew wild and was searched in the monsoon forests .  But the British colonies suggested that the establishment of plantations and domesticate the crop.  Nowadays it is grown as a secondary crop with the coffee plantations.
  12. 12. Ecology  Cardamom is mainly cultivated in warm humid and high rainfall regions, especially on the slopes of western ghats of South India at an elevation ranging from 600 to 1200 m above MSL.  It has been found growing wild in Africa and induced to West Indies.  Cardamom is a unique cash crop which suits well as a component of forest ecosystem with least disturbance to it.  Hot and humid environment prevailing under the evergreen rain forests of the western ghats is ideal for this crop because this region receives heavy rainfall during June to September from S.W monsoon followed by N.E. monsoon in December.
  13. 13.  The optimum mean annual temperature range for cardamom is 18 - 23º C.  Above 25ºC the development and ripening of cardamom capsules are accelerated, often leading to early maturity.  Continuous exposure to high day time temperatures, as high as 32ºC, could lead to complete withering of leaves and young tillers.  Relatively high air temperature during blossoming (April-May) especially if associated with a prolonged dry season may cause reduced pollination and abortion of cardamom flowers.  Air humidity has a significant positive impact on vegetative and flowering phase of the cardamom.
  14. 14.  According to Pruthi (1993) cardamom thrives at an elevation of 600-1500 m but the most productive range of elevation is from 1000m - 1800 m.  According to Santiago (1967) an average rainfall of 1500 mm - 2500 mm is ideal for cardamom growth and development.  Korikanthimath (1987) studied the rainfall data recorded during the period from 1961 to 1985 at Coorg district, Karnataka and its impact on cardamom production.  He noticed that the meagre rainfall received from January to April in 1964, 1973, 1974, 1979 and 1983 resulted in lesser crop yields.  The unprecedented drought during 1983 caused a great setback on the growth and yield of cardamom in Coorg district and the same trend prevailed in other cardamom growing tracts of India.
  15. 15.  Khader and Syed (1977) reported that an unfavourable microclimate changes, which in turn influences the release of N, P and S from organic matter. It also affects nitrification and absorption of P and K by the plants.  Experiments were conducted by Gurumurthy and Hegde (1987) to find out causes of low germination of cardamom seeds in winter season at Regional Research Station, Mudigere (mean maximum temperature 30°C and mean minimum temperature 10°C) and Agricultural Research Station, Ullal (mean maximum temperature 33.7°C and mean minimum temperature 18.8°C).  They observed that germination was significantly correlated with minimum and maximum temperature.
  16. 16.  John (2003) reported that the temperature was in the range of 18°C to 24°C in the cardamom tracts of Guatemala.  Rao and Korikanthimath (1983) revealed that yield of cardamom was influenced more by distribution of monthly rainfall rather than the total rainfall and number of rainy days.  It is very sensitive to moisture stress and performs better in cool environment.  It is highly susceptible to drought, frost and hailstorms and also to wind. Hence, in selecting a site for cardamom cultivation gentle slopey (10-30%) lands facing an eastern or northern aspect is preferred.  Deforestation and resultant changes in ecology of western ghats have become threat to cardamom industry.  Due to this reason the Mysore variety is becoming extinct now.
  17. 17.  Soil with good drainage and rich in organic matter is most suitable for cardamom cultivation.  Cardamom generally grows well in forest loamy soils that are acidic in nature, the preferable pH being 5.5-6.5.  In a comparison made between healthy plantation and those where a decline in yield was noticed, the analysis of plant leaves showed a higher content of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu in leaves of cardamom plantations, which coin a situation where soil nutrient factors are responsible for decline in yield.  The low productivity is mainly attributed to poor soil fertility, imbalanced manuring, poor management practices and disease incidences.
  18. 18.  Further, it is a shade loving plant (40-60%) and is commonly cultivated as mixed cropping along with plantations like arecanut, coffee and black pepper.  But too much shade also retards the metabolic activities and yield.  Shade regulation studies on cardamom productivity revealed that one third of-incident sunlight (15.20 K Lux) in the form of filtered light is optimum for growth and production.  Studies at RRS Mudigere, revealed that shade trees in cardamom plantation play an important role in nutrient recycling through leaf fall.
  19. 19.  Terminalia catapa and Artocarpus integrifoiia, produced more biomass around 950 g/ m2/year.  Jack tree is found to recycle maximum NPK (63.9kg/10 tonnes biomass).  Though cardamom soils in India are rich in organic matter, they are in general, acidic, low in phosphorus ,potassium and zinc status. So use of lime is recommended in such areas to increase the PH.  Besides, the rate of decomposition of organic matter and there by release of nutrients in cardamom soils is much slower due to association of forest/shade trees and consequent low mean annual temperature.
  20. 20. Map showing the study area of Cardamom Hill Reserves (shaded) in Indian Cardamom Hills, Kerala.
  21. 21. Aim:  This paper examines the interactions between climate parameters and cardamom capsule yield and its sustainability in Indian cardamom hills. Results:  Climate warming was significant in the recent decades in the Indian Cardamom Hills, which is recognized as one of the ecologically sensitive and biologically diverse areas.  Considerable and significant spatial and temporal variations have occurred in the main climatic elements like air temperature, rainfall and relative humidity in the hill region.
  22. 22.  Significant increasing trend was also observed in minimum temperature than maximum temperature and this had caused decline in diurnal temperature.  Winter and summer monsoon rainfall as well as high relative humidity had a positive influence on the yield of cardamom.  However, the variability in these two types of rainfall was high for the entire region and the trend is negative.
  23. 23. Conclusion:  The sustainable yield of cardamom may be possible only when the winter and summer rainfall variabilities were minimal.  Increasing trend of soil temperature from 0-10 cm depth was recorded, greater variations in soil temperatures occurred in the top 5 cm soil layer than the layers beneath it. Minimum variations were noticed for 15 cm soil depth for the entire period of study.  Difference in soil temperature values (seasonal mean) between summer months and rainy months was of the order of 6ºC.  Soil temperature values decreased with increasing the depth.
  24. 24. Percentage Capsule Set and Yield of Cardamom The highest capsule set was reported for the month of November (84.4%) followed by September (84.1%) and August (83.1%). The lowest capsule set percentage was recorded for the month of January (51.1%). Capsule set was higher for the monsoon months (south west and north east monsoon).
  25. 25.  Cardamom can be propagated by seeds, suckers (vegetative) and tissue culture. Being a cross pollinated crop, seedling population is variable. Hence, vegetative propagation is normally adopted in case of elite clones. Vegetative propagation can be either through rhizome bits (suckers) or by micro propagation (tissue culture). In order to raise a cardamom plantation, seedlings or suckers of high yielding varieties are used.
  26. 26.  Seed propagation  Vegetative propagation  Rapid clonal propagation  Micro propagation Types of propagation
  27. 27. Steps :– Primary nursery a. Site selection b. Selection of seeds c. Pre sowing Seed treatment d. Sowing e. Mulching Secondary nursery a. bed nursery b. poly bag nursery
  28. 28. a. Site selection:  Select nursery sites on gentle sloppy area and preferably near to a perennial water source.  Clean the area from all existing vegetation, stumps, roots, stones etc.  In the cleared area, beds can be prepared with one meter width, 20 cm height and required length.  Jungle top soil can be spread to a thickness of 2 to 3 cm on the beds.
  29. 29.  Fumigate the beds with 2% formalin which will help in eliminating the pathogens, nematodes and other soil pests.  The beds should be made air tight by covering with polythene sheets and the fumigant is allowed to penetrate into the soil for two or three days.  Later the treated beds should be kept open for another week before taking up sowing.
  30. 30. Fully ripened bold capsules from high yielding and disease-free seeds are to be selected for seed extraction. Seeds after extraction should be washed with water to remove the mucilage. It is then mixed with wood ash and dried in shade. Storage of seed is not advisable for longer period, because it is experimentally proved that 15 days of storage decreased germination for about 20% and 3 to 5 months storage decreased germination up to 94%. Sowing in September is the best for good germination.
  31. 31.  On an average, 1 kg fruits contain 900-1000 capsules with 10-15 seeds per capsule and 1 kg of seed capsules are required to get about 3000-5000 seedlings. To plant 1 acre, 1/2 kg seed capsules are required to raise nursery. Seed collection from mother plant having:-  Vigorous growth  High yielding  Compact panicle  High % of fruit set  Free from pests and diseases  More no. of tillers
  32. 32. c. Pre sowing treatments of seeds :  Cardamom seeds possess a hard seed coat that delays its germination. Various studies have been undertaken on the effect of pre-sowing treatments of seeds to overcome this delay in germination.  After picking capsules are immersed in water.  Seeds are wash in water to remove mucilage.  Seed are smeared with wood ash and shade dried.  Acid treatment is done for better germination.
  33. 33. Treatment Mode Duration Germination percentage (increase or decrease over control) Con. Nitric acid Soaking five minutes nine per cent increase Conc. Hydrochloric acid Soaking five minutes Increased germination 25 per cent Nitric acid Soaking 10 minutes 55 per cent increase (fresh seeds) 25 per cent increase (six to eight months old seeds) 25 per cent Acetic acid 25 per cent Hydrochloric acid 25 per cent Nitric acid Soaking 10 minutes 90 per cent germination Acetone Soaking 10 minutes Increased germination Table: indicates that soaking cardamom seeds in dilute or concentrated acid for 5-10 minutes increases the germination percentage. Acid treatment Source : Technical bulletin, propagation techniques in cardamom. IISR, Cardamom Research Centre Appangala, Madikeri.
  34. 34.  In addition, soaking seeds with GA3 and ethrel solutions was found to enhance germination, while kinetin did not. Germination was also enhanced by treating seeds with GA3 100 ppm and planofix 75 ppm. Temperature has greater influence on germination:  Apart other factors, ambient temperature also plays a role in germination. Low temperature reduces germination as well as delays it.  Low temperature was significantly correlated with maximum and minimum temperature prevalent in the area.  The cardamom seeds failed to germinate at temperature less than 15 oC and greater than 35 oC Germination was optimum at 30oC (70.9-73.0%).
  35. 35.  Seeds are sown in lines usually not more than 1 cm deep. Rows are spread 10 cm apart and seeds are sown 1-2 cm apart within a row. Deep sowing of seeds should be avoided for better and quicker germination.  Seed rate is 30 to 50 g per 6 x 1m size bed. After sowing, beds are covered with a thin layer of sand and mulch such as potha grass or paddy straw.  Germination will commence in about 20-25 days after sowing and may continue for a month or two.  The mulch is removed soon after the commencement of germination.  The young seedlings are to be protected against exposure to sun and rain by providing shade over the seedbeds.
  36. 36. Mulching of seedbeds influences germination. The beds covered with paddy straw recorded highest germination (40%), when seeds were sown in September and was on par with dry leaves of rose wood (37%), goose berry (37%) and wild fern (38%). Some reports revealed that mulching with coir dust, paddy straw or goose berry leaves enhances germination.
  37. 37. There are two methods of raising seedlings in secondary nursery viz., bed and poly bag nurseries. A. Bed nursery B. Poly bag nursery
  38. 38. Bed nursery  Prepare beds as in primary nursery. A layer of cattle manure may be spread on the bed and mixed with soil.  Seedlings of 4-5 leaf stage from the primary nursery beds can be transplanted in the secondary nursery at a distance of 20-25 cm.  Rate of mortality was higher when transplanting was done in the 2 leaf stage. It can be minimized by transplanting at 4-5 leaf stage.  In Karnataka, where seeds are sown during August-September, transplanting takes place in November- January.  In Kerala and Tamil Nadu states, seedlings from primary beds are transplanted to secondary nursery beds at a spacing of 20 x 20 cm during June-July.
  39. 39.  It was observed that application of 45 g N, 30 g P2O5 and 60 g K2O per bed of 2.5 x 1m size in 3 equal splits at an interval of 45 days resulted in better growth and higher number of tillers.  First dose of fertilizer may be applied 30 days after transplanting in the secondary nursery.  Regional Research Station, Mudigere, recommends NPK mixture at the rate of 160 g per bed 1 month after planting.  This is to be increased by 160 g every month until a maximum of 960 g per bed is reached.  The proportion of NPK is 1 part urea, 2 parts superphosphate and 1 part murate of potash.
  40. 40. Poly bag nursery  Polythene bags of 20 x 20 cm size and thickness of 100 gauge with 3-4 holes at the bottom can be used for this purpose.  Fill the bags with potting mixture in the ratio of 3:1:1 jungle top soil, cowdung and sand.  Seedlings at 4-5 leaf stage can be transplanted into each bag (one seedling per bag).  Adequate space in between the bags may be provided for better tillering. The advantages of raising seedlings in poly bags are: a) Seedlings of uniform growth and tillering can be obtained. b) Nursery period can be reduced to 5-6 months after transplanting the seedlings as against 10-12 months in the secondary nursery. c) Better establishment and growth of seedlings in the main field.
  41. 41.  Cardamom plants from secondary nursery or poly bags can be transplanted to the main field during last week of May after receipt of pre-monsoon showers or the first week of June soon after commencement of south west monsoon.
  42. 42. Suckers from elite clones can be used for establishing plantations capable of higher productivity. Plants raised from suckers come to bearing earlier than seeds. Suckers should not be used in areas where katte and other viral diseases (such as Kokkekandu and Nilgiri necrosis) are common. Vegetative propagation can be adopted both by using tillers (suckers) and micropropagation by tissue culture. Rhizomes of cardamom
  43. 43. Rapid clonal propagation  High yielding varieties/selections are generally multiplied in isolated clonal nurseries.  Virus free high yielding plants are selected and sub cloned for further multiplication.
  44. 44. High yielding plants free from pest and diseases, with characters like bold capsules with green colour are to be selected from plantations. Part of the clump has to be uprooted for clonal multiplication leaving the mother clump in its original place to induce subsequent suckers for further use. The minimum planting unit consists of a grown up sucker (rhizome) and a growing young shoot. Trenches having width and depth of 45 cm and convenient length have to be opened, filled with jungle soil, compost and topsoil.
  45. 45. The rhizomes (planting unit) are placed at a spacing of 1.8 m x 0.6 m in trenches, thus accommodating 9259 plants/ ha of clonal nursery area. Pandal protection, regular watering (once in a week during November to May) and chemical manure @ 48:48:96 g NPK/ plant have to be applied in 2 splits. On an average 32-42 suckers will be produced after 12 months of planting per planting unit. Drenching the trenches with cowdung slurry and 2 kg of nutrient mixture (19:19:19 NPK) per 200 L of water increases sucker production and growth.
  46. 46. In an area of 1 ha clonal nursery, 1,48,144 to 1,94,439 planting units can be produced after 12 months. Clones thus produced should be free from virus, rhizome rot and root knot nematodes. Clonal nursery
  47. 47. Micro propagation “… the art and science of multiplying plants in vitro.”
  48. 48.  Cardamom is the first crop where commercialization of micro propagation has been achieved.  Use of biotechnology in crop improvement programmes began in 1983, with the rapid clonal multiplication of cardamom at the Central Plantation Crops Research Institute .  ‘Katte’ disease caused by virus is one of the major production constraints in cardamom.  Production of virus-free planting material is considered to be the most important input in disease management programme.  High rate of multiplication coupled with additional advantage of obtaining uniform and disease free planting material makes micro propagation a preferred method over the conventional method. Micropropagation
  49. 49. Micro propagation technique in cardamom was standardised by many scientists.  The approaches used were (1) through callusing, (2) through adventitious bud formation and (3) through enhanced axillary branching.  Cost effective commercial micro propagation technology developed at ICRI, Spices Board.
  50. 50.  Young sprouting tillers of 8 to 10 cm length were found as the best explants for tissue culture of small cardamom.  Time of collection of the explants is also very important for success of tissue culture of small cardamom.  Collection of explants between March to May is ideal.  Media were supplemented with various growth regulators such as BAP, KN, IAA etc.  Plantlets were generally allowed to acclimatize in nursery for two to three months till they reached a height of 20-30 cm before transplanting either to poly bags or directly to field.  Hardening of tissue-cultured plantlets was done in sand filled cups under a mist chamber with 80 % relative humidity at a temperature not exceeding 33°C.
  51. 51. Procedure Preparation of media(Schenk & Hidebrandt Medium) Transplant of explant in media For shoot induction , addition of BAP, KN & Coconut milk each @ 0.5mg/l and also IAA 2mg/l growth factors D- Biotin and calcium pantothenate @ 0.1mg/l The bud elongation takes place on M1medium Transfer of shoots in fresh medium after every 5 weeks Primary culture is transferred to shoot multiplication medium M2 Achieve a ht of 30-40 mm in 12 weeks White’s rooting medium used for rooting and further shoot elongation.
  52. 52. Rooting percentage 86-93% 4-5 cm rooted shoots transferred for hardening and acclimatization Planting medium:- sterilized top soil and compost Plantlets are acclimatized in nursery for 2-3 months transferred to main field at stage of 20-30 cm ht
  54. 54. Source : Technical bulletin, propagation techniques in cardamom. IISR, Cardamom Research Centre Appangala, Madikeri.
  55. 55. The Achievements :  Clonal multiplication in cardamom:  Protocol for clonal multiplication from vegetative buds in small cardamom has been standardized.  An average of 6 axillary shoots could be produced within 30 days of culture.  This method is extensively used for raising clones of the high-yielding Coorg cardamom 'Selection l' for the production of 'katte disease-free-nucleus-planting material.  Immature inflorescences could also be used to multiply cardamom clones, by converting the floral buds into vegetative buds.
  56. 56. Regeneration of plantlets from callus:  The protocol for organogenesis and plant regenerations from vegetative-bud-derived-callus cultures is endowed with an excellent regeneration system, that at present is used for large-scale production of soma clones and isolation of useful types from them.
  57. 57.  A method for micropropagation of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is reported.  Rhizome buds were activated to grow in Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.5 mg/l kinetin.  The sprouted buds were multiplied at the rate of 5-10 shoots per culture in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg/l indole- 3-butyric acid.  The shoots rooted in the same medium. The in vitro regenerated plantlets could be established in the soil with 90 per cent success.
  58. 58. REFERENCES  Babu, K., Geetha, S. P., Manjula, C., Ravindran, P. N. and Peter, K. V., 1994, Medium term conservation of cardamom germplasm, An in vitro approach. Proceedings of the second Asia-pacific conference on agricultural biotechnology., 12(1): 57.  Gurumurthy, B. R. and Hegde, V. M., 1987, Effect of temperature on germination of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L) Maton) seeds. J. Plant. Crops., 15(3): 5-8.  Kumar, K. B., Kumar, P. P., Balachandran, S. M. and Iyer, R. D., 1985, Development of clonal plantlets from immature panicles of cardamom. J. Plant. Crops., 13(1): 31-34.  Khader, K. B. A. and Syed, A. A. M., 1977, Fertilizing cardamom- its importance. Cardamom., 9(1): 13-14.  Korikanthimath, V. S., 1987, Impact of drought on cardamom. Cardamom., 19(2): 5-12.  Murugan, M., Shetty, P. K., Anandhi, A. and Ravi, R., 2012, Present and future climate change in Indian cardamom hills: Implications for cardamom production and sustainability. British Journal of Environment & Climate Change., 2(4): 368-390.
  59. 59.  Murugan, M., Shetty, P. K., Ravi, R., Subbiah, A. and Hiremath, M. B., 2011, Environmental impacts of intensive cardamom (small) cultivation in Indian Cardamom Hills: the need for sustainable and efficient practices. Rec. Res. Sci. Tech., 3(2): 9-15.  Prabhakaran Nair, K. P., 2000, The agronomy and economy of cardamom Elettaria cardamomum: The queen of spices. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.  Parthasarathy, V. A., Chempakam, B. and Zachariah, T. J., 2008, Chemistry of Spices. United Kingdom, CABI publisher.  Pruthi, J. S., 1993, Major Spices of India - Crop Management, Post Harvest Technology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi., p.156.  Santiago, E., 1967, Hints for selection of site for cardamom plantations. Cardamom News., 10(2): 1-7.
  60. 60. OU THANK YOU