Theironhorse

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A short history of railway developments in the United States

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Theironhorse

  1. 1. THE IRON HORSE a short history of trains in the 19 th century
  2. 2. Early Train History <ul><li>First imported steam locomotive was in 1830s by Horatio Allen </li></ul><ul><li>Trains capture the imagination of Americans from the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>Which do you think is more efficient? </li></ul><ul><li>1869 the golden spike of the transcontinental railroad hammered into American soil: coast to coast transportation </li></ul><ul><li>From 1861 to 1890 train track increased from 30,000 miles to 210,000 miles ! </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Reality and Romance <ul><li>The Romance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh start </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement of Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feudalistic-like towns run by businessmen </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Urbanization by Transportation <ul><li>Train system linked different markets across nation </li></ul><ul><li>Cities near the railway developed (Chicago, Minneapolis) </li></ul><ul><li>New towns were created centered on the train industry </li></ul><ul><li>Railway-towns created that provided all services to the train factory’s employees (Pullman Town) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Greed for the Greenbacks <ul><li>Credit Mobiler (1864) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union Pacific Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressmen and Businessmen involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of $ taken by skimming railway profits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse of railway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Businessmen and favoritism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government abuse of lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse of farmers (price gauging, debt) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Government, Private Industry and the Court <ul><li>Gragner Laws (1871) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grangers convinced politicians to support them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illinois authorized regulation of railway co. prices in state </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Munn v. Illinois (1877) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Railways fought back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court decision upheld farmers protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federal Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Munn v. Illinois establishes federal protection of public interest over private interest </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. See Saw Politics and Public Outrage <ul><li>Granger’s power short-lived </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme court overturns state regulation of trains </li></ul><ul><li>Public Outrage </li></ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ICC Established to regulate railway commerce federally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not wield effective power until the early 1900s </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Panic of 1893 <ul><li>Railroad Industry Falters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bankruptcy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 banks and 15,000 businesses failed </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Rise of the Big Business <ul><li>Massive Bankruptcy puts railway industry in the hand of a few trust </li></ul><ul><li>The Age of Big Business </li></ul><ul><li>J.P. Morgan, Vaderbilt, Carnegie all come out of this sea shift in American business </li></ul>
  10. 10. Orwell and Railroads <ul><li>“ Hark! here comes that old dragon again-that gigantic gadfly…snort! puff! scream! Great improvements of the age” Melville fumed “Who wants to travel so fast? My grandfather did not, and he was no fool” (Moby Dick) </li></ul><ul><li>Like Orwell, do you think technology moves to fast for society to handle? </li></ul>

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