Roof fall is still one of the fatal accidents of underground mines..
Cil is againt body which has a number of mining subsidiaries….however roof fall accidents had decreased to certain extent when it comes to 2010
In second point add “ due to this rock cutting sites are cooled with water”.
Danger due to Fire and Inundation in underground mines
A Sudden in rush of water either from a surface source or from an underground source into the active workings of the mine is called inundation
Additional environmental problems like CARBON OUTPUT,EROSION AND ENDANGERED SPECIES HABITAT
Physical- Common causes of fatal injury include rock fall, fires, explosions, mobile equipment accidents, falls from height, entrapment and electrocution.Chemical- Prolonged exposure to crystalline silica leads to Chronic….., Lung Cancer. Coal dust, methane gas explosions in underground mining and cyanide solution leads to Skin splashes.Biological: Leptospirosis and ankylostomiasis were common in mines, but eradication of rats and improved sanitation has controlled these hazards effectively in the developed countriesOther psy, ergono impact on miners by continuous work load ….
Mine closure plan…image ….If the mine closure plan is not effectively designed,there is a chance of accidents in abandoned mines in future.
Separate and independent emergency light source should be provided at all places where a hazard could be placed by failure if light
B. Lokeshnath Yadav (2nd year)
B.Tech in Mining Engineer with
DD with M.Tech
Of course Mining is hazardous
Hence our endeavor to bring down the
hazards by all available means to an
acceptable level must continue
• The job involves the extraction of precious stones
and minerals deep within the earth.
• In addition, miners use heavy machinery and other
specialized equipment and tools that can be risky to
• Mining is considered as toughest job next to Army in
• The Mining Industry in India is a major economic
activity which contributes to the major economy of
• Since Mining in India is not fully mechanized, mine
hazards prevail more commonly.
• Hence Indian Government established an organized
body called DGMS in Dhanbad, Jharkhand
Role of DGMS...
• Inspection of Mines
• Investigation into- accidents
- dangerous occurrence
- emergency response
• Approval of mine safety equipment, material & appliances
• Certification of Explosives to be used in mines.
• Promotes Safety Education and Awareness Programmes.
Trends in Fatal accidents and Death rates
in Coal mines:
No.of fatal accidents
No. of persons killed
1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2005 2009 2010 2011
Source: Annual Report 2011 of DGMS
Some Hazards that Miners face:
• Cave-ins, Ground and Rock Fall.
• Side fall and collapse of Pillars.
• Gas Explosions.
• Chemical Leaks.
• Ground Movements.
• Haulages and Machinery
Cave-ins, ground and Roof falls:
• A cave-in occurs when a geologic formation, mine or
structure collapses, usually during mining or tunneling.
• This underground mining accident occurs when proper
safety measures have not been done on the walls and
ceiling of the mineshaft.
• Generally roof supporting is done by various techniques
like roof bolting, timber and steel supports.
Safety Measures against Cave-ins and
• Geo mechanical properties of overlying rocks are studied and
scientifically designed support systems on the basis of ROCKMASS-RATING (RMR) are applied.
• Strata control cells have been established in all coal
• Introduction of Mechanized Drilling by roof bolting machines.
• Emphasis on development of indicators for detecting
impending load on roof.
One man operated
cable bolter that delivers
long term reinforcement
to underground mines and
a means for production
and dilution control to
mass mining methods
Distribution of Fatal Roof Fall Accidents by Company:
Source: Annual Report 2011 of DGMS
Hazards caused by Side Fall:
• Failure to make and keep the sides secure by providing
benches of safe height and adequate width or by sloping
• Creating dangerous overhang by undercutting
• Not taking adequate safety measures in geologically
• Collapse of partings or pillars during extraction of
developed coal seams
• Inadequate inspection of the sides
Safety Measures against Side Fall:
• Side of working should be kept secure.
• Support should be set as per systematic support
• Fencing should be provided in unauthorized area.
• Stress on face mechanization to reduce exposure of
workmen in active working zone.
Major Side Fall Accidents in India:
• Shivrajpur Manganese Mine, Gujrat on
06.12.1910. No. of Persons Killed – 12.
• Bhatti Bajri Mines, on 10th January 1983.
• Bajri / Badarpur Sand Mine on 16th , 24th
• Gas Explosion is a common accident in coal mines
caused by the build up of methane gas (CH4).
• Methane gas and Dust Explosions can also be
triggered by frictional heat and sparks produced by
• The presence of inflammable gases in underground
mine causes fatal damage.
Measures to be taken against Gas
• To prevent pockets of gas from forming, the work
area must be properly Ventilated at all times.
• Make sure the equipment used in coal mines does
not have defects that can create sparks and set off
• Maintain reasonable working conditions with
respect to temperature, humidity and amount of
Fires in Mining happen due to different factors like –
• Gas Leaks
• Electrical defects
• Flammable chemical spills.
• Lighting of fire near exposure of Coal
Safety Measures to be taken against
• No petrol power equipment must be permitted.
• Hard held extinguishers should be provided in various
places in mines.
• All underground equipment containing more than 100
liters of flammable hydraulic fluid must be fitted with an
automatic suppression system with suitable manual
• Storage of flammable substances must be minimized.
Modern Fire extinguishing Systems:
• Fire sprinkler system.
• Water spray Deluge system.
• Water mist system
• Foam system.
• Vehicle Fire suppression.
• Breathing apparatus.
• Gas detection system.
Major Fire accidents in History:
Lady Rangi Mica Mine 19 killed on 12.04.1932
35 killed on 30.01.1936
10 killed on 24.06.1981
55 killed on 25.01.1994
Danger of Inundations:
• Sources of surface water like▫ Rivers and Nallahs.
▫ Tanks and Reservoirs.
▫ Accumulated water in old open cast workings or in
low lying areas.
• Water from these sources can enter into Underground
Mines through1. Shafts and Inclines.
2. Bore holes and geological disturbances like
3. Broken grounds over caved groves
4. Openings and breaches created by collapse of
Measures to be taken against
• No working should be done vertically below any
river, lake or other reservoir.
• Shaft sites should be located away from faults and
other geological disturbances.
• In case of presence of highly water bearing strata in
the vicinity of the proposed working mining should
be so planned as not to disturb the water bearing
TREND IN FATAL ACCIDENTS DUE TO DIFFERENT CAUSES
IN NON-COAL MINES
Environmental Hazards of Mining:
Unregulated mining has the potential to release harmful substances into the
soil, air and water
• Several types of particulates.
• Naturally occurring Gases.
• Engine exhaust.
• Some chemical vapours.
• Segmental vibration
• Heat and changes in Barometric pressure
• Ionizing radiation.
• Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)
• Heavy Metal
• Processing chemical
• Erosion and Sedimentation
Dust & Metal
Health Hazards :
• Physical accidents: Traumatic injury remains a significant problem and
ranges from the trivial to the fatal .
• Chemical Hazards: Crystalline Silica is a serious hazard in mining, which
leads to Silico-Tuberculosis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Lung
Cancer, Skin splashes with cyanide solutions are hazardous
• Biological Hazards: The risk of tropical diseases such as malaria and
dengue fever is substantial at some remote mining locations. Leptospirosis
• Other Psychosocial hazards, Ergonomic hazards.
• Explosives - Poorly designed shots can result in
misfires, early ignition and flying rocks.
• Transporting - Vehicle movements particularly
while reversing and Brake failure.
• Face Stability - Rock fall or slide due to geo-
mechanical properties of rock present at active
• Electrical Hazards - Electric shock and/or
burn, Ignition of firedamp or coal dust, Fire
arising from electric defects.
• Rope Haulage - Runaway of tubs due to
breakage of rope, failure of attachment to
rope, failure of couplings and drawbars, Rope
should be selected properly and maintained with
Other Safety Measures• Permanent lighting should be provided in places where
equipment can be hazardous.
• Cables should be provided with double wire armoring.
• Inspect earthing point regularly.
• Storage of flammable substances must be minimized.
• Haulage curves should be properly designed and
constructed and Bad patches in the track should be
• Regular examination of face must be done and
remedial measures must be taken to make it safe if
there is any doubt that a collapse could take place.
• Vocational training should be given to mine workers
to prepare them to face the challenges of mining.
• Emergency Response system and emergency action
plans are to be designed for mine.
• Safety is the major concern in mining industry.
• The hazardous risk of any industry should be
low to attain profits.
• In future, the Mining industry may be fully
modernized by advanced technology like
Automation and Remote operations.