Concetto 2k13

 B. Lokeshnath Yadav (2nd year)
B.Tech in Mining Engineer with
DD with M.Tech

ISM, DHANBAD
IS MINE A SAFE PLACE TO WORK?
Of course Mining is hazardous
profession….
Hence our endeavor to bring down the
hazards by all available means to an
accep...
Why…??
• The job involves the extraction of precious stones
and minerals deep within the earth.
• In addition, miners use ...
Indian Scenario…
• The Mining Industry in India is a major economic
activity which contributes to the major economy of
Ind...
Role of DGMS...
• Inspection of Mines
• Investigation into- accidents
- dangerous occurrence
- emergency response

• Appro...
Trends in Fatal accidents and Death rates
in Coal mines:
350
300
250
200
No.of fatal accidents
No. of persons killed

150
...
HAZARDS OF MINING
Some Hazards that Miners face:
• Cave-ins, Ground and Rock Fall.
• Side fall and collapse of Pillars.
• Gas Explosions.

•...
Cave-ins, ground and Roof falls:
• A cave-in occurs when a geologic formation, mine or
structure collapses, usually during...
Safety Measures against Cave-ins and
Roof Falls:
• Geo mechanical properties of overlying rocks are studied and
scientific...
One man operated
compact mechanized
cable bolter that delivers
long term reinforcement
to underground mines and
a means fo...
Distribution of Fatal Roof Fall Accidents by Company:
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2007
2008
2009
2010

2011
CIL

Source: Annu...
Hazards caused by Side Fall:
• Failure to make and keep the sides secure by providing
benches of safe height and adequate ...
Safety Measures against Side Fall:
• Side of working should be kept secure.
• Support should be set as per systematic supp...
Major Side Fall Accidents in India:
• Shivrajpur Manganese Mine, Gujrat on
06.12.1910. No. of Persons Killed – 12.

• Bhat...
Gas Explosions:
• Gas Explosion is a common accident in coal mines
caused by the build up of methane gas (CH4).
• Methane ...
Measures to be taken against Gas
Explosions:
• To prevent pockets of gas from forming, the work

area must be properly Ven...
Fire Accidents:
Fires in Mining happen due to different factors like –
• Gas Leaks
• Electrical defects
• Flammable chemic...
Safety Measures to be taken against
Fire Accidents:
• No petrol power equipment must be permitted.
• Hard held extinguishe...
Modern Fire extinguishing Systems:
• Fire sprinkler system.
• Water spray Deluge system.
• Water mist system
• Foam system...
Major Fire accidents in History:
Lady Rangi Mica Mine 19 killed on 12.04.1932
Loyabad Colliery

35 killed on 30.01.1936
...
Danger of Inundations:
• Sources of surface water like▫ Rivers and Nallahs.

▫ Tanks and Reservoirs.
▫ Accumulated water i...
Contd.
• Water from these sources can enter into Underground
Mines through1. Shafts and Inclines.

2. Bore holes and geolo...
Measures to be taken against
Inundations:
• No working should be done vertically below any
river, lake or other reservoir....
TREND IN FATAL ACCIDENTS DUE TO DIFFERENT CAUSES
IN NON-COAL MINES
25

20

15

10

5

0
2007

2008
Roof fall

2009

Transp...
Environmental Hazards of Mining:
Unregulated mining has the potential to release harmful substances into the
soil, air and...
• Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)
• Heavy Metal
Contamination

• Processing chemical
pollution
• Erosion and Sedimentation
Specific Contaminants:

Radio Nuclides
Dust & Metal
Health Hazards :
• Physical accidents: Traumatic injury remains a significant problem and
ranges from the trivial to the f...
Need of an Effective Mine Closure
Plan:
Other Hazards:
• Explosives - Poorly designed shots can result in
misfires, early ignition and flying rocks.
• Transportin...
Contd.
• Electrical Hazards - Electric shock and/or
burn, Ignition of firedamp or coal dust, Fire
arising from electric de...
Other Safety Measures• Permanent lighting should be provided in places where
equipment can be hazardous.
• Cables should b...
Contd.
• Regular examination of face must be done and
remedial measures must be taken to make it safe if
there is any doub...
Conclusion:
• Safety is the major concern in mining industry.
• The hazardous risk of any industry should be

low to attai...
THANK YOU
Queries…
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Mine enargia

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  • But that’s all in the past
  • Page maker for Hazards of mining
  • Roof fall is still one of the fatal accidents of underground mines..
  • Cil is againt body which has a number of mining subsidiaries….however roof fall accidents had decreased to certain extent when it comes to 2010
  • In second point add “ due to this rock cutting sites are cooled with water”.
  • Danger due to Fire and Inundation in underground mines
  • A Sudden in rush of water either from a surface source or from an underground source into the active workings of the mine is called inundation
  • Additional environmental problems like CARBON OUTPUT,EROSION AND ENDANGERED SPECIES HABITAT
  • Physical- Common causes of fatal injury include rock fall, fires, explosions, mobile equipment accidents, falls from height, entrapment and electrocution.Chemical- Prolonged exposure to crystalline silica leads to Chronic….., Lung Cancer. Coal dust, methane gas explosions in underground mining and cyanide solution leads to Skin splashes.Biological: Leptospirosis and ankylostomiasis were common in mines, but eradication of rats and improved sanitation has controlled these hazards effectively in the developed countriesOther psy, ergono impact on miners by continuous work load ….
  • Mine closure plan…image ….If the mine closure plan is not effectively designed,there is a chance of accidents in abandoned mines in future.
  • Separate and independent emergency light source should be provided at all places where a hazard could be placed by failure if light
  • Mine enargia

    1. 1. Concetto 2k13  B. Lokeshnath Yadav (2nd year) B.Tech in Mining Engineer with DD with M.Tech ISM, DHANBAD
    2. 2. IS MINE A SAFE PLACE TO WORK?
    3. 3. Of course Mining is hazardous profession…. Hence our endeavor to bring down the hazards by all available means to an acceptable level must continue
    4. 4. Why…?? • The job involves the extraction of precious stones and minerals deep within the earth. • In addition, miners use heavy machinery and other specialized equipment and tools that can be risky to operate. • Mining is considered as toughest job next to Army in USA.!!
    5. 5. Indian Scenario… • The Mining Industry in India is a major economic activity which contributes to the major economy of India. • Since Mining in India is not fully mechanized, mine hazards prevail more commonly. • Hence Indian Government established an organized body called DGMS in Dhanbad, Jharkhand
    6. 6. Role of DGMS... • Inspection of Mines • Investigation into- accidents - dangerous occurrence - emergency response • Approval of mine safety equipment, material & appliances • Certification of Explosives to be used in mines. • Promotes Safety Education and Awareness Programmes.
    7. 7. Trends in Fatal accidents and Death rates in Coal mines: 350 300 250 200 No.of fatal accidents No. of persons killed 150 100 50 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2005 2009 2010 2011 Source: Annual Report 2011 of DGMS
    8. 8. HAZARDS OF MINING
    9. 9. Some Hazards that Miners face: • Cave-ins, Ground and Rock Fall. • Side fall and collapse of Pillars. • Gas Explosions. • Chemical Leaks. • Electrocution. • Fires. • Ground Movements. • Haulages and Machinery • Miscellaneous.
    10. 10. Cave-ins, ground and Roof falls: • A cave-in occurs when a geologic formation, mine or structure collapses, usually during mining or tunneling. • This underground mining accident occurs when proper safety measures have not been done on the walls and ceiling of the mineshaft. • Generally roof supporting is done by various techniques like roof bolting, timber and steel supports.
    11. 11. Safety Measures against Cave-ins and Roof Falls: • Geo mechanical properties of overlying rocks are studied and scientifically designed support systems on the basis of ROCKMASS-RATING (RMR) are applied. • Strata control cells have been established in all coal subsidiaries. • Introduction of Mechanized Drilling by roof bolting machines. • Emphasis on development of indicators for detecting impending load on roof.
    12. 12. One man operated compact mechanized cable bolter that delivers long term reinforcement to underground mines and a means for production and dilution control to mass mining methods
    13. 13. Distribution of Fatal Roof Fall Accidents by Company: 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 CIL Source: Annual Report 2011 of DGMS SCCL TISCO
    14. 14. Hazards caused by Side Fall: • Failure to make and keep the sides secure by providing benches of safe height and adequate width or by sloping • Creating dangerous overhang by undercutting • Not taking adequate safety measures in geologically disturbed ground • Collapse of partings or pillars during extraction of developed coal seams • Inadequate inspection of the sides
    15. 15. Safety Measures against Side Fall: • Side of working should be kept secure. • Support should be set as per systematic support rules. • Fencing should be provided in unauthorized area. • Stress on face mechanization to reduce exposure of workmen in active working zone.
    16. 16. Major Side Fall Accidents in India: • Shivrajpur Manganese Mine, Gujrat on 06.12.1910. No. of Persons Killed – 12. • Bhatti Bajri Mines, on 10th January 1983. • Bajri / Badarpur Sand Mine on 16th , 24th January 1983.
    17. 17. Gas Explosions: • Gas Explosion is a common accident in coal mines caused by the build up of methane gas (CH4). • Methane gas and Dust Explosions can also be triggered by frictional heat and sparks produced by mining equipment. • The presence of inflammable gases in underground mine causes fatal damage.
    18. 18. Measures to be taken against Gas Explosions: • To prevent pockets of gas from forming, the work area must be properly Ventilated at all times. • Make sure the equipment used in coal mines does not have defects that can create sparks and set off explosion. • Maintain reasonable working conditions with respect to temperature, humidity and amount of airborne dust.
    19. 19. Fire Accidents: Fires in Mining happen due to different factors like – • Gas Leaks • Electrical defects • Flammable chemical spills. • Blasting • Lighting of fire near exposure of Coal
    20. 20. Safety Measures to be taken against Fire Accidents: • No petrol power equipment must be permitted. • Hard held extinguishers should be provided in various places in mines. • All underground equipment containing more than 100 liters of flammable hydraulic fluid must be fitted with an automatic suppression system with suitable manual activation. • Storage of flammable substances must be minimized.
    21. 21. Modern Fire extinguishing Systems: • Fire sprinkler system. • Water spray Deluge system. • Water mist system • Foam system. • Vehicle Fire suppression. • Breathing apparatus. • Gas detection system.
    22. 22. Major Fire accidents in History: Lady Rangi Mica Mine 19 killed on 12.04.1932 Loyabad Colliery 35 killed on 30.01.1936 Jagannath OCP 10 killed on 24.06.1981 New Kenda 55 killed on 25.01.1994
    23. 23. Danger of Inundations: • Sources of surface water like▫ Rivers and Nallahs. ▫ Tanks and Reservoirs. ▫ Accumulated water in old open cast workings or in low lying areas.
    24. 24. Contd. • Water from these sources can enter into Underground Mines through1. Shafts and Inclines. 2. Bore holes and geological disturbances like faults. 3. Broken grounds over caved groves 4. Openings and breaches created by collapse of overlying strata.
    25. 25. Measures to be taken against Inundations: • No working should be done vertically below any river, lake or other reservoir. • Shaft sites should be located away from faults and other geological disturbances. • In case of presence of highly water bearing strata in the vicinity of the proposed working mining should be so planned as not to disturb the water bearing strata.
    26. 26. TREND IN FATAL ACCIDENTS DUE TO DIFFERENT CAUSES IN NON-COAL MINES 25 20 15 10 5 0 2007 2008 Roof fall 2009 Transportation machinery 2010 Explosive Electricity 2011
    27. 27. Environmental Hazards of Mining: Unregulated mining has the potential to release harmful substances into the soil, air and water Air-Borne Hazard • Several types of particulates. • Naturally occurring Gases. • Engine exhaust. • Some chemical vapours. Physical Hazard • Noise. • Segmental vibration • Heat and changes in Barometric pressure • Ionizing radiation.
    28. 28. • Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) • Heavy Metal Contamination • Processing chemical pollution • Erosion and Sedimentation
    29. 29. Specific Contaminants: Radio Nuclides Dust & Metal
    30. 30. Health Hazards : • Physical accidents: Traumatic injury remains a significant problem and ranges from the trivial to the fatal . • Chemical Hazards: Crystalline Silica is a serious hazard in mining, which leads to Silico-Tuberculosis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Lung Cancer, Skin splashes with cyanide solutions are hazardous • Biological Hazards: The risk of tropical diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is substantial at some remote mining locations. Leptospirosis and Ankyloatomiasis. • Other Psychosocial hazards, Ergonomic hazards.
    31. 31. Need of an Effective Mine Closure Plan:
    32. 32. Other Hazards: • Explosives - Poorly designed shots can result in misfires, early ignition and flying rocks. • Transporting - Vehicle movements particularly while reversing and Brake failure. • Face Stability - Rock fall or slide due to geo- mechanical properties of rock present at active working face.
    33. 33. Contd. • Electrical Hazards - Electric shock and/or burn, Ignition of firedamp or coal dust, Fire arising from electric defects. • Rope Haulage - Runaway of tubs due to breakage of rope, failure of attachment to rope, failure of couplings and drawbars, Rope should be selected properly and maintained with
    34. 34. Other Safety Measures• Permanent lighting should be provided in places where equipment can be hazardous. • Cables should be provided with double wire armoring. • Inspect earthing point regularly. • Storage of flammable substances must be minimized. • Haulage curves should be properly designed and constructed and Bad patches in the track should be corrected.
    35. 35. Contd. • Regular examination of face must be done and remedial measures must be taken to make it safe if there is any doubt that a collapse could take place. • Vocational training should be given to mine workers to prepare them to face the challenges of mining. • Emergency Response system and emergency action plans are to be designed for mine.
    36. 36. Conclusion: • Safety is the major concern in mining industry. • The hazardous risk of any industry should be low to attain profits. • In future, the Mining industry may be fully modernized by advanced technology like Automation and Remote operations.
    37. 37. THANK YOU
    38. 38. Queries…

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