Life Without Minerals is Just
as Impossible as Life without
Water
Do You Know ?
There are 35 different minerals
needed to make the average
computer.
The average car contains 39 different...
Minerals Used In Solar Panels:
•Arsenic(Semiconductor Chips)
•Bauxite
•Boron Minerals (Semiconductor Chips)
•Cadmium(Thin ...
Minerals Used In LEDs:
•Arsenic (Semiconductor Chips)
•Baryte
•Bauxite(Alumina for Glass & Adapters)
•Boron Minerals(Semic...
MINERAL:
A mineral is a naturally occurring
homogeneous solid, inorganically
formed, with a definite chemical
composition...
Formation of
Minerals
Crystallization of
Lava
Precipitation
Pressure &
Temperature
Hydrothermal
solutions
1.Formation of Minerals through
Crystallization of Magma:
 As the magma starts to cools, it will start to grow
crystals. ...
From Precipitation:
Mineral precipitation from
solution:
Calcite dripstones form from
calcite saturated groundwater in
cav...
Some common
Minerals in our Daily
Life
GOLD:
Gold is the most familiar metal to most people. Used for
 Jewelry.
 Dentistry.
 Electronic.
 Host in other Appli...
Aluminum: Bauxite Mineral
 It is commonly extracted from Bauxite ore:
Aero
planes
Constructio
n
Power Lines Packaging
Mai...
MICA:
 It is very flexible and large sheets of it are used in
making Window Glass in the past
Mica is Mainly Used for:
El...
Quartz: Uses
 Abrasives
 Kitchen worktops &
Bathroom furniture
 Fibre Spectacles
 Quartz Watches
Talc & it’s Uses:
 Talcum Powder
 Paper making
 Plastics
 Ceramics
 Paint
 Cosmetics
 Roofing
 Rubber
FELDSPAR:
 Used in making Ornaments
 Abrasives
 Part of Cleaning product
 Glaze on Ceramics
Classification of Minerals:
Minerals, being natural chemicals, are classified according to their
chemistry and crystal for...
 Carbonates. Eg: Calcite, magnetite, dolomite.
 Phosphates. Eg: Apatite, monazite.
 Halides. Eg: Fluorite, halite (rock...
Tracing out a mineral from given
hand specimen:
Minerals can be identified by physical and
chemical properties. They can a...
Some Physical Properties of
Minerals are:
 Form/Habit and Crystal Structure
 Colour
 Streak
 Lusture
 Cleavage
 Frac...
Imp. Minerals State
ALUMINIUM Kerala
COAL Raniganj, Jharia,
Bokaro, Singareni,
Mukum(Assam) etc
COPPER Jharkhand,
Chattisg...
Contribution and Rank of India in World Production of Principal Minerals & Metals, 2010
Source: World mineral production d...
Anything that can’t
be GROWN is
MINED
What is MINING?
The process of extracting ore or
minerals from the ground.
Why Mining?
 We already know that anything that can’t be grown is
mined.
 So minerals are mostly formed in earth’s crust...
Mining of Coal Extracting
Mineral
Thermal Power Plants
Power Is GeneratedCities are Lighted UP!!
How Mining??
 Mining Is done broadly in two ways:
Surface Mining/ Open Pit Mining
Underground Mining
Comparing Surface and Underground
Mining:
Surface Mining Underground Mining
 Surface Mining is also called
as Open Cast/p...
Surface Mines:
 Hatti Gold Mines in Karnataka
 Korba Coalfield in Chattisgarhwhich is the
largest open cast mine in Asia...
Underground Mines:
Kolar Gold Mines in Karnataka
Singareni Colleries in Andhra Pradesh
Jharia Coal fields mining at a d...
Steps Involved In Mining:
• Geological Mapping
• To trace out a mine at some virgin area
• Geochemical and Geophysical Pro...
Major Mines in India
 Gold Deposits are
found in:
•Raichur
•Chittoor
•Singhbhum
•Kolar
Coal Mine deposits:
 Jharia
 Bokaro
 Raniganj
 Adilabad
 Warangal
 Godavari Valley
 Cuddapah
 Korba
 Warda
Copper Mines in India:
Most of Copper deposits are found in Rajasthan
 Sikar
 Jaipur
 Alwar
 Balaghat
 Gaya
 Pali
 ...
Iron-ore Deposits:
 Durg
 Sundargarh
 Guntur
 Ongole
 Bellary
 Entire Goa
 Keonjhar
Environmental Impacts of
Mining:
 Soil Erosion.
 Formation of Sink holes.
 Loss of Bio-diversity.
 Contamination of So...
How to reduce Environmental
Impacts of Mining:
 Environmental performances at mines are improved
so that they can produce...
Is Mine a safety place to work??
Hence our endeavor to bring down the
hazards by all available means to an
acceptable level must continue.
Mine safety in last 50 years(Coal
Mining):
 The accidents has been reduced from 295 fatalities from 223
accidents in 1951...
Fatality Rate per 1000 persons
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Fatality Rate: Non-Coal
Fatality Rate: Coal
Source: The Economi...
Hence from above census we can conclude
that Mining is not so dangerous these days
if some measures are taken:
 Mine work...
Hence we can conclude that mining
is not that dangerous only if safety
measures are followed.
Careers at Mining
 Today’s world faces complex problems. We all need to work
together to manage the Earth’s natural resou...
“The wealth of the state is its source in the mining
and metallurgical industry; the power of the state
comes out of these...
K12
K12
K12
K12
K12
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

K12

640 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
640
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

K12

  1. 1. Life Without Minerals is Just as Impossible as Life without Water
  2. 2. Do You Know ? There are 35 different minerals needed to make the average computer. The average car contains 39 different minerals. Our body requires almost 16 different types of minerals for various functions like forming bones & teeth, normal
  3. 3. Minerals Used In Solar Panels: •Arsenic(Semiconductor Chips) •Bauxite •Boron Minerals (Semiconductor Chips) •Cadmium(Thin film Solar cells) •Coal(to make steel) •Copper (Wiring) •Gallium(Solar Cells) •Indium(Solar Cells) •Iron-ore (steel) •Molybdenum (Photo Volatic Cells) •Lead (Batteries) •Phosphate Rock •Selenium (Solar Cells) •Silica (Solar Cells) •Tellurium (Solar Cells) •Titanium di oxide Semiconductor Chips
  4. 4. Minerals Used In LEDs: •Arsenic (Semiconductor Chips) •Baryte •Bauxite(Alumina for Glass & Adapters) •Boron Minerals(Semiconductor Chips) •Copper(Adapters,Wiring) •Gallium(Semiconductor Chips) •Indium(Semiconductor Chips) •Lead(Adapters,Glass) •Limestone(Soda Lime Glass) •Manganese •Nickel (Adapters) •Phosphite rock( Semiconductor Chips) •Silica (Glass) •Zinc (Adapters)
  5. 5. MINERAL: A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous solid, inorganically formed, with a definite chemical composition and an ordered atomic arrangement
  6. 6. Formation of Minerals Crystallization of Lava Precipitation Pressure & Temperature Hydrothermal solutions
  7. 7. 1.Formation of Minerals through Crystallization of Magma:  As the magma starts to cools, it will start to grow crystals. This process is called crystallization and it is analogous to precipitation of crystals from solutions. Uncut DIAMOND from a volcanic rock
  8. 8. From Precipitation: Mineral precipitation from solution: Calcite dripstones form from calcite saturated groundwater in cave Mineral precipitation from solution: Malachite (a copper carbonate) precipitated in open spaces of a copper deposit. Each band marks a growth episode.
  9. 9. Some common Minerals in our Daily Life
  10. 10. GOLD: Gold is the most familiar metal to most people. Used for  Jewelry.  Dentistry.  Electronic.  Host in other Applications
  11. 11. Aluminum: Bauxite Mineral  It is commonly extracted from Bauxite ore: Aero planes Constructio n Power Lines Packaging Mainly Used for
  12. 12. MICA:  It is very flexible and large sheets of it are used in making Window Glass in the past Mica is Mainly Used for: Electronic Components Cosmetics Colours & Paints Capacitors
  13. 13. Quartz: Uses  Abrasives  Kitchen worktops & Bathroom furniture  Fibre Spectacles  Quartz Watches
  14. 14. Talc & it’s Uses:  Talcum Powder  Paper making  Plastics  Ceramics  Paint  Cosmetics  Roofing  Rubber
  15. 15. FELDSPAR:  Used in making Ornaments  Abrasives  Part of Cleaning product  Glaze on Ceramics
  16. 16. Classification of Minerals: Minerals, being natural chemicals, are classified according to their chemistry and crystal form. The basic classification of minerals is:  Native Elements . Eg: Gold, Silver, Mercury, Graphite, Diamond.  Oxides. Eg: corundum (incl. sapphire), hematite, spinel.  Hydroxides. Eg: Goethite, brucite.  Sulfides. Eg: Pyrite, galena, sphalerite.  Sulfates. Eg: Baryte, gypsum.
  17. 17.  Carbonates. Eg: Calcite, magnetite, dolomite.  Phosphates. Eg: Apatite, monazite.  Halides. Eg: Fluorite, halite (rock salt).  Silicates (most common)  Orthosilicates. Eg: Garnet, olivine.  Ring silicates. Eg: Tourmaline, beryl.  Chain silicates. Eg: Pyroxenes, amphiboles.  Sheet silicates. Eg: Muscovite mica, biotite mica, clay minerals  Framework silicates. Eg: Quartz, feldspars, zeolites
  18. 18. Tracing out a mineral from given hand specimen: Minerals can be identified by physical and chemical properties. They can also be classified by more complex optical, chemical or x-ray diffraction. Some of them can be sufficiently or fully identified with physical properties only.
  19. 19. Some Physical Properties of Minerals are:  Form/Habit and Crystal Structure  Colour  Streak  Lusture  Cleavage  Fracture  Hardness  Specific Gravity  Magnetic Property  Special Property
  20. 20. Imp. Minerals State ALUMINIUM Kerala COAL Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Singareni, Mukum(Assam) etc COPPER Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Rajasthan etc DIAMOND Chattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh GOLD Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka). IRON ORE Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa MICA Jharkhand,Bihar, Andhra Pradesh URANIUM Bihar GYPSUM Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh COBALT Rajasthan, Kerala
  21. 21. Contribution and Rank of India in World Production of Principal Minerals & Metals, 2010 Source: World mineral production data compiled from World Mineral Production, 2006-2010; British Geological survey
  22. 22. Anything that can’t be GROWN is MINED
  23. 23. What is MINING? The process of extracting ore or minerals from the ground.
  24. 24. Why Mining?  We already know that anything that can’t be grown is mined.  So minerals are mostly formed in earth’s crust and hence we need to explore the earth to extract the minerals and process them into useful appliances.  Mining is a money making business. Not only do mining companies prosper, but governments also make money from revenues. Workers also receive income and benefits.
  25. 25. Mining of Coal Extracting Mineral Thermal Power Plants Power Is GeneratedCities are Lighted UP!!
  26. 26. How Mining??  Mining Is done broadly in two ways: Surface Mining/ Open Pit Mining Underground Mining
  27. 27. Comparing Surface and Underground Mining: Surface Mining Underground Mining  Surface Mining is also called as Open Cast/pit Mining.  It operates where there is huge availability of mine land and economical upto certain depth say 200-300 m.  Most of the metal mines in India are Surface Mining  It Operates where availability of land for mining is less and when the ore is available at a huge depths greater than 300m.  Mostly Coal Mines , Kolar Gold Mines are operated
  28. 28. Surface Mines:  Hatti Gold Mines in Karnataka  Korba Coalfield in Chattisgarhwhich is the largest open cast mine in Asia.  Rampura Open pit mines in Rajasthan  Malanchkhand Copper Mines in Madhya Pradesh
  29. 29. Underground Mines: Kolar Gold Mines in Karnataka Singareni Colleries in Andhra Pradesh Jharia Coal fields mining at a depth of 500-600m in Jharkhand
  30. 30. Steps Involved In Mining: • Geological Mapping • To trace out a mine at some virgin area • Geochemical and Geophysical Prospection • If minerals are present deep in Earth • Drilling • To provide the deposit • Modelling • To know about extent, geometry, Inclination, quantity of deposit • Opening up of a MINE • Different methods for Surface and underground mining
  31. 31. Major Mines in India  Gold Deposits are found in: •Raichur •Chittoor •Singhbhum •Kolar
  32. 32. Coal Mine deposits:  Jharia  Bokaro  Raniganj  Adilabad  Warangal  Godavari Valley  Cuddapah  Korba  Warda
  33. 33. Copper Mines in India: Most of Copper deposits are found in Rajasthan  Sikar  Jaipur  Alwar  Balaghat  Gaya  Pali  Bhilwara
  34. 34. Iron-ore Deposits:  Durg  Sundargarh  Guntur  Ongole  Bellary  Entire Goa  Keonjhar
  35. 35. Environmental Impacts of Mining:  Soil Erosion.  Formation of Sink holes.  Loss of Bio-diversity.  Contamination of Soil, ground water & surface water by chemicals in mining processes.  Health of local population is effected by chemicals released in Mine Processes.
  36. 36. How to reduce Environmental Impacts of Mining:  Environmental performances at mines are improved so that they can produce less waste and using less toxic chemicals.  Legislations and regulations to reduce environmental impacts can be enacted.(Any Mining company who failed to comply these laws are strictly punishable)  Cleaning up abandoned Mine sites.  Economic Measures.
  37. 37. Is Mine a safety place to work??
  38. 38. Hence our endeavor to bring down the hazards by all available means to an acceptable level must continue.
  39. 39. Mine safety in last 50 years(Coal Mining):  The accidents has been reduced from 295 fatalities from 223 accidents in 1951-60 to 170 fatalities from 140 fatal accidents in 1991-2000.  Annual average figure in the first decade of the new millennium (upto 2004) is 111 fatalities from 88 fatal accidents.  Ten yearly average death rate per 1000 persons employed from 0.91 to 0.32 from 1951- 60 to 1991-2000.
  40. 40. Fatality Rate per 1000 persons 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Fatality Rate: Non-Coal Fatality Rate: Coal Source: The Economin Times, Vikas Dhoot & YASHODHARA DASGUPTA, ET Bureau Jun 14, 2013, 04.00AM IST
  41. 41. Hence from above census we can conclude that Mining is not so dangerous these days if some measures are taken:  Mine workers are provided with passive personal dosimeters to evaluate individual doses due to exposure to alpha and gamma radiation  Well-designed ventilation network provides adequate fresh  Effective Management of Waste.  Generation and dispersion of dust are controlled at mine source using dust extractor  The mining personnel are provided with personal protective equipment such as respirators, ear-muffs, safety goggles, gumboots, safety helmet etc for protection against injuries and harmful exposures
  42. 42. Hence we can conclude that mining is not that dangerous only if safety measures are followed.
  43. 43. Careers at Mining  Today’s world faces complex problems. We all need to work together to manage the Earth’s natural resources wisely. More scientists and engineers will be called upon to find the answers we need, especially in the mining industry since it supplies the world’s mineral products. There are literally hundreds of careers related to mining. A few are listed below. Careers in mining offer the opportunity for world travel, good income and the opportunity to make a difference. Maybe one of these careers would suit you!
  44. 44. “The wealth of the state is its source in the mining and metallurgical industry; the power of the state comes out of these mineral resources.” –Kautilya in Arthasastra ‘’Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.’’ – Mahatma Gandhi

×