HISTORY OF HOCKEY
Field hockey, referred to in most countries simply
as hockey, can be played by both male and female.
In East Asia, a similar game was entertained, using
a carved wooden stick and ball prior to 300 BC. In
Mongolia, China, the Daur people have been
playing Beiko a game with some similarities to field
hockey for about 1,000 years. The word 'hockey'
itself was recorded in 1363 when Edward III of
England issued a proclamation. The present
governing body of hockey is the International
The dimensions as laid down by the
International Hockey Federation (FIH) in the
"Rules of Hockey“ are the official dimensions.
The pitch is a 91.4 m × 55 m rectangular field.
At each end is a goal 2.14 m high and 3.66 m
wide, as well as lines across the field 22.90 m
from each end-line and in the center of the
field. A spot 0.15 m in diameter, called the
penalty spot or stroke mark, is placed with its
centre 6.40 m from the centre of each goal.
The shooting circle is 15 from the base line.
The match is officiated by two field umpires. Traditionally
each umpire generally controls half of the field, divided
roughly diagonally. These umpires are often assisted by a
technical bench including a timekeeper and record keeper.
Prior to the start of the game, a coin is tossed and the
winning captain can choose a starting end or start with the
ball. The game time is divided into two equal halves of 35
minutes each, with 5–10 minutes for half-time, although at
local and regional level, games may be reduced to 25- to
30-minute halves to ease turf availability constraints. At the
start of each half, as well as after goals are scored, play is
started with a pass from the centre of the field.. Each team
starts with the ball in one half, and the team that conceded
the goal has possession for the restart.
RULES AND PLAY
The game is played between two teams of whom
eleven are permitted to be on the pitch at any
one time. The remaining players, the substitutes,
may be substituted in any combination. There is
an unlimited amount of times a team can sub in
and out. Substitutions are permitted at any point
in the game, apart from between the award and
end of a penalty corner.
Other rules include :
No foot to ball contact.
A goalie may not cross the 23 m line.
Obstructing other players.
High back swing.
No third party : Two players from opposing
teams can battle for the ball, however if
another player interferes it is considered third
party and the ball automatically goes to the
team who only had one player involved in the
Warnings and suspensions
Hockey uses a three-tier penalty card system of
warnings and suspensions :
A yellow card is an official
suspension similar to the penalty box in ice
hockey. The duration is decided by the umpire
issuing the card and the player must go to a pre-
defined area of the pitch as chosen by the
umpires at the beginning of the match. Most
umpires will opt for a minimum of five minutes'
duration without substitution; the maximum
time is at the discretion of the umpire, depending
on the seriousness of the offence.
A green card is fairly similar to an association-
football yellow card: the player does not have
to leave the pitch, but any further infractions
will result in a yellow or red card.
A red card, just like in association football, is a
permanent exclusion from the rest of the
game, without substitution, and it usually
results in the player being banned for a certain
period of time or number of matches.
The biggest two field hockey tournaments are the
Olympic Games tournament, and the Hockey World
Cup, which is also held every 4 years. Apart from this,
there is the Champions Trophy held each year for the six
top-ranked teams. Field hockey has also been played at
the Commonwealth Games since 1998.
The Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Tournament and Sultan
Ibrahim Ismail Hockey Tournament is for the junior
team but both tournament held annually in Malaysia, is
becoming a prominent field hockey tournament where
teams from around the world participate to win the cup.
This is a list of the major International field hockey
tournaments, in chronological order. Tournaments included are:
Olympic Games - held every four years.
World Hockey Cup - held every four years, in between the
Champions Trophy - currently held every year, for the top 8
Hockey Champions Challenge - held every year for teams
ranked 9th-16th in the world.
Hockey Champions Challenge II - held every year for teams
ranked 17th-24th in the world.
Although invitational or not open to all countries, the following
are also considered international tournaments:
Commonwealth Games – held every four years between
members of the Commonwealth of Nations
Sultan Azlan Shah Hockey Tournament - held annually in
Malaysia, an invitational tournament.
Sultan Ibrahim Ismail Hockey Tournament -held annually for
athletes aged under-21 in Malaysia, an invitational tournament.
Hockey India is the governing body of field
hockey in India. It was formed after Indian
Hockey Federation was dismissed in 2008 by
IOA. Hockey India launched its own logo in a
grand ceremony on July 24, 2009, in India. It
resembles Ashok Chakra of Indian flag. It is
made up of field hockey sticks.
The India national field hockey team is
the national men's team representing
field hockey in India, controlled by
Hockey India, the governing body for
field hockey in India. It is the first non-
European team to be a part of the
International Hockey Federation.
Some of the achievements of them are
given here :
Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Olympics 8 1 2 11
2 World Cup 1 1 1 3
3 Asian Games 2 9 2 13
4 Asia Cup 2 5 1 8
5 Champions Trophy 0 0 1 1
6 Sultan Azlan Shah Cup 5 1 5 11
7 Commonwealth Games 0 1 0 1
1 1 2 4
9 Afro-Asian Games 1 0 0 1
Asian Hockey Champions
1 1 0 2
Notable former players of India
Hiranna M. Nimal
Gurbax Singh Grewal
Balbir Singh Grewal
B. P. Govinda
Ajit Pal Singh
B K Subramani