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This literature review is to explore how
researchers have constructed genre
and subgenre of single-author diary
weblogs within their research and to
situation these formats in relation to
established genres of paper diaries.
Genre

 Weblogs
 Diary weblogs
    › Characteristics of producers
    › Characteristics of artifacts
    test

Weblogs are creating hybrid forms that

  transcend the paper and html forms
  from which they are descended.
 Weblogs have become a major source
  of information
    › Acting as news sources
    › Acting as repositories of news-making events
    Weblogs are being archived

classes of communication that typically

  possess features known to their
  users, common forms and purposes, and
  name recognition (Swales, 1990).
 “typified rhetorical actions based in
  recurrent situations” (Miller, 1984, p. 156).
(Crowston and
Williams, 2000)
Paper                  Electronic
            Reproduced
academic                 academic
               online
 articles                  articles
Too much emphasis can be placed on

  similarities at the potential expense of
  differences (Frow, 2005).
 It is impossible to typify all possible
  combinations of characteristics (Kwasnik
  & Crowston, 2005).
    › Evolving (Yates & Orlikowski, 1992)
    › Emerging (Crowston & Williams, 2000)
Who
 
  What
  Where
  When
  Why
  How




(Yoshika, Herman, Yates, & Orlikowski, 2001)
Medium factors

 Situation factors




(Herring, 2007)
Synchronicity

    Message transmission (1-way vs. 2-way)

    Persistence of transcript

    Size of message buffer

    Channels of communication

    Anonymous messaging

    Private messaging

    Filtering

    Quoting

    Message format

Participation structure

        One-to-one
    ›
        One-to-many
    ›
        Many-to-many
    ›
        Public/private
    ›
        Degree of anonymity/pseudonymity
    ›
        Group size; number of active participants
    ›
        Amount, rate, and balance of participation
    ›
    Participant characteristics

      Demographics: gender, age, occupation, etc.
    ›
      Proficiency: with language/computers/CMC
    ›
      Experience: with addressee/group/topic
    ›
      Role/status: in “real life”; of online personae
    ›
      Pre-existing sociocultural knowledge and interactional
    ›
      norms
    › Attitudes, beliefs, ideologies, and motivations
5W1H

    › Gives additional framing to genre “recurrent
      situations”
    › Has the same limitations as genre
    Faceted Classification

    › Detailed scheme
       May lead users to think it is all inclusive
         Fictional vs. Real author
A weblog, or blog, is a frequently
updated website consisting of dated
entries arranged in reverse chronological
order.... Typically, weblogs are published
by individuals and their style is personal
and informal…. Examples of the genre
exist on a continuum from confessional
online diaries to logs tracking specific
topics or activities through links and
commentary (Walker, 2003, n.p.).
Web log

    › Computer logs
    › Referrer logs
    › Software to mine various logs
    Weblog

    › Jorn Barger (1997) Robot Wisdom
    › Peter Merholz (1999) peterme
Log books

 Clipping services
 Commonplace books
 Personal webpages
 Cam websites




(Miller and Shepherd, 2004)
Meets the definition of a weblog

  (Walker, 2003)
 Posts explore the producers inner terrain
  and life as it is lived in the first person.
 Post may be text or multimedia, or any
  combination there of.
Carolyn L Burke – January 3, 1995

    › Carolyn’s Diary
    › Original a filter weblog
    › Became a diary over time
    Justin Hall – January 1994 or late 1994

    › Justin’s Home Page & Links from the
      Underground
    › Originally a filter weblog
    › Became a diary over time then returned to
      being a filter before leaving the web
HTML (pre-1999)

 LiveJournal (March 1999 – present)
    › Website using proprietary software
    › Originally diary weblogs only (until 2003)
    Blogger (August 1999-present)

    › Website using proprietary software
    › Proprietary software to use on the bloggers
      site
    › Any subgenre of weblogs
112.8
120.0

100.0
                 70.0
 80.0

 60.0

 40.0

 20.0     4.0
  0.0
        2004    2007    2008
and Diaries
•Diarists
•Bloggers and Weblogs
Written by a single author

    › While many diaries have a single author, others have
      been written collaboratively.
    In secret

    › Many are not secret, friends and relatives may be
      encouraged to read and comment in the diary itself
    For him- or herself only

    › Written to present the author’s life to an audience
      outside themselves
    Confessional mode

    › Many diaries are not confessional
       For example: Travel Diaries
Homosexual writers
 
     › Identified through purposeful sampling
     › Queer, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual
   Used full names
 
  Cities of residence
  Photographs
  Protect others privacy, more than their
   own
(Rak, 2005)
Participants choose not to password

  protect entries
  (Schiano, Nardi, Gumbrecht, &
  Swartz, 2004).
 Participants express concerns about
  privacy but their online activities
  overshadow their concerns
  (Viseu, Clements, & Asinall, 2003).
 Diarists feel protected by the size of the
  internet (Serfaty, 2004).
Diary weblogs can create connection

    between readers and writers
    › Reader as
       Passive
       Active
    › Comments
    › Linking
    › Trackback
Similarities between the readers and the

    writer
    › Karlsson (2007)
       Female
       Chinese ancestry
       25-35 years old
    › McNeill (2003)
       When I find a diary I like…I engage in a
        marathon reading session to get caught
        up, then frequent the site daily, anxious for
        new entries (p.24).
Characteristics of weblog
producers
vs.
Characteristics of the artifact
(the weblog)
General user population

    › Characterized by their use of the technology
    Younger user population

    › Characterized by
      1. age
      2. use of the technology
2004 – 38.1% (NITLE)

 2005 - 31.3% (NITLE)
 April 2006 – 1/3 of all posts (Technorati)
 2007 (Technorati)
    1. Japanese 37%
    2. English 36%
    3. Chinese 8%
Many come down on these blogs as
trivial, but they are in fact one of the most
       amazing facets of the blogging
phenomenon. Teenagers talk about what
 interest them, what’s on their minds, and
          what issues they are having
           (Stone, 2004, pp. 53-54).
Polish bloggers (Cywinska-Milonas, 2003)

    › 75% are less than 21
    › 40% are between 15-17 years old
    English-language weblogs

    (Herring, Kouper et al. 2004)
    › 39% are under 20 years of age
    American teenagers (12 – 17 years old)

    (Lenhart & Madden, 2005)
    › 22% of respondent keep a weblog
    › 18% of those younger than 15 years of age
To date, scholarly studies have focused

  on both boys and girls (two papers), or
  on girls only (two papers).
 Studies on boys use of blogging and
  diary blogging are lacking.
Use more active and resolute language

  Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)
 Used more emoticons (Huffaker &
  Calvert, 2005)
 Produce more Witness to the Experience
  entries (Scheidt, 2006)
Produce more Unconditional support

  entries (Scheidt, 2006).
 Use ingratiation strategies to gain
  affection and approval (Bortree, 2005).
 Use direct and indirect expressions of self
  to gain acceptance (Bortree, 2005).
 Adolescent queer female diarists join
  discussions without disclosing self
  (Driver, 2006).
Did not differ in the use of

    › Passive (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)
    › Accommodating (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)
    › Cooperative language (Huffaker &
      Calvert, 2005)
    Gender differences in word frequency

    disappear when the weblog type is
    taken into account (Herring &
    Paolillo, 2006)
Text-
         based



         Diary      Still-
Video
        Weblogs   image




         Sound
Orchestrate their presentations by

    › Taking
    › Selecting
    › Annotating
    › Viewing their photographs (Cohen, 2005)
    Usually do not post daily

    (Meyer, Rosenbaum, & Hara, 2005).
Blending of mobile and weblog

 Usually produced and uploaded via cell
  phone (Sit, Hollan, & Griswold, 2005).
 Sites come and go very quickly, with
  93.2% of users abandoning their moblogs
  in 30 weeks or less (Adar, 2004).
 Initial posts average to eight posts the
  first week, dropping to one per week
  after five weeks (Adar, 2004)
First-person recording of an activity with

  the content creator as active
  participant.
 Perspective changes from participant to
  observer, unless using wearable
  recording equipment (Dickie, Vertegaal
  et al., 2004).
 Can be produced with cell phone
  cameras
Least often utilized genre (Trammell &

  Gasser, 2004)
 One of the more personal forms of
  blogging, since the “audioblogger’s
  voice transmits the message” (Trammell
  & Gasser, 2004).
Are becoming staples in

    › Classrooms (Richardson, 2006)
    › Political campaigns (Johnson, 2006)
    Is used for diary blogging but has not

    been studied as such.
Distinctions between terms

    › Videolog or vog – edited footage
      (Hoem, 2004).
    › Moblog – raw footage (Hoem, 2004).
    › Vlog – uses compressed video context
      (Miles, 2005).
Capturing all or parts of a lived life from

  first-person perspective
 Most often streaming video
Method of choice for weblogs

  research, to date
 Research technique for making
  replicable and valid inference from data
  to their context
 Can be done by hand, by machine, or
  by combination
Focuses on manifest content and

  inferences
 Does not get at
    › motivation for production
    › Reaction to the content produced
Participant Observer

 Observation Only
 Interview Only
 Combination of Observation and
  Interview
The effect of the researcher’s presence

    on the study
    › Particularly when the researcher is marked
      as different from the participants
  Documentation to support findings

 Preservation of documentation
Online/offline

 Sampling
    › Viral
    › Snowball
    › Convenience
    › Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
Standardization/consistency

 Lack of social context
Permission

 Informed consent
 Are they really teens?
 Access to the population
    › In the wild
    › Structured environments
    › Researchers children
Particularly to HCI
Genre can be

    › Social practice
       Embedded clues to
        Community practices
        Cultural practices
    › Classificatory categories
       Search and Retrieval
    › Conventions of form and structure
       Cognitive and mental modeling
As LIS is interested in how knowledge in
  documents and other artifacts is
  organized, genre theory is a productive
  perspective.

Anderson, 208, p. 340
On –the-go diary weblog post creation

    › Technological issues
    › Selection
    Multimedia particularly lifelogging

    › Who
    › Where
    › When
    › Why
    › How
Generation Net

    › Use and developmental stage
       Changes over time
       Gender development
    › Reputation management
    › Longitudinal studies
Boys production of diary weblogs

    › Technological affordances used
    › Why they create diary weblogs
    › How they coordinate their online and offline
     lives

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Diary Weblogs As Genre

  • 1.
  • 2. This literature review is to explore how researchers have constructed genre and subgenre of single-author diary weblogs within their research and to situation these formats in relation to established genres of paper diaries.
  • 3. Genre   Weblogs  Diary weblogs › Characteristics of producers › Characteristics of artifacts test 
  • 4. Weblogs are creating hybrid forms that  transcend the paper and html forms from which they are descended.  Weblogs have become a major source of information › Acting as news sources › Acting as repositories of news-making events Weblogs are being archived 
  • 5. classes of communication that typically  possess features known to their users, common forms and purposes, and name recognition (Swales, 1990).  “typified rhetorical actions based in recurrent situations” (Miller, 1984, p. 156).
  • 7. Paper Electronic Reproduced academic academic online articles articles
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10. Too much emphasis can be placed on  similarities at the potential expense of differences (Frow, 2005).  It is impossible to typify all possible combinations of characteristics (Kwasnik & Crowston, 2005). › Evolving (Yates & Orlikowski, 1992) › Emerging (Crowston & Williams, 2000)
  • 11.
  • 12. Who   What  Where  When  Why  How (Yoshika, Herman, Yates, & Orlikowski, 2001)
  • 13. Medium factors   Situation factors (Herring, 2007)
  • 14. Synchronicity  Message transmission (1-way vs. 2-way)  Persistence of transcript  Size of message buffer  Channels of communication  Anonymous messaging  Private messaging  Filtering  Quoting  Message format 
  • 15. Participation structure  One-to-one › One-to-many › Many-to-many › Public/private › Degree of anonymity/pseudonymity › Group size; number of active participants › Amount, rate, and balance of participation › Participant characteristics  Demographics: gender, age, occupation, etc. › Proficiency: with language/computers/CMC › Experience: with addressee/group/topic › Role/status: in “real life”; of online personae › Pre-existing sociocultural knowledge and interactional › norms › Attitudes, beliefs, ideologies, and motivations
  • 16. 5W1H  › Gives additional framing to genre “recurrent situations” › Has the same limitations as genre Faceted Classification  › Detailed scheme  May lead users to think it is all inclusive  Fictional vs. Real author
  • 17.
  • 18. A weblog, or blog, is a frequently updated website consisting of dated entries arranged in reverse chronological order.... Typically, weblogs are published by individuals and their style is personal and informal…. Examples of the genre exist on a continuum from confessional online diaries to logs tracking specific topics or activities through links and commentary (Walker, 2003, n.p.).
  • 19. Web log  › Computer logs › Referrer logs › Software to mine various logs Weblog  › Jorn Barger (1997) Robot Wisdom › Peter Merholz (1999) peterme
  • 20. Log books   Clipping services  Commonplace books  Personal webpages  Cam websites (Miller and Shepherd, 2004)
  • 21. Meets the definition of a weblog  (Walker, 2003)  Posts explore the producers inner terrain and life as it is lived in the first person.  Post may be text or multimedia, or any combination there of.
  • 22. Carolyn L Burke – January 3, 1995  › Carolyn’s Diary › Original a filter weblog › Became a diary over time Justin Hall – January 1994 or late 1994  › Justin’s Home Page & Links from the Underground › Originally a filter weblog › Became a diary over time then returned to being a filter before leaving the web
  • 23. HTML (pre-1999)   LiveJournal (March 1999 – present) › Website using proprietary software › Originally diary weblogs only (until 2003) Blogger (August 1999-present)  › Website using proprietary software › Proprietary software to use on the bloggers site › Any subgenre of weblogs
  • 24. 112.8 120.0 100.0 70.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 4.0 0.0 2004 2007 2008
  • 26. Written by a single author  › While many diaries have a single author, others have been written collaboratively. In secret  › Many are not secret, friends and relatives may be encouraged to read and comment in the diary itself For him- or herself only  › Written to present the author’s life to an audience outside themselves Confessional mode  › Many diaries are not confessional  For example: Travel Diaries
  • 27. Homosexual writers  › Identified through purposeful sampling › Queer, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual Used full names   Cities of residence  Photographs  Protect others privacy, more than their own (Rak, 2005)
  • 28. Participants choose not to password  protect entries (Schiano, Nardi, Gumbrecht, & Swartz, 2004).  Participants express concerns about privacy but their online activities overshadow their concerns (Viseu, Clements, & Asinall, 2003).  Diarists feel protected by the size of the internet (Serfaty, 2004).
  • 29. Diary weblogs can create connection  between readers and writers › Reader as  Passive  Active › Comments › Linking › Trackback
  • 30. Similarities between the readers and the  writer › Karlsson (2007)  Female  Chinese ancestry  25-35 years old › McNeill (2003)  When I find a diary I like…I engage in a marathon reading session to get caught up, then frequent the site daily, anxious for new entries (p.24).
  • 32. General user population  › Characterized by their use of the technology Younger user population  › Characterized by 1. age 2. use of the technology
  • 33. 2004 – 38.1% (NITLE)   2005 - 31.3% (NITLE)  April 2006 – 1/3 of all posts (Technorati)  2007 (Technorati) 1. Japanese 37% 2. English 36% 3. Chinese 8%
  • 34. Many come down on these blogs as trivial, but they are in fact one of the most amazing facets of the blogging phenomenon. Teenagers talk about what interest them, what’s on their minds, and what issues they are having (Stone, 2004, pp. 53-54).
  • 35. Polish bloggers (Cywinska-Milonas, 2003)  › 75% are less than 21 › 40% are between 15-17 years old English-language weblogs  (Herring, Kouper et al. 2004) › 39% are under 20 years of age American teenagers (12 – 17 years old)  (Lenhart & Madden, 2005) › 22% of respondent keep a weblog › 18% of those younger than 15 years of age
  • 36. To date, scholarly studies have focused  on both boys and girls (two papers), or on girls only (two papers).  Studies on boys use of blogging and diary blogging are lacking.
  • 37. Use more active and resolute language  Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)  Used more emoticons (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)  Produce more Witness to the Experience entries (Scheidt, 2006)
  • 38. Produce more Unconditional support  entries (Scheidt, 2006).  Use ingratiation strategies to gain affection and approval (Bortree, 2005).  Use direct and indirect expressions of self to gain acceptance (Bortree, 2005).  Adolescent queer female diarists join discussions without disclosing self (Driver, 2006).
  • 39. Did not differ in the use of  › Passive (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005) › Accommodating (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005) › Cooperative language (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005) Gender differences in word frequency  disappear when the weblog type is taken into account (Herring & Paolillo, 2006)
  • 40. Text- based Diary Still- Video Weblogs image Sound
  • 41. Orchestrate their presentations by  › Taking › Selecting › Annotating › Viewing their photographs (Cohen, 2005) Usually do not post daily  (Meyer, Rosenbaum, & Hara, 2005).
  • 42. Blending of mobile and weblog   Usually produced and uploaded via cell phone (Sit, Hollan, & Griswold, 2005).  Sites come and go very quickly, with 93.2% of users abandoning their moblogs in 30 weeks or less (Adar, 2004).  Initial posts average to eight posts the first week, dropping to one per week after five weeks (Adar, 2004)
  • 43. First-person recording of an activity with  the content creator as active participant.  Perspective changes from participant to observer, unless using wearable recording equipment (Dickie, Vertegaal et al., 2004).  Can be produced with cell phone cameras
  • 44. Least often utilized genre (Trammell &  Gasser, 2004)  One of the more personal forms of blogging, since the “audioblogger’s voice transmits the message” (Trammell & Gasser, 2004).
  • 45. Are becoming staples in  › Classrooms (Richardson, 2006) › Political campaigns (Johnson, 2006) Is used for diary blogging but has not  been studied as such.
  • 46. Distinctions between terms  › Videolog or vog – edited footage (Hoem, 2004). › Moblog – raw footage (Hoem, 2004). › Vlog – uses compressed video context (Miles, 2005).
  • 47. Capturing all or parts of a lived life from  first-person perspective  Most often streaming video
  • 48.
  • 49. Method of choice for weblogs  research, to date  Research technique for making replicable and valid inference from data to their context  Can be done by hand, by machine, or by combination
  • 50. Focuses on manifest content and  inferences  Does not get at › motivation for production › Reaction to the content produced
  • 51. Participant Observer   Observation Only  Interview Only  Combination of Observation and Interview
  • 52. The effect of the researcher’s presence  on the study › Particularly when the researcher is marked as different from the participants Documentation to support findings   Preservation of documentation
  • 53. Online/offline   Sampling › Viral › Snowball › Convenience › Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
  • 55. Permission   Informed consent  Are they really teens?  Access to the population › In the wild › Structured environments › Researchers children
  • 57. Genre can be  › Social practice  Embedded clues to  Community practices  Cultural practices › Classificatory categories  Search and Retrieval › Conventions of form and structure  Cognitive and mental modeling
  • 58. As LIS is interested in how knowledge in documents and other artifacts is organized, genre theory is a productive perspective. Anderson, 208, p. 340
  • 59.
  • 60. On –the-go diary weblog post creation  › Technological issues › Selection Multimedia particularly lifelogging  › Who › Where › When › Why › How
  • 61. Generation Net  › Use and developmental stage  Changes over time  Gender development › Reputation management › Longitudinal studies
  • 62. Boys production of diary weblogs  › Technological affordances used › Why they create diary weblogs › How they coordinate their online and offline lives