This literature review is to explore how
researchers have constructed genre
and subgenre of single-author diary
weblogs wi...
Genre

 Weblogs
 Diary weblogs
    › Characteristics of producers
    › Characteristics of artifacts
    test

Weblogs are creating hybrid forms that

  transcend the paper and html forms
  from which they are descended.
 Weblogs h...
classes of communication that typically

  possess features known to their
  users, common forms and purposes, and
  name...
(Crowston and
Williams, 2000)
Paper                  Electronic
            Reproduced
academic                 academic
               online
 articles...
Too much emphasis can be placed on

  similarities at the potential expense of
  differences (Frow, 2005).
 It is imposs...
Who
 
  What
  Where
  When
  Why
  How




(Yoshika, Herman, Yates, & Orlikowski, 2001)
Medium factors

 Situation factors




(Herring, 2007)
Synchronicity

    Message transmission (1-way vs. 2-way)

    Persistence of transcript

    Size of message buffer

...
Participation structure

        One-to-one
    ›
        One-to-many
    ›
        Many-to-many
    ›
        Public/pri...
5W1H

    › Gives additional framing to genre “recurrent
      situations”
    › Has the same limitations as genre
    Fa...
A weblog, or blog, is a frequently
updated website consisting of dated
entries arranged in reverse chronological
order.......
Web log

    › Computer logs
    › Referrer logs
    › Software to mine various logs
    Weblog

    › Jorn Barger (1997...
Log books

 Clipping services
 Commonplace books
 Personal webpages
 Cam websites




(Miller and Shepherd, 2004)
Meets the definition of a weblog

  (Walker, 2003)
 Posts explore the producers inner terrain
  and life as it is lived ...
Carolyn L Burke – January 3, 1995

    › Carolyn’s Diary
    › Original a filter weblog
    › Became a diary over time
  ...
HTML (pre-1999)

 LiveJournal (March 1999 – present)
    › Website using proprietary software
    › Originally diary web...
112.8
120.0

100.0
                 70.0
 80.0

 60.0

 40.0

 20.0     4.0
  0.0
        2004    2007    2008
and Diaries
•Diarists
•Bloggers and Weblogs
Written by a single author

    › While many diaries have a single author, others have
      been written collaboratively...
Homosexual writers
 
     › Identified through purposeful sampling
     › Queer, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual
   U...
Participants choose not to password

  protect entries
  (Schiano, Nardi, Gumbrecht, &
  Swartz, 2004).
 Participants ex...
Diary weblogs can create connection

    between readers and writers
    › Reader as
       Passive
       Active
    ›...
Similarities between the readers and the

    writer
    › Karlsson (2007)
       Female
       Chinese ancestry
      ...
Characteristics of weblog
producers
vs.
Characteristics of the artifact
(the weblog)
General user population

    › Characterized by their use of the technology
    Younger user population

    › Character...
2004 – 38.1% (NITLE)

 2005 - 31.3% (NITLE)
 April 2006 – 1/3 of all posts (Technorati)
 2007 (Technorati)
    1. Japa...
Many come down on these blogs as
trivial, but they are in fact one of the most
       amazing facets of the blogging
pheno...
Polish bloggers (Cywinska-Milonas, 2003)

    › 75% are less than 21
    › 40% are between 15-17 years old
    English-la...
To date, scholarly studies have focused

  on both boys and girls (two papers), or
  on girls only (two papers).
 Studie...
Use more active and resolute language

  Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)
 Used more emoticons (Huffaker &
  Calvert, 2005)
 P...
Produce more Unconditional support

  entries (Scheidt, 2006).
 Use ingratiation strategies to gain
  affection and appr...
Did not differ in the use of

    › Passive (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)
    › Accommodating (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)
   ...
Text-
         based



         Diary      Still-
Video
        Weblogs   image




         Sound
Orchestrate their presentations by

    › Taking
    › Selecting
    › Annotating
    › Viewing their photographs (Cohen,...
Blending of mobile and weblog

 Usually produced and uploaded via cell
  phone (Sit, Hollan, & Griswold, 2005).
 Sites ...
First-person recording of an activity with

  the content creator as active
  participant.
 Perspective changes from par...
Least often utilized genre (Trammell &

  Gasser, 2004)
 One of the more personal forms of
  blogging, since the “audiob...
Are becoming staples in

    › Classrooms (Richardson, 2006)
    › Political campaigns (Johnson, 2006)
    Is used for di...
Distinctions between terms

    › Videolog or vog – edited footage
      (Hoem, 2004).
    › Moblog – raw footage (Hoem, ...
Capturing all or parts of a lived life from

  first-person perspective
 Most often streaming video
Method of choice for weblogs

  research, to date
 Research technique for making
  replicable and valid inference from d...
Focuses on manifest content and

  inferences
 Does not get at
    › motivation for production
    › Reaction to the con...
Participant Observer

 Observation Only
 Interview Only
 Combination of Observation and
  Interview
The effect of the researcher’s presence

    on the study
    › Particularly when the researcher is marked
      as diffe...
Online/offline

 Sampling
    › Viral
    › Snowball
    › Convenience
    › Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
Standardization/consistency

 Lack of social context
Permission

 Informed consent
 Are they really teens?
 Access to the population
    › In the wild
    › Structured env...
Particularly to HCI
Genre can be

    › Social practice
       Embedded clues to
        Community practices
        Cultural practices
  ...
As LIS is interested in how knowledge in
  documents and other artifacts is
  organized, genre theory is a productive
  pe...
On –the-go diary weblog post creation

    › Technological issues
    › Selection
    Multimedia particularly lifelogging...
Generation Net

    › Use and developmental stage
       Changes over time
       Gender development
    › Reputation m...
Boys production of diary weblogs

    › Technological affordances used
    › Why they create diary weblogs
    › How they...
Diary Weblogs As Genre
Diary Weblogs As Genre
Diary Weblogs As Genre
Diary Weblogs As Genre
Diary Weblogs As Genre
Diary Weblogs As Genre
Diary Weblogs As Genre
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Diary Weblogs As Genre

  1. 1. This literature review is to explore how researchers have constructed genre and subgenre of single-author diary weblogs within their research and to situation these formats in relation to established genres of paper diaries.
  2. 2. Genre   Weblogs  Diary weblogs › Characteristics of producers › Characteristics of artifacts test 
  3. 3. Weblogs are creating hybrid forms that  transcend the paper and html forms from which they are descended.  Weblogs have become a major source of information › Acting as news sources › Acting as repositories of news-making events Weblogs are being archived 
  4. 4. classes of communication that typically  possess features known to their users, common forms and purposes, and name recognition (Swales, 1990).  “typified rhetorical actions based in recurrent situations” (Miller, 1984, p. 156).
  5. 5. (Crowston and Williams, 2000)
  6. 6. Paper Electronic Reproduced academic academic online articles articles
  7. 7. Too much emphasis can be placed on  similarities at the potential expense of differences (Frow, 2005).  It is impossible to typify all possible combinations of characteristics (Kwasnik & Crowston, 2005). › Evolving (Yates & Orlikowski, 1992) › Emerging (Crowston & Williams, 2000)
  8. 8. Who   What  Where  When  Why  How (Yoshika, Herman, Yates, & Orlikowski, 2001)
  9. 9. Medium factors   Situation factors (Herring, 2007)
  10. 10. Synchronicity  Message transmission (1-way vs. 2-way)  Persistence of transcript  Size of message buffer  Channels of communication  Anonymous messaging  Private messaging  Filtering  Quoting  Message format 
  11. 11. Participation structure  One-to-one › One-to-many › Many-to-many › Public/private › Degree of anonymity/pseudonymity › Group size; number of active participants › Amount, rate, and balance of participation › Participant characteristics  Demographics: gender, age, occupation, etc. › Proficiency: with language/computers/CMC › Experience: with addressee/group/topic › Role/status: in “real life”; of online personae › Pre-existing sociocultural knowledge and interactional › norms › Attitudes, beliefs, ideologies, and motivations
  12. 12. 5W1H  › Gives additional framing to genre “recurrent situations” › Has the same limitations as genre Faceted Classification  › Detailed scheme  May lead users to think it is all inclusive  Fictional vs. Real author
  13. 13. A weblog, or blog, is a frequently updated website consisting of dated entries arranged in reverse chronological order.... Typically, weblogs are published by individuals and their style is personal and informal…. Examples of the genre exist on a continuum from confessional online diaries to logs tracking specific topics or activities through links and commentary (Walker, 2003, n.p.).
  14. 14. Web log  › Computer logs › Referrer logs › Software to mine various logs Weblog  › Jorn Barger (1997) Robot Wisdom › Peter Merholz (1999) peterme
  15. 15. Log books   Clipping services  Commonplace books  Personal webpages  Cam websites (Miller and Shepherd, 2004)
  16. 16. Meets the definition of a weblog  (Walker, 2003)  Posts explore the producers inner terrain and life as it is lived in the first person.  Post may be text or multimedia, or any combination there of.
  17. 17. Carolyn L Burke – January 3, 1995  › Carolyn’s Diary › Original a filter weblog › Became a diary over time Justin Hall – January 1994 or late 1994  › Justin’s Home Page & Links from the Underground › Originally a filter weblog › Became a diary over time then returned to being a filter before leaving the web
  18. 18. HTML (pre-1999)   LiveJournal (March 1999 – present) › Website using proprietary software › Originally diary weblogs only (until 2003) Blogger (August 1999-present)  › Website using proprietary software › Proprietary software to use on the bloggers site › Any subgenre of weblogs
  19. 19. 112.8 120.0 100.0 70.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 4.0 0.0 2004 2007 2008
  20. 20. and Diaries •Diarists •Bloggers and Weblogs
  21. 21. Written by a single author  › While many diaries have a single author, others have been written collaboratively. In secret  › Many are not secret, friends and relatives may be encouraged to read and comment in the diary itself For him- or herself only  › Written to present the author’s life to an audience outside themselves Confessional mode  › Many diaries are not confessional  For example: Travel Diaries
  22. 22. Homosexual writers  › Identified through purposeful sampling › Queer, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual Used full names   Cities of residence  Photographs  Protect others privacy, more than their own (Rak, 2005)
  23. 23. Participants choose not to password  protect entries (Schiano, Nardi, Gumbrecht, & Swartz, 2004).  Participants express concerns about privacy but their online activities overshadow their concerns (Viseu, Clements, & Asinall, 2003).  Diarists feel protected by the size of the internet (Serfaty, 2004).
  24. 24. Diary weblogs can create connection  between readers and writers › Reader as  Passive  Active › Comments › Linking › Trackback
  25. 25. Similarities between the readers and the  writer › Karlsson (2007)  Female  Chinese ancestry  25-35 years old › McNeill (2003)  When I find a diary I like…I engage in a marathon reading session to get caught up, then frequent the site daily, anxious for new entries (p.24).
  26. 26. Characteristics of weblog producers vs. Characteristics of the artifact (the weblog)
  27. 27. General user population  › Characterized by their use of the technology Younger user population  › Characterized by 1. age 2. use of the technology
  28. 28. 2004 – 38.1% (NITLE)   2005 - 31.3% (NITLE)  April 2006 – 1/3 of all posts (Technorati)  2007 (Technorati) 1. Japanese 37% 2. English 36% 3. Chinese 8%
  29. 29. Many come down on these blogs as trivial, but they are in fact one of the most amazing facets of the blogging phenomenon. Teenagers talk about what interest them, what’s on their minds, and what issues they are having (Stone, 2004, pp. 53-54).
  30. 30. Polish bloggers (Cywinska-Milonas, 2003)  › 75% are less than 21 › 40% are between 15-17 years old English-language weblogs  (Herring, Kouper et al. 2004) › 39% are under 20 years of age American teenagers (12 – 17 years old)  (Lenhart & Madden, 2005) › 22% of respondent keep a weblog › 18% of those younger than 15 years of age
  31. 31. To date, scholarly studies have focused  on both boys and girls (two papers), or on girls only (two papers).  Studies on boys use of blogging and diary blogging are lacking.
  32. 32. Use more active and resolute language  Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)  Used more emoticons (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005)  Produce more Witness to the Experience entries (Scheidt, 2006)
  33. 33. Produce more Unconditional support  entries (Scheidt, 2006).  Use ingratiation strategies to gain affection and approval (Bortree, 2005).  Use direct and indirect expressions of self to gain acceptance (Bortree, 2005).  Adolescent queer female diarists join discussions without disclosing self (Driver, 2006).
  34. 34. Did not differ in the use of  › Passive (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005) › Accommodating (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005) › Cooperative language (Huffaker & Calvert, 2005) Gender differences in word frequency  disappear when the weblog type is taken into account (Herring & Paolillo, 2006)
  35. 35. Text- based Diary Still- Video Weblogs image Sound
  36. 36. Orchestrate their presentations by  › Taking › Selecting › Annotating › Viewing their photographs (Cohen, 2005) Usually do not post daily  (Meyer, Rosenbaum, & Hara, 2005).
  37. 37. Blending of mobile and weblog   Usually produced and uploaded via cell phone (Sit, Hollan, & Griswold, 2005).  Sites come and go very quickly, with 93.2% of users abandoning their moblogs in 30 weeks or less (Adar, 2004).  Initial posts average to eight posts the first week, dropping to one per week after five weeks (Adar, 2004)
  38. 38. First-person recording of an activity with  the content creator as active participant.  Perspective changes from participant to observer, unless using wearable recording equipment (Dickie, Vertegaal et al., 2004).  Can be produced with cell phone cameras
  39. 39. Least often utilized genre (Trammell &  Gasser, 2004)  One of the more personal forms of blogging, since the “audioblogger’s voice transmits the message” (Trammell & Gasser, 2004).
  40. 40. Are becoming staples in  › Classrooms (Richardson, 2006) › Political campaigns (Johnson, 2006) Is used for diary blogging but has not  been studied as such.
  41. 41. Distinctions between terms  › Videolog or vog – edited footage (Hoem, 2004). › Moblog – raw footage (Hoem, 2004). › Vlog – uses compressed video context (Miles, 2005).
  42. 42. Capturing all or parts of a lived life from  first-person perspective  Most often streaming video
  43. 43. Method of choice for weblogs  research, to date  Research technique for making replicable and valid inference from data to their context  Can be done by hand, by machine, or by combination
  44. 44. Focuses on manifest content and  inferences  Does not get at › motivation for production › Reaction to the content produced
  45. 45. Participant Observer   Observation Only  Interview Only  Combination of Observation and Interview
  46. 46. The effect of the researcher’s presence  on the study › Particularly when the researcher is marked as different from the participants Documentation to support findings   Preservation of documentation
  47. 47. Online/offline   Sampling › Viral › Snowball › Convenience › Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
  48. 48. Standardization/consistency   Lack of social context
  49. 49. Permission   Informed consent  Are they really teens?  Access to the population › In the wild › Structured environments › Researchers children
  50. 50. Particularly to HCI
  51. 51. Genre can be  › Social practice  Embedded clues to  Community practices  Cultural practices › Classificatory categories  Search and Retrieval › Conventions of form and structure  Cognitive and mental modeling
  52. 52. As LIS is interested in how knowledge in documents and other artifacts is organized, genre theory is a productive perspective. Anderson, 208, p. 340
  53. 53. On –the-go diary weblog post creation  › Technological issues › Selection Multimedia particularly lifelogging  › Who › Where › When › Why › How
  54. 54. Generation Net  › Use and developmental stage  Changes over time  Gender development › Reputation management › Longitudinal studies
  55. 55. Boys production of diary weblogs  › Technological affordances used › Why they create diary weblogs › How they coordinate their online and offline lives

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