casestudyUTILITIES We do IT naturally INTRODUCTION OVERVIEW ________________________________________________ Thanks to the sophisticated power network across The Netherlands and many other countries, electricity is available at the click of a switch to meet demand as and when required. It is the task of grid management to prepare the grid for the future; the future of charging electric cars. If too much energy is produced, for example, through the energy of windmills, you need to deliver and store it somewhere, otherwise the energy grid will be overloaded. Conversely, if insufficient energy is available, firms and consumers may suffer if demand exceeds supply. A solution needs to be found to balance energy supply and demand. On average the Dutch consume around 40% of their energy per household on transport. Electric cars are considerably more economical than petrol, diesel or gas run vehicles and can enable a reduction in the 40% consumption. In addition, CO2 emissions will also fall, especially if green electricity is used. If a large number of cars are electric, then this immediately solves a big part of the energy balancing problem, as car batteries can provide both storage and backup. However, market demand for electric cars will be very limited if there are not enough charging facilities available. A charging station network is therefore needed around the globe to break the status quo. This project provides a solution to the status quo by establishing a national grid of charging stations and by promoting and supporting European standards for using this grid. In this way, drivers will be capable of charging their car not only in their own city or country but also during travel abroad. This will stimulate the use of electric cars and will change drivers’ lives by the possibility of using silent, environmentally friendly vehicles, whilst still providing the consumer with individual and personal methods of transport; a combination which is necessary for success. For this project the Dutch Grid Owners management is co-operating to prepare the Dutch grid for the future. They are working together in a joint venture, called e-laad.nl, a non-profit foundation using green energy. The goal of e-laad.nl is: creating and testing a uniform, rural covering and general accessible infrastructure of 10,000 charging stations. E-laad.nl is going to place these charging stations in the period 2009-2012. By doing so, it will bundle research en development and practical knowledge to create uniformity in technology, communication and design. International standards will be used where possible, and when there is no standard available, new de-facto standards will be developed. THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY ________________________________________________ This type of infrastructure is totally new in the world. Nowhere is there a national charging station grid available. Because of this uniqueness, sophisticated technology is needed to design and build the network of charging stations. It is not only a charging station, that may be used only by authorised users, but also includes an infra and transaction management system behind it.
Meanwhile, some of the critical success factors of this project are privacy protection preventing trackingand tracing of users, standardisation, ease of use and international usability. Such functionality requiresuse of sophisticated technology and a combination of tools and used applications. Meanwhile the systemsshould be capable of connecting to each other.Charge points need to stay working also when no data connection is available, so offline usage must bepossible. Finally a few million charge points will be sending data to the central infra managementsystems and monitoring of all these charging stations must be possible. You can’t have the situation thatuser can’t drive because they couldn’t charge their car. Availability is key for this. Sophisticatedtechnology will enable this almost conflicting types of interest.For the network and infrastructure special attention has been paid to the following technology areas:• Technology in charge pointSoftware is developed for the charge point. It will manage offline capabilities to enable working alsowhen there is no connection with the central system. Also, the software will verify and send start andstop activities from users to the central system and it can open, lock and unlock the charge point andplug. Also important is safety control. This can be managed remotely from the central system if needed.Also fraud control is part of it• Communication systems between the charge points and central systems1.000.000 charge points need to be able to work in this new infrastructure. Most of them will beconnected wireless to the central system. Price and quality of the connection is vital. Connections such asCDMA, GPRS or LTE will be used or a combination. Currently GPRS is being used, but new and bettercommunication systems are being investigated• Universal protocol between charge point from different brands and the central systemTo enable different brands of charge points on different central systems a new open protocol is used. Allsuppliers will know the way to connect to the systems and charge points. This will promote an open andcompetitive market across countries• Technology in the infra management system that is managing transactions and infraA new infra management system is being used, with special attention for privacy. It is not possible totrack and trace a user without searching in not connected systems. The infra, transactions and link tosubscriber/user is completely split• Connection with third parties to share information with external portals and external systems forbilling and other purposes.Open standard interfaces generate possibilities to connect to other systems, for billing, SAP, or mobileapplications (points of interest)• Connection to Smart Grids that will enable the balancing of the network.The system is capable of connecting to smart grids and to facilitate the needed tools for managing asmart grid. This way grid balancing is possible by charging the connected cars less fast, when not muchenergy is available and allow fast charging in better periods of the dayBENEFITS________________________________________________The project is helping those it was designed to help. Car drivers have the possibility to charge theirelectric car in many different places and cities and the infra manager has the capability to monitor andmanage the infrastructure. The project has fundamentally changed how tasks are performed. In factthese activities were simply not possible to do before.By promoting the standards abroad, this project enables the Dutch population and other potentialoverseas markets, to buy an electric car and have it charged in the same uniform way wherever they go.Both customers and non- e-Laad customers will be able to make use of the network of 10,000 stationsthroughout the country. It is also possible for e-Laad user to use other charge point networks throughroaming technology. For the electric car owners, usage of the system is inexpensive, as a free chargepoint is made available near their home and they only pay 100 Euro per year to use the system.Meanwhile, it gives municipalities and grid owners the possibility to monitor the energy need andstorage. This in turn supports the balancing of the energy network. Finally, the project will result in lessoutage of electricity supply and should save a considerable amount of money for maintaining the grid.The project is beneficial for the whole society in The Netherlands because in a very short period of time ahuge usable infrastructure is needed. So there is always a charge point somewhere near the userdestination to charge the car. This will promote electric car usage and will reduce CO2 pollution in thecountry. It will also be beneficial for other nations as it will speed up and promote standardisation andwill stimulate other countries to also setup a network of charge points that can be used by everyone.Finally many cities and countries will reduce their CO2 emissions.
Easy access to charge points will encourage electric car usage and reduceCO2 pollution. Chargepoints in the field A Garage wall-mounted station Above is a map to locate charging stations.
ORIGINALITY________________________________________________All of the above (the first, the only and most effective application of its kind).The exceptional aspects of the project are:• It is an end-to-end solution with the use of open available standard interfaces. The company,Alfen, supplied the hardware for the charge points and Logica developed the software for the chargepoint and the central system. However, all requirements and specifications are set up by an open groupof companies. In this way, it will not be limited to only Logica and Alfen; also other charge points andcentral systems can be connected. This unique concept makes cross border and cross system usagepossible• Special attention is paid to ensuring that charge points are always usable, even when there is noconnection with the central system. After the first use, a charge point will authenticate the user nexttime without needing to go to the central system. When there is no connection, the transaction is storedlocally and sent to the central system when the connection is available again• Through an intelligent system of blacklisting and remote control, fraud preventions is maximised• Maximum privacy of users is guaranteed by splitting the connections (authentication processfrom the infra management. Without connecting and having access to different secured systems it willnot be possible to check who used a specific charge point when and for how long• The system is using open standards for all interfaces. When standards are not available, de-facto standards are developed and also made available for the market and industry• In a very short period a huge system is defined and the first pilots are done• There is a lot of international attention and request from both the Energy as well as theTransport sector to connect to the system. This will generate a European wide system.DIFFICULTY________________________________________________There were a few important obstacles to overcome during this project.- Standards: There are not yet many standards for both hardware (such as plugs) and forsoftware (such as ways of authentication, interfacing with other charge points and roaming of userauthentication between different systems).- Innovation level: Due to this being a pioneering solution, there is limited existing knowledge ofsuch a nationally designed solution, no one knew exactly what they wanted and how they wanted it.Requirements had to be determined and learning was by ‘doing’.- Technology: There are so many important requirements, the to-be-used technology wasuncertain. Also the reliability of telecom connections was initially disappointing. Solutions needed to befound for offline usage, to guarantee user availability.- Organisational challenges: Making electric driving a success, means that companies need towork together, even when they are competitors in certain situations. Making agreements is not easy,when the various interests of the stakeholder organisations have to be considered.- Market scepticism: Some entities in the market reacted with skepticism at the highly ambitiousprogram that has been started. Many companies and organisations talk about it, butthere is not one single country that is so far with the realisation of the network as The Netherlands. As aresult of this lack of precedence, individuals and companies needed to be convinced before agreeing toco-operate.- Limited availability of electric cars and high price of those cars caused problems of acceptanceby the potential users. A network of charge points has been established, but users need to want to use it.The market is growing fast, but no one knows yet if electric cars will finally solve the obstacles of limitedrange, high price and limited availability. Success of this system finally depends on mass adoption.Setting up a complete new infrastructure of 10,000 charge points for electric cars that are even not yetavailable is not easy. The fact that it is a new concept, the requirements are not clear at the start of theproject, it has proved difficult to get co-operation from companies. Meanwhile, the process of setting upthe grid and start building it, went faster than getting funding from the government.
These problems were solved in three ways: - e-Laad.nl is a foundation of 85% of all grid owners, in this way, it has also the support of those grid owners. Together they agreed to invest 15 million Euros in the first years. Gaining this support has been crucial for the success in setting up a national network with international capabilities. - Finding good partners who were willing to invest in the early stage of the project. Both Alfen and Logica believed in it, although also for those companies success was not guaranteed. They both have innovation and R&D teams who have been capable together with e-Laad.nl in starting a journey together and defining together the requirements of the existing and future market. By developing prototypes and a pilot, the final requirements where defined. - Just do it! Mentality - if you believe in it, you must do it and prove that you are right. E-Laad.nl and its partners just started and did not want to wait for funding. Through collective investment the risk is shared. SUCCESS ________________________________________________ The project achieved the goals. It is fully operational (first release, second release is planned). The success of the project is already visible. There is much interest from companies both in The Netherlands and abroad; both in the areas of Energy and Transport. It is clear that increasingly more people believe that electric driving is the future. The system build for the charge points and management of this infrastructure will change the landscape and the way people think about transport. There are already requests to connect the system to other systems including SAP and other brands of charge points. Also, companies who are involved in new developments for intelligent transport systems requested information to use the infrastructure. Currently negations are taking place to connect other countries to this system. Such countries include Portugal, Madeira, Sweden and the Czech Republic. There has been much interest from the media around each step that has been taken. Each city that installs the first charge point, sets up a press event. Former Dutch Prime Minister, Ruud Lubbers is one of the first enthusiastic users of the system. If the infrastructure is established throughout the entire country and most of the time in very visible places, then a huge amount of potential users have the opportunity to see the system. As soon as affordable cars are commercially available for the general public, then Dutch citizens can buy and start using them immediately. Meanwhile, the national government is promoting electric cars through providing a variety of tax incentives. Electric car users pay hardly any road taxes and no CO2 emission taxes. This is giving a huge boost to the market. It is difficult to predict what the final take-up of electric driving will be, as much depends on the availability of electric cars. However, most car manufacturers have announced the introduction of affordable electric cars within the next one and half years. The infrastructure is currently already being used by the first adopters. Until 2012 there should be at least 10,000 charge points available. It is expected that at that moment they also will all be used and that the system will be accepted. Within five years, the use of electric cars and the charging infrastructure is anticipated to be as common as current traditional fuel systems. ________________________________________________ Logica is a business and technology service company, employing 39,000 people. It provides business consulting, systems integration and outsourcing to clients around the world, including many of Europes largest businesses. Logica creates value for clients by successfullyLogica integrating people, business and technology. It is committed to long term collaboration, applying insight to create innovative answers to250 Brook Drive clients’ business needs. Logica is listed on both the London Stock Exchange and Euronext (Amsterdam) (LSE: LOG; Euronext: LOG). MoreGreen Park information is available at www.logica.comReading RG2 6UA .......................................................................................................................................................................United Kingdom AUSTRALIA / BELGIUM / BRAZIL / CANADA / CZECH REPUBLIC / DENMARK / EGYPT / ESTONIA / FINLAND / FRANCE/ GERMANY / HONGE: firstname.lastname@example.org KONG / HUNGARY / INDIA / INDONESIA / KUWAIT / LUXEMBOURG / MALAYSIA / MOROCCO / NETHERLANDS / NORWAY / PHILIPPINES / POLAND / PORTUGAL / RUSSIA / SAUDI ARABIA / SINGAPORE / SLOVAKIA/ SPAIN / SWEDEN / SWITZERLAND / TAIWAN / UKRAINE /www.logica.com/innovation UNITED ARAB EMIRATES / UK / USA