No Peace
                       in
Exploring the influence and scope of the United
        States Armed Forces in Hawaii
  ...
Demographics
A History of Diversity
Demographics
A History of Diversity
                         Historical populations
                         Census 
 Pop....
Demographics
    A History of Diversity
                                Historical populations
                           ...
Demographics
Demographics
Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation)
Total Population: 1,211,537
Demographics
Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation)
Total Population: 1,211,537


Density: 188.6/sq
mi (13th in the ...
Demographics
Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation)
Total Population: 1,211,537


Density: 188.6/sq
mi (13th in the ...
Demographics
Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation)
Total Population: 1,211,537


Density: 188.6/sq
mi (13th in the ...
Genesis of Military
Genesis of Military
Genesis of Military
Genesis of Military
Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on
Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task give...
Genesis of Military
Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on
Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task give...
Genesis of Military
Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on
Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task give...
Genesis of Military
Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on
Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task give...
Genesis of Military
Genesis of Military
In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land
was seized in the interest of militarizing the st...
Genesis of Military
In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land
was seized in the interest of militarizing the st...
Genesis of Military
In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land
was seized in the interest of militarizing the st...
Genesis of Military
In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land
was seized in the interest of militarizing the st...
Struggle for Self
     Displacement of Native Hawaiians
     since the mid 1800’s was
     exacerbated by the fact that
  ...
Struggle for Self
     Displacement of Native Hawaiians
     since the mid 1800’s was
     exacerbated by the fact that
  ...
Struggle for Self
     Displacement of Native Hawaiians
     since the mid 1800’s was
     exacerbated by the fact that
  ...
Struggle for Self
Struggle for Self
     Native Hawaiians (“Kanaka Maoli”)
     are not federally recognized as an
     indigenous people, n...
Struggle for Self
     Native Hawaiians (“Kanaka Maoli”)
     are not federally recognized as an
     indigenous people, n...
Struggle for Self
     Native Hawaiians (“Kanaka Maoli”)
     are not federally recognized as an
     indigenous people, n...
Youth at Risk

      Schools*




*Source: http://starbulletin.com/2007/10/30/news/story01.html
Youth at Risk

      Schools*
            At least 40% of Hawaii’s
            freshmen will fail to graduate
            ...
Youth at Risk

      Schools*
            At least 40% of Hawaii’s
            freshmen will fail to graduate
            ...
Youth at Risk
Youth at Risk
JROTC
Youth at Risk
JROTC
 Of Hawaii’s 46 public non-
charter high schools, 24 have
JROTC programs
Youth at Risk
JROTC
 Of Hawaii’s 46 public non-
charter high schools, 24 have
JROTC programs
Gen. Summerall, Army Hawaiian...
Youth at Risk
Youth at Risk

Recruiting in Hawaii
Youth at Risk

Recruiting in Hawaii
National annual recruiting budget for
2007: $3.4 billion
Youth at Risk

Recruiting in Hawaii
National annual recruiting budget for
2007: $3.4 billion

State of Hawaii ranked #13 i...
Youth at Risk

Recruiting in Hawaii
National annual recruiting budget for
2007: $3.4 billion

State of Hawaii ranked #13 i...
Military
US Pacific Command
Military
              US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Military
               US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Covering a whopping 52% of the entire pla...
Military
                US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Covering a whopping 52% of the entire pl...
Military
                US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Covering a whopping 52% of the entire pl...
Military
                US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Covering a whopping 52% of the entire pl...
Military
                US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Covering a whopping 52% of the entire pl...
Military
                US Pacific Command

The world’s largest military command!
Covering a whopping 52% of the entire pl...
Military
Military
Military
Hawaii’s Military Population
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

Active Duty: 57, 000
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

Active Duty: 57, 000
  Dependents:
  64,000
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

Active Duty: 57, 000
  Dependents:
  64,000
Reserve/NG: 65,000
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

Active Duty: 57, 000
  Dependents:
  64,000
Reserve/NG: 65,000
Veterans/
Retiree...
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

                       Military personnel in HI make
Active Duty: 57, 000   up 1...
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

                       Military personnel in HI make
Active Duty: 57, 000   up 1...
Military
   Hawaii’s Military Population

Active Duty: 57, 000
  Dependents:
  64,000
Reserve/NG: 65,000
Veterans/
Retiree...
Military
Military

Land
Military

Land
There are 161 military
installations in the Aloha
State, resting on 236,303
acres (5.7% of total land
mass)
Military

Land
There are 161 military
installations in the Aloha
State, resting on 236,303
acres (5.7% of total land
mass)...
Military
Military

Sea & Air
Military

Sea & Air
The Hawaiian archipelago
is surrounded by 210k
square miles of naval
operating and training
areas
Military

Sea & Air
The Hawaiian archipelago
is surrounded by 210k
square miles of naval
operating and training
areas
In t...
Environmental

Military installations made up 5 of the top 10
polluters in the state in 2006
Environmental

Military installations made up 5 of the top 10
polluters in the state in 2006
Furthermore, military contami...
Environmental

Military installations made up 5 of the top 10
polluters in the state in 2006
Furthermore, military contami...
Environmental
Environmental
798 such contamination sites have been found @
108 Hawaii military installations*
Environmental
798 such contamination sites have been found @
108 Hawaii military installations*
   7 were identified as “Su...
Environmental
798 such contamination sites have been found @
108 Hawaii military installations*
   7 were identified as “Su...
Environmental
798 such contamination sites have been found @
108 Hawaii military installations*
   7 were identified as “Su...
Environmental
      798 such contamination sites have been found @
      108 Hawaii military installations*
            7 ...
Environmental
Environmental

2,189 steel drums of similar waste were also
dumped in the ocean 55 miles from Hawaii
Environmental

2,189 steel drums of similar waste were also
dumped in the ocean 55 miles from Hawaii
   Another 8k tons of...
Environmental

2,189 steel drums of similar waste were also
dumped in the ocean 55 miles from Hawaii
   Another 8k tons of...
Environmental
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Smallest of the 8 major Hawaiian isalnds @
under 129k acres
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Smallest of the 8 major Hawaiian isalnds @
under 129k acres
Sacred to Kanaka Maoli as the embodi...
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Smallest of the 8 major Hawaiian isalnds @
under 129k acres
Sacred to Kanaka Maoli as the embodi...
Environmental
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Seized on Dec. 8, 1941 by US Navy for target
practice
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Seized on Dec. 8, 1941 by US Navy for target
practice
Pres. George Bush (Sr.) ended the bombing ...
Environmental

Kaho’olawe
Seized on Dec. 8, 1941 by US Navy for target
practice
Pres. George Bush (Sr.) ended the bombing ...
Economic
In 2003, military spending became Hawaii’s 2nd
largest ‘industry,’ behind tourism, bringing $4.5
billion (a 13% i...
Economic
In 2003, military spending became Hawaii’s 2nd
largest ‘industry,’ behind tourism, bringing $4.5
billion (a 13% i...
Economic
In 2003, military spending became Hawaii’s 2nd
largest ‘industry,’ behind tourism, bringing $4.5
billion (a 13% i...
Economic
Economic

Tax exempt military posts force local residents to
subsidize all public services, including schools,
without fina...
Economic

Tax exempt military posts force local residents to
subsidize all public services, including schools,
without fina...
Economic

Tax exempt military posts force local residents to
subsidize all public services, including schools,
without fina...
Economic
Economic

Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks)
Economic

Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks)
  Estimated 70-80% of clientele of prostitutes are
  from the military
Economic

Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks)
  Estimated 70-80% of clientele of prostitutes are
  from the military
 ...
Economic

Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks)
  Estimated 70-80% of clientele of prostitutes are
  from the military
 ...
Economic
Economic

Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation)
Economic

Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation)
   Over one third of the land is held by the federal
   govern...
Economic

Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation)
   Over one third of the land is held by the federal
   govern...
Economic

Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation)
   Over one third of the land is held by the federal
   govern...
Governmental
               Senate

Sen. Daniel Akaka (D-HI)
    Senate VA Committee chairman
Sen. Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI)...
Governmental

House
  Rep. Abercrombie (D)

State Governor
  Gov. Linda Lingle (R)

9th District Court of Appeals
  libera...
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
 Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+
 p...
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
 Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+
 p...
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
 Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+
 p...
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
 Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+
 p...
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
 Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+
 p...
Further Militarization
 Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
 Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+
 p...
Further Militarization
   Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
   Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000...
Further Militarization
Further Militarization

 University of Hawaii administrators want to establish
 a Navy University Affiliated Research Cent...
Further Militarization

 University of Hawaii administrators want to establish
 a Navy University Affiliated Research Cent...
Further Militarization

 University of Hawaii administrators want to establish
 a Navy University Affiliated Research Cent...
Further Militarization

 University of Hawaii administrators want to establish
 a Navy University Affiliated Research Cent...
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
No Peace In Paradise
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  • No Peace In Paradise

    1. 1. No Peace in Exploring the influence and scope of the United States Armed Forces in Hawaii (An exposition of an article by the same name authored by Kyle Kajihiro, AFSC Regional Director)
    2. 2. Demographics A History of Diversity
    3. 3. Demographics A History of Diversity Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1900 154,001 ---- 1910 191,874 24.6% 1920 255,881 33.4% 1930 368,300 43.9% 1940 422,770 14.8% 1950 499,794 18.2% 1960 632,772 26.6% 1970 769,913 21.7% 1980 964,691 25.3% 1990 1,108,229 14.9% 2000 1,211,537 9.3% 2007 1,283,388 5.9%
    4. 4. Demographics A History of Diversity Historical populations Census Pop. %± Population Of Hawaii Ancestry 1900 154,001 ---- Japanese 16.7%) of Total ( 1910 191,874 24.6% Hawaii Polynesian (16%) 1920 255,881 33.4% 1930 368,300 43.9% Filipino (14.1%) 1940 422,770 14.8% German (5.8%) 1950 499,794 18.2% Chinese (4.7%) 1960 632,772 26.6% 1970 769,913 21.7% Irish (4.4%) 1980 964,691 25.3% English (4.3%) 1990 1,108,229 14.9% Portuguese 4.0%) ( 2000 1,211,537 9.3% 2007 1,283,388 5.9% Puerto Ricans (2.5%)
    5. 5. Demographics
    6. 6. Demographics Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation) Total Population: 1,211,537
    7. 7. Demographics Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation) Total Population: 1,211,537 Density: 188.6/sq mi (13th in the US)
    8. 8. Demographics Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation) Total Population: 1,211,537 Density: 188.6/sq mi (13th in the US) Median income $53,123 (8th)
    9. 9. Demographics Land Area: 10,931 sq. miles (43rd in nation) Total Population: 1,211,537 Density: 188.6/sq mi (13th in the US) Median income $53,123 (8th) Percent below poverty level: 10.7% (23rd)
    10. 10. Genesis of Military
    11. 11. Genesis of Military
    12. 12. Genesis of Military
    13. 13. Genesis of Military Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task given by Sec. of War William Belknap
    14. 14. Genesis of Military Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task given by Sec. of War William Belknap American businessmen usurp sovereign throne of Queen Lili’uokalani in January 1893, with the stated intent to promote annexation by the U.S.
    15. 15. Genesis of Military Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task given by Sec. of War William Belknap American businessmen usurp sovereign throne of Queen Lili’uokalani in January 1893, with the stated intent to promote annexation by the U.S. Lili’uokalani refused violently engage Dole’s armed “Committee of Safety”
    16. 16. Genesis of Military Lt. Gen. John M. Schofield sets American sights on Pearl Harbor as early as 1873, fulfilling a task given by Sec. of War William Belknap American businessmen usurp sovereign throne of Queen Lili’uokalani in January 1893, with the stated intent to promote annexation by the U.S. Lili’uokalani refused violently engage Dole’s armed “Committee of Safety” Grover Cleveland condemned the overthrow in 1893, though William McKinley condoned it, sending annexation papers to the Senate in 1897.
    17. 17. Genesis of Military
    18. 18. Genesis of Military In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land was seized in the interest of militarizing the state and securing strategic advantage of the Pacific Rim
    19. 19. Genesis of Military In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land was seized in the interest of militarizing the state and securing strategic advantage of the Pacific Rim In 1959, upon incorporation as a state, the US retained control of 180k acres of “ceded land”
    20. 20. Genesis of Military In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land was seized in the interest of militarizing the state and securing strategic advantage of the Pacific Rim In 1959, upon incorporation as a state, the US retained control of 180k acres of “ceded land” 30k acres of which were immediately leased back to the federal government for 65 years (until 2024), at a bargain price: $1.00
    21. 21. Genesis of Military In 1898, after annexation, 1.8 million acres of land was seized in the interest of militarizing the state and securing strategic advantage of the Pacific Rim In 1959, upon incorporation as a state, the US retained control of 180k acres of “ceded land” 30k acres of which were immediately leased back to the federal government for 65 years (until 2024), at a bargain price: $1.00 Today, more than 112k acres (54%) of all military- controlled land in Hawaii consists of former Crown Lands of the Hawaiian kingdom
    22. 22. Struggle for Self Displacement of Native Hawaiians since the mid 1800’s was exacerbated by the fact that Hawaiians had no concept of land ‘ownership’
    23. 23. Struggle for Self Displacement of Native Hawaiians since the mid 1800’s was exacerbated by the fact that Hawaiians had no concept of land ‘ownership’ The ‘Aina (land) was a living ancestor, not to be bought or sold, but revered
    24. 24. Struggle for Self Displacement of Native Hawaiians since the mid 1800’s was exacerbated by the fact that Hawaiians had no concept of land ‘ownership’ The ‘Aina (land) was a living ancestor, not to be bought or sold, but revered Military seizure of the land was, and is, viewed as violence against the people themselves
    25. 25. Struggle for Self
    26. 26. Struggle for Self Native Hawaiians (“Kanaka Maoli”) are not federally recognized as an indigenous people, nor do they enjoy the rights and protections that such recognition guarantees
    27. 27. Struggle for Self Native Hawaiians (“Kanaka Maoli”) are not federally recognized as an indigenous people, nor do they enjoy the rights and protections that such recognition guarantees Rates of homelessness, poverty, disease, and crime in the state are the highest in this demographic
    28. 28. Struggle for Self Native Hawaiians (“Kanaka Maoli”) are not federally recognized as an indigenous people, nor do they enjoy the rights and protections that such recognition guarantees Rates of homelessness, poverty, disease, and crime in the state are the highest in this demographic Kanaka Maoli make up 36.5% of people incarcerated in the state for felony convictions
    29. 29. Youth at Risk Schools* *Source: http://starbulletin.com/2007/10/30/news/story01.html
    30. 30. Youth at Risk Schools* At least 40% of Hawaii’s freshmen will fail to graduate high school, with some individual schools reflecting numbers as high as 60% *Source: http://starbulletin.com/2007/10/30/news/story01.html
    31. 31. Youth at Risk Schools* At least 40% of Hawaii’s freshmen will fail to graduate high school, with some individual schools reflecting numbers as high as 60% Hawaii ranked #11 nationally in worst drop-out rate *Source: http://starbulletin.com/2007/10/30/news/story01.html
    32. 32. Youth at Risk
    33. 33. Youth at Risk JROTC
    34. 34. Youth at Risk JROTC Of Hawaii’s 46 public non- charter high schools, 24 have JROTC programs
    35. 35. Youth at Risk JROTC Of Hawaii’s 46 public non- charter high schools, 24 have JROTC programs Gen. Summerall, Army Hawaiian Dept. in the 1920’s, identified the incentive early, saying “There is no better way of securing the loyalty of such people than to incorporate them into our military forces.” A process referred to as “Americanization”
    36. 36. Youth at Risk
    37. 37. Youth at Risk Recruiting in Hawaii
    38. 38. Youth at Risk Recruiting in Hawaii National annual recruiting budget for 2007: $3.4 billion
    39. 39. Youth at Risk Recruiting in Hawaii National annual recruiting budget for 2007: $3.4 billion State of Hawaii ranked #13 in highest number of Army recruits per 1,000
    40. 40. Youth at Risk Recruiting in Hawaii National annual recruiting budget for 2007: $3.4 billion State of Hawaii ranked #13 in highest number of Army recruits per 1,000 Honolulu ranked #22 of top 100 U.S. counties for the number of active-duty Army recruits in 2006.
    41. 41. Military US Pacific Command
    42. 42. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command!
    43. 43. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command! Covering a whopping 52% of the entire planet, including:
    44. 44. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command! Covering a whopping 52% of the entire planet, including: 36 nations
    45. 45. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command! Covering a whopping 52% of the entire planet, including: 36 nations half the world’s population
    46. 46. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command! Covering a whopping 52% of the entire planet, including: 36 nations half the world’s population 3,000 languages
    47. 47. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command! Covering a whopping 52% of the entire planet, including: 36 nations half the world’s population 3,000 languages 15 timezones
    48. 48. Military US Pacific Command The world’s largest military command! Covering a whopping 52% of the entire planet, including: 36 nations half the world’s population 3,000 languages 15 timezones Includes the globe’s three largest economies (US, China, Japan)
    49. 49. Military
    50. 50. Military
    51. 51. Military Hawaii’s Military Population
    52. 52. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Active Duty: 57, 000
    53. 53. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Active Duty: 57, 000 Dependents: 64,000
    54. 54. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Active Duty: 57, 000 Dependents: 64,000 Reserve/NG: 65,000
    55. 55. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Active Duty: 57, 000 Dependents: 64,000 Reserve/NG: 65,000 Veterans/ Retirees: 116,000
    56. 56. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Military personnel in HI make Active Duty: 57, 000 up 17% of the state’s population, as opposed to a Dependents: 1% national average 64,000 Reserve/NG: 65,000 Veterans/ Retirees: 116,000
    57. 57. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Military personnel in HI make Active Duty: 57, 000 up 17% of the state’s population, as opposed to a Dependents: 1% national average 64,000 This density is 2nd in scale only to VA; home of Norfolk Reserve/NG: 65,000 Naval Station (world’s largest Veterans/ military base) and the Pentagon (HQ of the DoD)* Retirees: 116,000
    58. 58. Military Hawaii’s Military Population Active Duty: 57, 000 Dependents: 64,000 Reserve/NG: 65,000 Veterans/ Retirees: 116,000
    59. 59. Military
    60. 60. Military Land
    61. 61. Military Land There are 161 military installations in the Aloha State, resting on 236,303 acres (5.7% of total land mass)
    62. 62. Military Land There are 161 military installations in the Aloha State, resting on 236,303 acres (5.7% of total land mass) On Oahu alone, the military controls 85,718 of 382,148 acres, or 22.4% of the island
    63. 63. Military
    64. 64. Military Sea & Air
    65. 65. Military Sea & Air The Hawaiian archipelago is surrounded by 210k square miles of naval operating and training areas
    66. 66. Military Sea & Air The Hawaiian archipelago is surrounded by 210k square miles of naval operating and training areas In the air, 58,599 square miles of aeronautical operating and training airspace dominates the Hawaiian skyline
    67. 67. Environmental Military installations made up 5 of the top 10 polluters in the state in 2006
    68. 68. Environmental Military installations made up 5 of the top 10 polluters in the state in 2006 Furthermore, military contamination sites include unique hazards, such as:
    69. 69. Environmental Military installations made up 5 of the top 10 polluters in the state in 2006 Furthermore, military contamination sites include unique hazards, such as: Unexploded ordinance (basically land mines created by dud munitions), petroleum substances, explosive propellants, napalm, lead, radioactive waste, depleted uranium, and mercury
    70. 70. Environmental
    71. 71. Environmental 798 such contamination sites have been found @ 108 Hawaii military installations*
    72. 72. Environmental 798 such contamination sites have been found @ 108 Hawaii military installations* 7 were identified as “Superfund” sites
    73. 73. Environmental 798 such contamination sites have been found @ 108 Hawaii military installations* 7 were identified as “Superfund” sites According to the Navy, Pearl Harbor (Hawaiian, “Pu’uloa”) alone contains 749 such sites, and is treated as one, giant Superfund site
    74. 74. Environmental 798 such contamination sites have been found @ 108 Hawaii military installations* 7 were identified as “Superfund” sites According to the Navy, Pearl Harbor (Hawaiian, “Pu’uloa”) alone contains 749 such sites, and is treated as one, giant Superfund site Between 1964 and 1978, over 4.8 million gallons of low level radioactive waste was discharged into Pearl Harbor by nuclear powered vessels
    75. 75. Environmental 798 such contamination sites have been found @ 108 Hawaii military installations* 7 were identified as “Superfund” sites According to the Navy, Pearl Harbor (Hawaiian, “Pu’uloa”) alone contains 749 such sites, and is treated as one, giant Superfund site Between 1964 and 1978, over 4.8 million gallons of low level radioactive waste was discharged into Pearl Harbor by nuclear powered vessels *Source: 2004 Defense Environmental Restoration Program report to Congress
    76. 76. Environmental
    77. 77. Environmental 2,189 steel drums of similar waste were also dumped in the ocean 55 miles from Hawaii
    78. 78. Environmental 2,189 steel drums of similar waste were also dumped in the ocean 55 miles from Hawaii Another 8k tons of chemical blister agents had been dumped in shallow waters off Oahu from 1941 to 1972
    79. 79. Environmental 2,189 steel drums of similar waste were also dumped in the ocean 55 miles from Hawaii Another 8k tons of chemical blister agents had been dumped in shallow waters off Oahu from 1941 to 1972 Makua Valley, home to over 40 endangered species, is threatened by fire, erosion, and habitat alteration by training operations and exercises
    80. 80. Environmental
    81. 81. Environmental Kaho’olawe
    82. 82. Environmental Kaho’olawe Smallest of the 8 major Hawaiian isalnds @ under 129k acres
    83. 83. Environmental Kaho’olawe Smallest of the 8 major Hawaiian isalnds @ under 129k acres Sacred to Kanaka Maoli as the embodiment of the sea god Kanaloa
    84. 84. Environmental Kaho’olawe Smallest of the 8 major Hawaiian isalnds @ under 129k acres Sacred to Kanaka Maoli as the embodiment of the sea god Kanaloa Contains some of the richest cultural sites in Hawaii and is central to early Polynesian navigation and initial settlement
    85. 85. Environmental
    86. 86. Environmental Kaho’olawe
    87. 87. Environmental Kaho’olawe Seized on Dec. 8, 1941 by US Navy for target practice
    88. 88. Environmental Kaho’olawe Seized on Dec. 8, 1941 by US Navy for target practice Pres. George Bush (Sr.) ended the bombing in 1990, after 14 years of direct action, lawsuits, and protest by Kanaka Maoli activists
    89. 89. Environmental Kaho’olawe Seized on Dec. 8, 1941 by US Navy for target practice Pres. George Bush (Sr.) ended the bombing in 1990, after 14 years of direct action, lawsuits, and protest by Kanaka Maoli activists $400 million later, only 10% of the island is safe for human use, far below agreed upon standards outlined by the Navy
    90. 90. Economic In 2003, military spending became Hawaii’s 2nd largest ‘industry,’ behind tourism, bringing $4.5 billion (a 13% increase from 2002) and 16,000 new jobs to the state
    91. 91. Economic In 2003, military spending became Hawaii’s 2nd largest ‘industry,’ behind tourism, bringing $4.5 billion (a 13% increase from 2002) and 16,000 new jobs to the state In the same year, HI ranked 2nd, behind VA, in the U.S. at $2,566 in per-capita defense spending
    92. 92. Economic In 2003, military spending became Hawaii’s 2nd largest ‘industry,’ behind tourism, bringing $4.5 billion (a 13% increase from 2002) and 16,000 new jobs to the state In the same year, HI ranked 2nd, behind VA, in the U.S. at $2,566 in per-capita defense spending massive spending has boosted construction, which has been detrimental to the preservation of cultural sites and natural resources
    93. 93. Economic
    94. 94. Economic Tax exempt military posts force local residents to subsidize all public services, including schools, without financial contribution by military residents
    95. 95. Economic Tax exempt military posts force local residents to subsidize all public services, including schools, without financial contribution by military residents Housing allowances to off-post personnel are indexed to market values, inflating real estate costs and exacerbating homelessness
    96. 96. Economic Tax exempt military posts force local residents to subsidize all public services, including schools, without financial contribution by military residents Housing allowances to off-post personnel are indexed to market values, inflating real estate costs and exacerbating homelessness The Stryker vehicle utilizes roads not equipped for them, forcing maintenance costs onto local community
    97. 97. Economic
    98. 98. Economic Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks)
    99. 99. Economic Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks) Estimated 70-80% of clientele of prostitutes are from the military
    100. 100. Economic Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks) Estimated 70-80% of clientele of prostitutes are from the military High traffic of Army vehicles on civilian roads leads to ‘advanced decrepancy,’ leaving local infrastructure to repave on limited state funds
    101. 101. Economic Case Study: Wahiawa (Schofield Barracks) Estimated 70-80% of clientele of prostitutes are from the military High traffic of Army vehicles on civilian roads leads to ‘advanced decrepancy,’ leaving local infrastructure to repave on limited state funds Local business has become wholly dependent on military dollars, comparable to addiction
    102. 102. Economic
    103. 103. Economic Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation)
    104. 104. Economic Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation) Over one third of the land is held by the federal government
    105. 105. Economic Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation) Over one third of the land is held by the federal government Highest concentration of native Hawaiians and Homestead Land in the islands
    106. 106. Economic Case Study: Waianae (Lualualei Naval Reservation) Over one third of the land is held by the federal government Highest concentration of native Hawaiians and Homestead Land in the islands Demonstrates the worst health, economic, and social statistics of any census tract in the state
    107. 107. Governmental Senate Sen. Daniel Akaka (D-HI) Senate VA Committee chairman Sen. Daniel K. Inouye (D-HI) Veteran of WWII (lost right arm) Senate Committee of Armed Forces Subcommittees on Defense (Chair) and Military Construction and Veterans Affairs (member)
    108. 108. Governmental House Rep. Abercrombie (D) State Governor Gov. Linda Lingle (R) 9th District Court of Appeals liberal attitude and justices
    109. 109. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*)
    110. 110. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel)
    111. 111. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel) PLUS an attack Sub, a Cruiser, 2 Destroyers, a Fast Combat Support Ship
    112. 112. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel) PLUS an attack Sub, a Cruiser, 2 Destroyers, a Fast Combat Support Ship PLUS Air Wing
    113. 113. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel) PLUS an attack Sub, a Cruiser, 2 Destroyers, a Fast Combat Support Ship PLUS Air Wing All requires land grab 25,000 additional acres
    114. 114. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel) PLUS an attack Sub, a Cruiser, 2 Destroyers, a Fast Combat Support Ship PLUS Air Wing All requires land grab 25,000 additional acres Munitions use in Hawaii would increase by 25%
    115. 115. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel) PLUS an attack Sub, a Cruiser, 2 Destroyers, a Fast Combat Support Ship PLUS Air Wing All requires land grab 25,000 additional acres Munitions use in Hawaii would increase by 25%
    116. 116. Further Militarization Stryker Brigade Transformation (1,000+ personnel*) Navy Aircraft Carrier Strike Group (20,000+ personnel) PLUS an attack Sub, a Cruiser, 2 Destroyers, a Fast Combat Support Ship PLUS Air Wing All requires land grab 25,000 additional acres Munitions use in Hawaii would increase by 25% *does not include dependents, construction projects, and area alteration
    117. 117. Further Militarization
    118. 118. Further Militarization University of Hawaii administrators want to establish a Navy University Affiliated Research Center (UARC)
    119. 119. Further Militarization University of Hawaii administrators want to establish a Navy University Affiliated Research Center (UARC) would conduct weapons related research and development
    120. 120. Further Militarization University of Hawaii administrators want to establish a Navy University Affiliated Research Center (UARC) would conduct weapons related research and development World renowned astronomy and astrophysics research will be interrupted on the Big Island
    121. 121. Further Militarization University of Hawaii administrators want to establish a Navy University Affiliated Research Center (UARC) would conduct weapons related research and development World renowned astronomy and astrophysics research will be interrupted on the Big Island Kauai waters are threatened by increased sonar and ballistics missile tests

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