骷髏幻戲──中國文學與圖象中的生命意識

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骷髏幻戲──中國文學與圖象中的生命意識

  1. 1. 2005 3 73 125 1190-1230 -73-
  2. 2. 1 2(iconology) (intertextuality) (transtextuality) (Julia Kristeva) (Roland Barthes) (Gérard Genette) 3 1 65 1993 3 179-195 2 Erwin Panofsky, Meaning in the Visual Art (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982). 3 1999 1 15- 21 (Julia Kristeva) 2002 2003 -74-
  3. 3. (icon) 4 5 (1137-1213) 6 7 8 9 10 4 1978 14 83 5 44 3 1972 10 403-434 6 1991 47 2549 29556 1983 850 14 1a 7 8 1971 8 48 9 1994 84 103b10 -75-
  4. 4. 1677 11 (1277-1348) 12 (1558-1639) [1603] 13 (1621-1687) 14 1988 3711 1962 1 42 829 5 7b12 3 1997 1 634 1995 244 2 9b 26813 1988 3 [1603] 45014 83 -76-
  5. 5. 15 16 17 18 19 1365 1100-1125 (1200-1264) 2015 1984 8 208-21016 2 4 1938 12 1-8 1997 1 108-11317 2002 12 24-27 2002 5 29-4118 Wai-kam Ho, “The Literary Concepts of Picture-like (Ju-hua) and Picture-idea (Hua-i) in the Relationship between Poetry and Painting,” in Alfreda Murck, C. Wen Fong, eds., Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and Painting (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991), pp. 359-404.19 Ellen Johnston Laing, “Li Sung and Some Aspects of Southern Sung Figure Paintings,” Artibus Asiae 37.1-2 (1975): 5-38 2 1982 1 165-168+150 2.8 2003 53-5820 4 1963 2 103 -77-
  6. 6. 21 22 (1210) (1211) (1212) (1640-1686)23 24 (1269-1354) (1354)21 Chiang Chao-shen, “Some Album Leaves by Liu Sung-nien and Li Sung,” The National Palace Museum Bulletin 1.4 (Sept. 1966) 1995 280-28222 17 8 1999 11 3623 1988 56424 (The Nelson Gallery and Atkins Museum) -78-
  7. 7. 25 26 27 2825 104a 1972 36 1985 51 210 97 2002 53626 90 1993 10 48-6527 1045 343 9a-10a28 926 20 27b -79-
  8. 8. 29 30 3129 1993 6 504-505 1983 3 229030 1233 59b31 7 194 -80-
  9. 9. 32 (1045-1105) 33 34 35 (1634-?) 3632 103b-104a33 17 997 1143734 5 17-18 1232 7 9-10a 1985 15 24 1402 1613035 1962 2 336 585 4 17a -81-
  10. 10. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 4537 1 4 1934 1 286-29138 1985 132-133 1997 3 88- 10439 590 13 14a40 1994 198441 1952 1995 5 27-3142 17 1927 6 1-35 41 12 1970 12 367-36943 1979 13 1985 416-465 1991 1996 4 87-10544 2002 200345 64 1999 6 53-76 7 12 1979 5 158-181 -82-
  11. 11. 46 (32-92) 47 (734-812) 48 49 (974-1020) 50 51 52(1053-1101)46 1985 275 6 8647 1995 11 13 327348 1988 4 146 373049 1995 123-15050 3 122 141651 590 2 17a52 1478 4a -83-
  12. 12. (1196-1262) 53 54 (1314-1378) 55 56 57 58 (?-865) 59 60 [843] (833-909) 61 [1274]53 1999 4 3519-352054 1228 4 3-4a55 1998 1956 1221 11 20b57 1992 6 202 2116 8 12b-13a58 72 3752 4524159 1983 758 787060 766 797261 896 9355 -84-
  13. 13. 62 63 64 65 66 (1269-1325) 6762 5 4344-434563 23 806 909964 1981 619-63465 5 1992 71266 17 1011 1155367 64 3366 40179 -85-
  14. 14. 68 ?-866 867 (1592-1659) 69 70 71 7268 13 85969 25 1987 34 740 17 2 1999 12 277-29870 24 1402 1612971 1365 8 42b72 32 1849 20657 -86-
  15. 15. 73 74 (1194-1277) 7573 1178 16 24b74 3 25 80a75 60 3150 37783 -87-
  16. 16. 76 (78-139) 77 (192-232) 7876 1989 617-61977 1985 393 93 23a78 1958 2 18 1152 2001 3 23-26 -88-
  17. 17. 79 80 81 82 (1096-1158) 8379 2003 2 99-144 200480 1999 315-326 2000 2 52-55 33 2003 8 18-2281 118 1999 3 235-25482 17 1024 1171483 32 1849 20657 -89-
  18. 18. 84 85 86 87 88 89 9084 1 20 12485 21 9086 1956 2975 1998 9-6187 2000 5 1 788 814 2a89 812 6 1290 22 761 8639 -90-
  19. 19. 91 92 (1089- 931163) 94 1209 95 (1152-1210) 96 97 (344-413)91 57 3017 3593392 65 3431 4083793 30 1724 1941694 200095 65 3419 4065196 22 1287 1459997 1998 1 62-70 15 326c-327a -91-
  20. 20. 98 (1112-1170) 99 100 101 (1123-1183) (1119-1182)102 103 104 (1123-1185) 105 106 98 17 1985 5 47-63 1992 182-194 99 1985 43 10 500100 13 10 526101 2 434102 4 124103 1997 3 65104 10 497105 43 665106 -92-
  21. 21. 107 (1194-?) 108 109 110 111107108 60 3139 37638109 1931 1 27110 29111 1978 256-257 -93-
  22. 22. (1280-1354) 112 113 114 115112 1215 1 816 6 11113 2114 1996 1 41-47+62115 1963 1976 1986 1 12-20+11 14 1987 7 86-102 -94-
  23. 23. 116116 1990 94-95 -95-
  24. 24. 1.2. -96-
  25. 25. 3. 117(1620-1691) (1257-1314) 118 119 (1280-1358) 120 (1254-1322) (1289-?) 1010-1090 121117118 1987 1227119 1983 323 1998 408120 1366 1-2 1273 21 12b-13a121 824 16 2b -97-
  26. 26. 122 123 1241163-1164 125 (601-673) 126 696122 Laing, “Li Sung and Some Aspects of Southern Sung Figure Paintings”: 11.123 1996 91124 85125 2003 63126 2001 558-561 -98-
  27. 27. 127127 Laing, “Li Sung and Some Aspects of Southern Sung Figure Paintings”: 10-11. -99-
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  40. 40. (1209)-112-
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  52. 52. 1190-1230 (iconology) (intertextuality)(transtextuality) -124-
  53. 53. Skeleton Puppet Show: The Consciousness of Life in Chinese Literature and Iconography I Lo-fen Using the painting “Skeleton Puppet Show” (attributed to Li Song [fl. 1190-1230]) as an example, this article analyzes how artists conveyed their reflections onand understanding of the significance of life. In terms of iconology and theories of intertextuality or transtextuality, “puppet”and “skeleton” embody distinct iconographic features. I trace these in literary, culturaland iconographical representations to establish the contexts in which I interpret the“Skeleton Puppet Show.” Puppets and puppet shows embody two contradictory ideas: the “tragic” and the“joyous.” Puppets resemble human beings in appearance, enabling them to serve aseffigies for sacrificial rituals, and also as children’s toys. Puppet shows are, on the onehand, funeral rituals to remove impending ill fortune, and, on the other hand,entertaining performances on joyous occasions. This synthesis of the tragic and thejoyous represents human life in miniature. Furthermore, the puppet, as depicted inliterature and religion, presents the issue of one’s independence and ways to avoidcontrol by others. The conversation between Zhuang Zhou and the skull in the chapter “UltimateJoy” in the Zhuangzi presents a model for using the skull and skeleton to comment onlife and death, joy and sorrow—a model that had lasting influence on Chineseliterature. In Buddhist and Daoist traditions, the rituals of “skeleton laments,” thepractices of “skull meditation,” and the depiction of skeletons and skulls in paintings,as ways to reach spiritual enlightenment, all express the idea of “regaining a new lifeafter being exposed to death.” If life is like a puppet show, we are constantly switching our roles among“audience,” “performers” and “puppets,” in keeping with the spirit of the occasion.The skeletons in “Skeleton Puppet Show” go on playing even in death, a performancethat never ends.Keywords: skeleton puppet show Li Song consciousness of life puppet iconology intertextuality -125-

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