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3D-printing with GRASS GIS – a work in progress in report FOSS4G 2014

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As the amount of scientific data continues to grow, researchers need new tools to help them visualize complex data. Immersive data-visualisations are helpful, yet fail to provide tactile feedback and sensory feedback on spatial orientation, as provided from tangible objects.

The production of a tangible representation of a scientific data set is one step in a line of scientific thinking, leading from the physical world into scientific reasoning and back: The process starts with a physical observation, or from a data stream generated by an environmental sensor. This data stream is turned into a geo-referenced data set. This data is turned into a volume representation which is converted into command sequences for the printing device, leading to the creation of a 3D printout via additive manufacturing (“3D-printing”). As a last, but crucial step, this new object has to be documented and linked to the associated metadata, and curated in long term repositories to preserve its scientific meaning and context.

This presentation showcases a reference workflow to produce tangible 3D data-prints based on Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), using both GRASS GIS and Paraview. The workflow was successfully validated in various application scenarios using a RapMan printer to create 3D specimens of elevation models, geological underground models, ice penetrating radar soundings for planetology, and space time stacks for Tsunami model quality assessment.

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3D-printing with GRASS GIS – a work in progress in report FOSS4G 2014

  1. 1. Scientific 3D Printing with GRASS GIS Introduction and Work in Progress Report Dr. Peter Löwe FOSS4G 2014 2014-09-12
  2. 2. 2 In a nutshell • Consumer 3D printers are evolving very quickly • 3D printing extends „flat“ 2D science communication. • 3D pre-prints can already be generated with GRASS GIS. • Dedicated GRASS support for 3D printing will soon simplify the process. • Research libraries take on Visual Analytics and 3D printing, driving the standardisation of Metadata. • This is work in progress: We barely got started.
  3. 3. 3 The Library Angle: Open Source + Science = Open Science Science advances only if knowledge is shared. Accelerating the sharing of scientific knowledge accelerates the advancement of science.
  4. 4. 4 The Who ? German: Technische Informationsbibliothek (TIB) • largest science and technology library globally • over 9 Mio. items, • 180 Mio. documents • 125 km of shelving • national library of Germany for • engineering, technology, and the physical sciences. • funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the 16 German states. • the world's first Digital Object Identifier (DOI) registration agency for research data sets (since 2005). • operates in conjunction with the Leibniz University, Hannover.
  5. 5. 5 The future: Data-driven Libraries „Libraries are changing from repositories for journals and books to engaged community centers offering new services, shaping innovative research.“ Libraries offer places and services for discovery. The path to a relevant, 21st-century library: “serendipitous discovery.” Christopher Erdmann, 2014 John G Wolbach Library at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-beta/data-driven-library-future
  6. 6. 6 „While scientists focus on the final frontier, (data-driven libraries) will work on designing a different kind of space full of physical and virtual tools that capture imagination and enable researchers to explore it.“ Christopher Erdmann, 2014 John G Wolbach Library at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/higher-ed-beta/data-driven-library-future http://thrilling-tales.webomator.com The future: Data-driven Libraries
  7. 7. • Content based Retrieval • Science 2.0 and Open Science 7 7 Applied research topics at TIB •Visual Analytics •Ontologies
  8. 8. 8 Visual Analytics: Querying and communicating Data The challenge: • Communicating the meaning of scientic data • Haptic/Tactile Visualization ? The need: A tangible representation of scientific results. ? 1492 Today Future
  9. 9. 9 3D printing for science communication: The larger picture Target group Transformation / Reduction of content Scientific Data 3D Print Scientist Science Communication
  10. 10. 10 3D printing for science communication: The larger picture Target group Technical Printing Process Metadata Management Scientific Data 3D Print Scientist Science Communication Librarian / Data-Scientist
  11. 11. 11 3D printing for science communication: The value of metadata 3D Print Back-linking by metadata Inquiries Technical Printing Process Metadata Management Scientific Data Librarian / Data-Scientist
  12. 12. 12 Data-driven Libraries: Requirements for Digital Archives
  13. 13. 13 NMC Horizon Report 2014 Library Edition on scientific libraries. Trends, technologies and challenges over the next five years: • Focus on research data and new forms of multidisciplinary research. • Rise of alternative search technologies • Need for radical change owing to technological and social upheaval. • Released in May 2014 • http://www.nmc.org/publications/2014-horizon-report-library • Created by • New Media Consortium (NCM) • ETH-Bibliothek Zürich, • University of Applied Sciences HTW Chur • German National Library of Science and Technology
  14. 14. 14 Library Perspective: Unified holistic approach top-down Moving towards bottom-up Vision
  15. 15. 15 Top-Down : DURAARK: DURable ARchitectural Knowledge • European Commission-FP7-Project (2013 - 2016) focusing on methods and tools for long- term preservation of 3D data sources of architectural knowledge: • Goal: • Enrich Building Information Models with “as built” information from scans • Semantically enrich building models with additional data sets • Preserve 3D models for future reuse
  16. 16. 3D Data (Geological models, soil penetrating radar) Tsunami Simulations 16 Bottom-up: GRASS GIS-based 3D-printing Osaka City University FabLab Potsdam Materials GIS modularisation GIS workflow development Initial GIS-driven experiments Stakeholders Printing Process Expertise INAF Astrophysics Institute, Rome Hardware 2D Data (Elevation Models) Data Sources Software Workflows and Services TIB Hannover GFZ Potsdam Multiple linked learning processes
  17. 17. 17 Let‘s talk 3D printing…
  18. 18. 18 „The future is here“ (again) The potential of „3D printing“ as featured in the news:
  19. 19. 19 „The future is here“ (again) The potential of „3D printing“ as featured in the news: • Guns !
  20. 20. 20 „The future is here“ (again) The potential of „3D printing“ as featured in the news: • Guns ! • Human body parts !
  21. 21. 21 „The future is here“ (again) The potential of „3D printing“ as featured in the news: • Guns ! • Human body parts ! • Clothes !
  22. 22. 22 „The future is here“ (again) The potential of „3D printing“ as featured in the news: • Guns ! • Human body parts ! • Clothes ! • Candy !
  23. 23. 23 „The future is here“ (again) The potential of „3D printing“ as featured in the news: • Guns ! • Human body parts ! • Clothes ! • Candy ! • Space Exploration !
  24. 24. 24 3D Printing, the Gartner hype cycle, and science http://surveys.peerproduction.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/GoogleTrendsGartnerHypeCycle.png 3D Printing 2014
  25. 25. 25 3D Printing, the Gartner hype cycle, and science http://surveys.peerproduction.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/GoogleTrendsGartnerHypeCycle.png 3D Printing 2014 • Handpieces for science communication • among scientists • towards the general public • Showpieces for exhibitions • <your application goes here> Reality-check
  26. 26. 26 Printing Process Overview Data Conversion Model Export Pre-print 3D print GIS Domain
  27. 27. 27 Printing Process Overview Data Conversion Model Export Pre-print 3D print Printing domain GIS Domain
  28. 28. 28 Hardware example: RapMan 3.2 3D printer Multi-colored ABS and PLA materials
  29. 29. 29 RapMan 3.2: Reality check
  30. 30. 30 RapMan 3.2: Reality check Marcel Ludwig Resident 3D printing expert at GFZ Potsdam
  31. 31. 31 RapMan 3.2: Reality check Marcel Ludwig Resident 3D printing expert at GFZ Potsdam
  32. 32. 32 RapMan 3.2: Reality check Raw Material Control Unit Print head, cooling fan Print in progress Marcel Ludwig Resident 3D printing expert at GFZ Potsdam
  33. 33. 33 Close-Up: Actual printing Print head Internal support structure External support structure 3D printing in progress
  34. 34. 34 Application examples
  35. 35. 35 Elevation models Kilians-Floß, Michelstadt, Germany: Laserscan Data
  36. 36. 36 More elevation models Mekong River Catchment
  37. 37. 37 More elevation models Mekong River Catchment Olympus Mons, Mars
  38. 38. 38 More elevation models Mekong River Catchment Brukkaros Mountain, Namibia Olympus Mons, Mars
  39. 39. 39 More elevation models Mekong River Catchment Brukkaros Mountain, Namibia Olympus Mons, Mars It glows in the dark !
  40. 40. 40 Mars north polar cap / satellite-based ground penetrating Radar Radar Alessandro Frigeri, INAF, 2012 Images: GFZ Potsdam, INAF Complex underside Planet Mars: North Polar Cap
  41. 41. 41 Layer stacks of 3D bodies (Geology) Images: GFZ Potsdam
  42. 42. 42 Close-up: Geologic volume stack example Images: GFZ Potsdam Permian Salt Domes
  43. 43. 43 Complex data sets: Tsunami propagation space-time-cubes • Space Time Cube (STC) of tsunami wave propagation. • Complex wave propagation in time and space. • Allows visual model quality assessment. • Produced by GFZ Potsdam • On permanent display at the Osaka City University (2014) 3D Print Tsunami Model Time Lon/Lat Tohoku Shoreline Pacific
  44. 44. 44 How is this done in GRASS ?
  45. 45. 45 GRASS GIS Technical overview Data png/pdf 3D preprint: vtk,VRML.etc. 3D preprints - just a gdal/ogr extension ? 2D Map-Printout 3D Volume-Printout
  46. 46. needs buffering 46 Fault 2 Structural integrity GRASS GIS Technical overview Data png/pdf Fault 1 3D preprint: vtk, etc. Geologic stratum Thematic generalisation 3D preprints - just a gdal/ogr extension ? Tricky part, Thematic generalisation and print consistency is required
  47. 47. 47 Technical overview: Current situation Data 2D/3D Data 3D 3D Triangulation v.in.ogr r.in.gdal r.to.rast3 r3.mapcalc r3.out.vtk new modules new modules new modules Ingest Volume generation Volume processing Export t.xxx
  48. 48. 3D Print 3D Printing 48 Capa-bilities Raster Wanted: GRASS GIS 3D print workflow trailblazers Volume generalisation with r3.x and t.x-modules requires currently these skills: • Science Interpreter/Communicator: „What message to convey ?“ • Technical/Software: • invent new workflows, • script these, • document them • Admin/Pioneer: be able to install patches for GRASS7, help improve code maturity Volumes Vector Time Time Volumes Raster / Vector
  49. 49. 49 Hands-on walkthrough: Mount St. Helens How much went missing?
  50. 50. 50 Hands-on walkthrough: Mount St. Helens !
  51. 51. 51 3D Prints are already available
  52. 52. 52 Use of USGS Digital Elevation Models GRASS Clippings: 1992 • http://grass.osgeo.org/uploads/grass/history_docs/grassclip6_2_92.pdf http://ned.usgs.gov/historic.html
  53. 53. 53 But how to make a before-after print – in GRASS GIS ? Pre-Eruption Post-Eruption Ejected material
  54. 54. 54 GRASS: 2D math -> 3D volumes (r.xxx space)
  55. 55. 55 Next Step: Printout on a RapMan Printer 32 hours 3km^2 Z-scaling: 3*
  56. 56. 56 The road ahead Workflow integration • File formats (VRML, x3d, obj) • Size of printout ? • Coloring schemes ? • Material selection ? • this is currently left to the „printmaster“ Provenance, Metadata and Archiving: • Not to be left to the scientists • Leave it to the Libraries: • „Handling metadata and indexes for over 5 millenia“
  57. 57. 57 Summary • 3D printing extends „flat“ 2D science communication. • 3D pre-prints can already be generated with GRASS GIS. • Dedicated GRASS support for 3D printing will soon simplify the process. • Research libraries take on Visual Analytics and 3D printing, driving the standardisation of Metadata. • This is work in progress: We barely got started. • .
  58. 58. 58 Thanks for listening Have a great FOSS4G 2014 ! Contact: peter.loewe@tib.uni-hannover.de

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