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THE ADJOINT SOLVER 
Angus Lock, Auto Research Center LLC 
Eugene de Villiers, Streamline Solutions LLC
Adjoint Solver 
Features 
• Supports incompressible & compressible flows 
• 2nd order accuracy 
• Turbulence handling: 
– ...
Topology Optimisation 
Overview 
• Specify design space and inlet/outlet interfaces 
• Define optimisation objectives 
• R...
Topology Optimisation 
Simple Duct 
• Topology Optimisation 
• Pressure loss minimisation 
• Design space with obstacles 
...
Topology Optimisation 
Simple Duct 
• 50% Pressure Loss improvement 
• Optimised shape: 
SAE INTERNATIONAL 
5
Topology Optimisation 
SAE INTERNATIONAL 
6
Topology Optimisation 
Overview 
• Multiple objective Functions employed 
– Minimize pressure loss in domain 
– Maximize f...
Topology Optimisation 
SAE INTERNATIONAL 
8
Topology Optimisation 
HVAC Duct 
• Final shape 
• 30% reduction in 
pressure loss achieved 
• At the cost of 
– slightly ...
Shape Optimisation 
Open Wheel Race Car 
• Generic open wheel car shape 
• Thanks to Samuel Silva for providing the model ...
Shape Optimisation 
SAE INTERNATIONAL 
11
Shape Optimisation 
DRIVAER 
• Generic car shape based on BMW and Audi cars 
• Thanks to TU Munich for providing the geome...
Shape Optimisation 
SAE INTERNATIONAL 
13
Shape Optimisation 
DRIVAER 
• Comparison of 2nd order accuracy (top) with former 1st 
order (bottom) results 
SAE INTERNA...
Shape Optimisation 
DRIVAER 
• Comparison of 2nd order accuracy (top) with former 1st 
order (bottom) results 
SAE INTERNA...
Shape Optimisation 
Others 
• Regional train 
• Showing drag surface sensitivities (front of the train on the 
right side,...
Adjoint Solver 
Future Work 
• Integrated surface morphing 
• Carat++ plug-in from FEMopt 
• Revolutionary FEM based surfa...
Questions? 
SAE INTERNATIONAL 
Paper # (if applicable) 18
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SAE COMVEC 2014 CFD Expert Panel - The Adjoint Solver

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A presentation given at the SAE COMVEC conference this year during the CFD expert panel. Focuses on the new adjoint solver that is part of the automotive CFD suite, Elements, from Streamline Solutions.

Published in: Automotive
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SAE COMVEC 2014 CFD Expert Panel - The Adjoint Solver

  1. 1. THE ADJOINT SOLVER Angus Lock, Auto Research Center LLC Eugene de Villiers, Streamline Solutions LLC
  2. 2. Adjoint Solver Features • Supports incompressible & compressible flows • 2nd order accuracy • Turbulence handling: – Spalart Allmaras, k-eps, frozen turbulence • MRF and porous media support • Immersed boundary for interface tracking • Multi-objective: – forces & moments, uniformity, pressure loss, massflow split, swirl, wall shear stress, etc • No expert knowledge required SAE INTERNATIONAL 2
  3. 3. Topology Optimisation Overview • Specify design space and inlet/outlet interfaces • Define optimisation objectives • Run single simulation • Output optimised shape SAE INTERNATIONAL 3
  4. 4. Topology Optimisation Simple Duct • Topology Optimisation • Pressure loss minimisation • Design space with obstacles SAE INTERNATIONAL 4
  5. 5. Topology Optimisation Simple Duct • 50% Pressure Loss improvement • Optimised shape: SAE INTERNATIONAL 5
  6. 6. Topology Optimisation SAE INTERNATIONAL 6
  7. 7. Topology Optimisation Overview • Multiple objective Functions employed – Minimize pressure loss in domain – Maximize flow uniformity through porous media – Target flow split through outlets 3x33% – (Reduce curvature) – (Reduce volume) SAE INTERNATIONAL 7
  8. 8. Topology Optimisation SAE INTERNATIONAL 8
  9. 9. Topology Optimisation HVAC Duct • Final shape • 30% reduction in pressure loss achieved • At the cost of – slightly worse flow uniformity through the porous media – slightly worse flow split at the three outlets SAE INTERNATIONAL 9
  10. 10. Shape Optimisation Open Wheel Race Car • Generic open wheel car shape • Thanks to Samuel Silva for providing the model • Symmetric model • ~17M cells generated with helyxHexMesh • RANS simulation • Spalart Allmaras turbulence model • Lift and drag force objectives • Internal porous media uniformity objective SAE INTERNATIONAL 10
  11. 11. Shape Optimisation SAE INTERNATIONAL 11
  12. 12. Shape Optimisation DRIVAER • Generic car shape based on BMW and Audi cars • Thanks to TU Munich for providing the geometry* • Symmetric model • ~7M cells generated with helyxHexMesh • RANS simulation • Spalart Allmaras turbulence model • Lift and drag force objectives * A. I. Heft, T. Indinger, N. A. Adams: Introduction of a New Realistic Generic Car Model for Aerodynamic Investigations, SAE 2012 World Congress, April 23-26, 2012, Detroit, Michigan, USA, Paper 2012-01-1068 SAE INTERNATIONAL 12
  13. 13. Shape Optimisation SAE INTERNATIONAL 13
  14. 14. Shape Optimisation DRIVAER • Comparison of 2nd order accuracy (top) with former 1st order (bottom) results SAE INTERNATIONAL 14
  15. 15. Shape Optimisation DRIVAER • Comparison of 2nd order accuracy (top) with former 1st order (bottom) results SAE INTERNATIONAL 15
  16. 16. Shape Optimisation Others • Regional train • Showing drag surface sensitivities (front of the train on the right side, rear of the train on the left side). SAE INTERNATIONAL 16 Front/Rear combined
  17. 17. Adjoint Solver Future Work • Integrated surface morphing • Carat++ plug-in from FEMopt • Revolutionary FEM based surface morphing framework – smart filtering & feature preservation – proven performance • Improved immersed boundaries • Adjoint Turbulence • Adjoint thermal and species • Adjoint CHT SAE INTERNATIONAL 17
  18. 18. Questions? SAE INTERNATIONAL Paper # (if applicable) 18

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