Harnessing Renewable Energy To Deliver More Sustainable Buildings

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Climate-responsive (passive) design is key to green buildings design and is based on the way a building moderates the climate for human good and well-being. Solar energy and wind energy can be effectively combined with climate-responsive design to produce electrical power by photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines (WT). Today, urbanization and the increasingly dense populations of the world’s largest cities are pushing architects to reach for new heights in sustainable building skyscraper designs. But, there are a few green buildings in this world that capture the eye. This presentation provides a preview of Modern “eco-scrapers” that are bridging the gap between breathtaking building design and clean technological ingenuity .

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Harnessing Renewable Energy To Deliver More Sustainable Buildings

  1. 1. Green Buildings & Rating Tools Climate-Responsive Design Solar and Wind Energy Principles in Skyscrapers The Greenest Buildings in the World Skyscrapers at The Forefront of Ecological Innovation Leaps In Green Technology - A 50 Years Plus View! Solar and Wind Energy Application
  2. 2. Green buildings are more energy efficient. They make good use of the naturally available daylight, ventilation, water and air to reduce waste, pollution and environmental degradation and have a positive impact on human health. Some of the components that improve the energy-efficiency of the building are LED lighting, star rated motors, pumps, recyclable materials , etc.
  3. 3. *The Rise and Rise of Green Building * For the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population are living in urban areas. Buildings account for more than 40% of energy consumption and more than 42% of all global CO2 emission. * Construction and post construction activities consume 50% of all resources globally, with 40% of global water usage used for sanitation and other uses within buildings and 60% of agricultural land is used for construction activities * The increasing concern over the pollution of the environment and the rapidly depleting sources of non-renewable sources of energy have urged green building architects and green building builders to reduce the carbon footprint of these buildings. * From convention centers, colleges, entertainment cells, apartments, commercial complexes, temples, coffee shops to the railway station the concept of sustainable building is being used everywhere. * Today, Over 44,000 projects are rated through LEED across 120 countries. * The 2012 Living Planet Report which named Qatar, Kuwait and the UAE as the top three countries having the largest per capita ecological footprints in the world. * Qatar , UAE & Kuwait established functioning Green Building Councils.
  4. 4. *World Survey of Green Buildings *The US continues to be No. 1 in total number of certified green buildings, The USGBC has been in existence from the mid-1980s *India today is the fastest growing green market in percentage terms, at a staggering 400 per cent (2009-13) against USGBC‘s 75 per cent (2000- 13). Indian Green Building Council was started in 2001. *Singapore‘s Green Building Council has registered about 2,500 buildings and 450 million sq. ft.. of such certification since 2010. *UK is second to Singapore in green building projects. *Australia‘s Green Star rating has drawn 567 buildings and about 700 million sq. ft.. of green buildings. *China has half of India‘s figures with about 750 projects; *Malaysia has about 260 million sq. ft..
  5. 5. *Overview of Green Building Rating Tools * In response to this concern of reducing the environmental impact of the design and operation of buildings, many methods for measuring environmental performance of buildings with the intention of creating a sustainable built environment were developed. * Different rating tools emphasize different elements in the process and results are achieved in different ways, but they comprise of similar elements organized in a sequence (e.g. designing an effective user interface, setting targets, establishing systems boundaries, selecting evaluation criteria, fulfilling data requirements, aggregating and weighting, validating, analyzing and presenting results). * The qualitative assessment tools are generally based on the auditing of buildings, followed by a rating (or scoring) of an assessed criteria, which results in an overall rating (score) for the building performance. For example , LEED points are awarded for a combination of Sustainable Sites, Water Efficiency, Energy and Atmosphere, Materials and Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, Innovation in Design, and Regional Priority. * The most commonly known qualitative assessment tools are BREEAM (British Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology) and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) adopted in US and Canada. * Subsequent tools, like the Green Building Tool (now known as the Sustainable Building Tool), Green Star (New Zealand and South Africa), Hong Kong Building Environmental Assessment Method (HK BEAM) , the Sustainable Building Assessment Tool (SBAT - SA) and Pearl Abu Dhabi are based on previous tools. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has also another standard. * Criteria used in qualitative tools tend to be open to wider interpretation by assessors and therefore require the time, energy and commitment of an unbiased third party to be successful.
  6. 6. *Second Generation Rating Tools The development of second generation rating tools will be affected by the following emerging trends: *Increased understanding of sustainability: Unlike first generation rating tools, whose major focal point was environmental performance of buildings, second generation tools should allow for change as our understanding of sustainability unfolds. *Adoption of LCA methodologies: There have been several advances made in the development tools for the description and assessment of the environmental performance of buildings towards more quantitative tools based on rigorous LCA protocols. *The need to change occupant expectation or use patterns: it is important that the performance be measured during the operation of the building in order to capture the use patterns rather than intended use. *Globalization and standardization: Globalization has begun to provide a basis for a common dialogue and will eventually enable the ability for comparison between different tools.
  7. 7. Climate-responsive design is based on the way a building form and structure moderates the climate for human good and well-being. The physical parameters associated with this aspect of architectural design transcend time and are regulated by the laws of science, in particular the laws of thermodynamic.
  8. 8. *MENA Region and Solar & Wind Energies * Due to the high solar radiation levels there is potential for various active and passive solar design techniques and technologies. Most of the MENA climate is predominantly either hot semi-arid or temperate in the highlands having neither very high nor very low temperature extremes and only moderate humidity levels. * Consideration of the semi-arid climate reveals that the need for cooling is substantially larger than for heating, thus, design techniques that minimize or delay heat absorption by buildings are of particular importance. * Most MENA region is ideal for application of solar power generation but with the low wind speed on the ground, wind power generation may not be suitable. However, a good building design to enhance the wind flow and utilizing the height of a high rise building might create an opportunity for wind power generation to further boost the energy efficiency of the building. * Interest in solar energy is increasing in the MENA region as payback periods grow shorter with subsidized utility costs not certain in the future, however, strength of the solar market will be affected by basic supply and demand economics, technological improvements, and the amount and type of available incentives. * Architects are increasingly adopting passive designs like solar access through building orientation ,landscape design, building shapes and layouts effects, passive heating and cooling of buildings and associated building materials, windbreaks and the manipulation of wind, water harvesting, conservation and recycling techniques. * Also MENA architecture has turned their attention to the use of the latest technologies in renewable energy which can be effective towards full energy-independent buildings. Examples include Urban Skyscraper Farms, Floating Eco-cities, Glowing Solar Towers, Turbine-driven Skyscrapers and Magnetically Levitated Wind Collectors
  9. 9. *Top Green Building Trends for 2013 & Beyond * Rise and rise of LEED living buildings - more environmentally-friendly construction options are expected to rise due to Consumer demands. The upcoming generation of homebuyers is more concerned about their carbon footprint and are willing to pay more. The focus of the green building industry will continue its drive of greening existing buildings. * Use of natural resources, recycled and recyclable materials usage is expected to increase; example Bamboo flooring, stone walls, green roofing with more components being engineered to last longer and require less maintenance. * Solar & Wind energy growth - number of structures constructed today that have solar energy solar cells integrated into rooftops, windows and other building facades are expected to quadruple in the next five years. Wind turbines and eco-friendliness are also expected to increase especially in more efficient processes in heating and cooling. * Green building will create more market opportunities in both established as well as developing countries a powerful combination of built-in near 5 year payback (residential) and environmental stewardship. For new green building projects, firms report improved operating cost savings of 8 per cent over one year and 15 per cent over five years, as well as increased building values of 7 per cent and higher asset valuation of 5 per cent. * Green buildings will increasingly be managed in the ―Cloud,‖ represented by the large number of new entrants and new products in fields of sustainable building automation, facility management, wireless controls and building services information management. * The global green building movement will continue to accelerate, as more countries begin to create their own green building incentives and developing their own Green Building Councils. Nearly 90 countries with incipient or established green building organizations, which will drive considerable global green building growth.
  10. 10. *Delivering High Performance Green Buildings Nearly half the energy use in commercial green building buildings occurs in tenant spaces while heating and cooling alone accounts for about 45 percent of a homeowner‘s annual energy consumption . Green building consumes 40-60% lesser electricity as compared to the conventional building. Cost-effective delivery of high performance green buildings can be achieved through; * Successful collaboration and coordination of the construction team, green building design professionals and system suppliers. * “Tuning” a green building’s systems and operating procedures to meet theoretical performance expectations. The most important year in a green building’s life is the first year of occupancy. This is when the operations team starts to experience the gap between green building design intent and actual performance. * Focus on demonstrating performance, not just predicting while taking a life cycle approach to designing, delivering, operating and improving high performance buildings and tenant spaces. Conducting detailed energy audits of facilities has shown that green buildings can save approximately 20 per cent of their energy bill through low- to no-cost measures alone, that all pay back within 12 to 18 months with an internal rate of return (IRR) upwards of 40 per cent. * Proper commissioning and re-commissioning every 5 to 7 years to bring the building performance back in line with its design intent and technical capability. * Traditionally in the Middle East, commissioning of buildings has not been carried out effectively which has resulted in many buildings performing poorly during operation ,thus, requiring frequent maintenance. * We are likely to see an increasing number of green building developers choosing to utilize commissioning agents to ensure a more effective transition between green building designs, construction and operation stages so that building owners receive a better functioning building.
  11. 11. *Improving Green Building Performance * A well-instrumented green building with interval utility meters, can be monitored using advanced analytical software to track energy performance and remotely detect faults. * A systematic approach across the entire facility life cycle including setting goals, establishing policies, defining metrics, developing action plans, tracking performance and reporting progress - ISO-50001 Energy Management Systems * The timing of improvement actions are critical to achieve significant efficiency improvements from retro-commissioning to opportunity equipment upgrades to retrofits. * Passive systems in green buildings are inherently flexible compared to conventional buildings because their form, materials orientation and thermal mass are designed to be as independent as possible from energy sources. * Sustainable buildings, which often have their own PV panels and rainwater harvesting systems, are therefore ―less brittle‖ when faced with disasters and make life more healthy and bearable for survivors during the recovery period. * Passive strategies to extend to surrounding for example combating rising sea levels by replacing the hardened seawalls with a buffer zone of tidal marshes can help absorb the energy of future storm surges and reduce flooding. Other strategies include using semi- permeable paving materials and planting more trees at street level. * Green Building HVAC Technologies - HVAC system uses approximately 40 to 50% of total power consumption. Thus more efficient processes are paramount; * Variable volume refrigerant system (VRV) - huge amount of energy saving could be possible in air- conditioning systems. * Earth air heat exchanger systems - Play also a vital role energy saving in air-conditioning systems. The technology uses the heat sink property of earth to maintain comfortable temperature inside buildings.
  12. 12. *The Ability to Influence Building Performance Most green rating tools are used toward the end of the design phase. This, in terms of building performance, limits the ability to influence the design
  13. 13. *Orientation Guidelines for Main Climates ( for Southern Hemisphere switch North with South) Building Cool regions Temperate regions Hot humid regions Hot arid regions Adaptations Maximize warming effects of solar radiation, reduce impact of winter wind, avoid local climatic cold pockets Maximize warming effect of sun in winter, maximize shade in summer, reduce impact of winter wind but allow air circulation in summer Maximize shade, maximize wind Maximize shade late morning and all afternoon, maximize humidity, maximize air movement in summer Position on slope Low for wind shelter Middle-upper for solar radiation exposure High for wind Low for cool air flow Orientation on slope South to Southeast South to Southeast South East to Southeast for afternoon shade Relation to water Near large body of water Close to water but avoid coastal fog Near any water On lee side of water Clustering Around sun pockets Around a common sunny terrace Open to wind Along east-west axis, for shade and wind Building orientation Southeast South to Southeast South towards prevailing wind South Tree forms Deciduous trees near buildings, evergreens for windbreaks Deciduous trees nearby on west, no evergreens near on South High canopy trees, deciduous trees near buildings Trees overhanging roof if possible Road orientation Perpendicular to winter wind Perpendicular to winter wind Broad channel, east west axis Narrow, east-west axis Materials coloration Medium to dark Medium Light, especially for roof Light on exposed surfaces, dark to avoid reflection
  14. 14. *Passive Design Principles for Solar & Wind Design conditions that must be satisfied in order to successfully apply passive solar design in any urban setting: * Optimum orientation of the building with respect to the specific local climate and site characteristics. Important for wind turbines orientation (dependent on Volume & speed of air) * Minimal shading of the building by structures, features or elements on site or adjacent sites. * Optimum dimensions and proportions of buildings for specific climatic conditions as the shape and proportions of a building influences its thermal performance. A near cube form is best suited for cold climates where heat retention and even heat distribution is important, whereas temperate and hot humid regions require more oblong building shapes. A compact courtyard shape is suggested for hot arid conditions. Solar Flywheel Effect – Passive design * During summer days, the cool structural mass of the building draws heat from the interior of the building, cooling it. The thermal mass also slows solar radiation from reaching the interior. Combined with appropriate shading and window shuttering this keeps temperatures down during the day. At night, stored heat is radiated into the structure, and opened windows can allow ventilation to cool the structural mass and regulate the interior temperature. * During winters, more heat can be allowed into the building through windows while the structure of the building heats. During the night drawn curtains and closed windows allows the heat to radiate to the interior of the building, warming it.
  15. 15. *Streetscapes , Sun and Shade Control and Day lighting *Streetscape trees are especially valuable in reducing ambient temperatures in urban areas that are often characterized by the heat island effect. *With less planting more solar energy is converted to heat, increasing ambient temperatures while small-scale atmospheric pressure differences are developed due to localized heating of surfaces which gives rise to higher wind speeds. These effects can be detrimental to comfort which results in more energy being spent to correct the situation through air-conditioning. *Direct sunlight and skylight, for the purposes of residential illumination, should be avoided. Excessive amounts of direct light cause great visual contrast between illuminated and shaded areas, which leads to visual discomfort and reduced visibility. *In such climates light colored building surfaces are preferable as they reflect more light, decreasing the heat gains of the building through its exposed surfaces. Other strategies involve filtering, diffusing or softening light before or while it enters the building.
  16. 16. *Example LEED - ND; Green Building Standards Changing People‘s Behavior *Elements of smart growth, new urbanism, and green building form the foundation of LEED-ND, producing a rating system that values compact, connected neighborhoods located near existing developed areas, and containing green buildings and infrastructure. *For the first time under a LEED program, the location, context, and pattern of land development matters as much as the design of individual buildings. * LEED for Neighborhood Development have dramatically lowered rates of driving than average development in the same metropolitan regions resulting in near 25 percent reduction in carbon from transportation alone compared to baseline developments. * The ―worst‖ performing of the LEED-ND projects generated 40 percent less driving than an average development in its metropolitan region. Shortening driving trip distances through central locations can reduce vehicle miles traveled and associated carbon and other emissions. * LEED-ND also rewards transit access, with increasing credit given to projects served by more frequent and plentiful transit options; however, this alone is unlikely to produce robust changes in behavior.
  17. 17. Solar energy and wind energy can be effectively combined to produce electrical power by photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbines (WT) respectively. The combination of PV module with water or air heat extraction unit constitutes hybrid system, by which electrical and thermal output is simultaneously provided.
  18. 18. *Solar Irradiation *Solar maps are available to calculate solar resource of a particular region. Different solar irradiations are taken into account for both CSP and PV *For PV technologies Global Horizontal irradiations (GHI) is considered. GHI consists of diffuse radiations and direct horizontal radiations (beam). Minimum useful GHI – 1000 kwh/m2 pa *For CSP, Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) is considered. DNI is the amount of radiation received by a surface which is permanently aligned perpendicular to the incoming beam. Minimum useful DNI – 1900 kwh/m2 pa
  19. 19. *Concentrating Solar Thermal Plant (CSP)
  20. 20. *Solar Photovoltaic Cells(PV)
  21. 21. *Skyscrapers Wind Basic Concept *Windbreaks can categorized into two main groups; vegetative windbreaks (shelterbelts) and built structures. Built structures can be further subdivided into two groups; impermeable or solid structures and permeable or porous ones. *Permeable or porous windbreaks, allow a certain amount of laminar or jet air movement through them but at a velocity lower than that of the oncoming over a longer distance behind the barrier which reduces the amount of turbulence or eddying behind such a windbreak.
  22. 22. Solid or impermeable built windbreaks (skyscrapers) provide the greatest reduction in wind velocity on the downwind side of the structure, however, this creates eddying airstreams which can be both uncomfortable and reduce the effectiveness of the barrier for applications that require an extended area of protection
  23. 23. *Wind Turbines Functioning *Differential heating of the earth‘s surface and atmosphere induces vertical and horizontal air currents that are affected by the earth‘s rotation and contours of the land and generates WIND. * A wind turbine obtains its power input by converting the force of the wind into a torque (turning force) acting on the rotor blades. * The amount of energy which the wind transfers to the rotor depends on the density of the air, the rotor area, and the wind speed. *Plant Load Factor (PLF) of Wind Farm is normally in the range of 20 % to 30% depending upon the site conditions and wind Turbine Generator rating. P  Power ρ  Air Density (kg/m3) A  Blade Area -turbine (m2) V  Wind velocity (m/s) P = 0.5 X ρ X A X V3
  24. 24. Modern “eco-scrapers” are no doubt bridging the gap between breathtaking building design and clean technological ingenuity. Today, urbanization and the increasingly dense populations of the world’s largest cities are pushing architects to reach for new heights in sustainable building skyscraper designs. But, there are a few green buildings in this world that capture the eye.
  25. 25. *Bahrain World Trade Center, The first skyscraper in the world to integrate wind turbines * The Bahrain World Trade Center is a 240 m (787 ft..) high twin tower 50-floor complex of two towers linked via three sky bridges, each holding a 225kW wind turbine. * The blades measure 29 m (95 ft.) in diameter, and is aligned north, the direction air from the Arabian Gulf blows in. * The 45° angle sail-shaped buildings on either side are designed to funnel wind through the gap to provide accelerated wind passing through the turbines. * The wind turbines are expected to provide 11% to 15% of the towers‘ total power consumption, or approximately 1.1 to 1.3 GWh a year. This is equivalent to providing the lighting for about 300 homes. The three turbines are expected to operate 50% of the time on an average day.
  26. 26. *Kuwait New Airport, At the top of the green airport list *Construction of the new Kuwait International Airport is scheduled for 2012. *This Green Building takes an environmentally friendly stance that could put it at the top of the green airport list. *Utilizing solar panels to capture the sun‘s energy and glazed glass to reflect the sun‘s rays, the sustainable building is designed to take advantage of the desert‘s exposure to the sun while minimizing the effects of the heat.
  27. 27. * KAFD Conference Center - Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Many innovative sustainability strategies *The KAFD Conference Center employs several profoundly innovative sustainability strategies. * These include enclosure which locates areas of glazing where they are least susceptible to the harsh desert sun, a ventilation system incorporating a ―solar chimney‖ that uses solar heat to move air through the main atrium spaces, and a roof which contains indigenous desert grasses to minimize irrigation requirements.
  28. 28. * Sabah Al Ahmed International Finance Center, The first LEED Kuwait skyscraper *The Sabah Al Ahmed International Finance Center will be a 1.2 million square foot, 40-story tower that includes four stacked courtyard atriums ranging from 8 to 13 stories each. *The tower will generate some of its own energy from a photovoltaic system as well as the wind turbines that will crown the roof. *Inside will be office space and a 4-star business class hotel.
  29. 29. *Rotating Towers – Dubai ,UAE, 79 horizontal wind turbines (one between each floor) * This rotating tower designed by architect Dr. David Fischer on behalf of Dynamic Architecture presents fearless design elements with renewable energy concepts. * When finished, the structure will stand at nearly 420 meters tall and feature 80 rotating floors, 79 horizontal wind turbines and photovoltaic on the rooftop. * Only a fraction of the wind turbines will be needed to sustain 100% of the energy needs of the tower itself, and that the rest of the turbines would be able to produce energy to power nearby skyscrapers. * This project marks the first time a skyscraper will be built in stages utilizing pre-fabricated sections.
  30. 30. *California Academy of Sciences Museum, Green roof integrated into the surrounding * The California Academy of Sciences museum ,aims to act as a ‗living‘ structure, is set to open in San Francisco * The museum will have a 2.5 acre, undulating green roof integrated it into the surrounding Golden Gate Park. * The 400,000-square-foot, $484 million structure will likely be the first public building to achieve a platinum LEED rating. * Designer Renzo Piano has incorporated a planetarium, a rainforest with free-flying birds, a coral reef home to 4,000 fish in a saltwater aquarium and a natural history museum into the building.
  31. 31. *Pearl River Tower ,Guangzhou- China, Generates excess electricity, 2 giant air intakes *Designed by American architect Gordon Gill, this nearly 1000-foot tall, 71 stories is designed to generate excess electricity that it would need. *The 309-meter tower‘s sculpted body like one giant wing directs wind to a pair of openings at its mechanical floors, where traveling winds push turbines which generate energy for the green building *The tower will also integrate radiant slabs, geothermal heat-sinks, vented facades and integrated photovoltaic.
  32. 32. *Bank of America Tower (New York, US), The first built using largely recycled and recyclable material *The Bank of America Tower in New York City , designed by Cook + Fox Architects; is one of the first skyscrapers that was built using largely recycled and recyclable material as well as being LEED Platinum certified. *Natural gas fuel cells generates on-site electricity as well as supplement the 4.6 megawatt cogeneration plant that mitigates a the base-load energy for the skyscraper. *A sophisticated rain water capture system is also in place, as well as windows that maximize sunlight along with smart and efficient LED lighting.
  33. 33. *Okhta Tower (St. Petersburg, Russia), Double layered outer shell to retain most heat energy within *Designed by UK architecture firm, RMJM, the Okhta as the new headquarters of Gazprom. The structure will emphasize new levels of ecological design. *The double layered outer shell of the needle-like tower is designed in such a way so as to maximize the amount of sunlight that penetrates the interior of the building, and it helps ensure that most of the heat energy stays within the structure during the harsh and cold winters.
  34. 34. *Clean Technology Tower -, Wind turbines located at the building's corners *Clean Technology Tower, designed by Smith + Gill builds on principles of bio mimicry and utilizes technology and building systems to interact with the surrounding environment. *Wind turbines are located at the building's corners to capture wind at its highest velocity as it accelerates around the building. The number of turbines in the structure increases as you climb up towards the apex, where there's a veritable wind farm! *Also the skyscraper has a domed double roof cavity that captures air where winds are at a maximum. The dome itself is also clad in photovoltaic cells that harness the sun's energy. *The Tower will house roughly 1.8 million sf of office and 300k sf of hotel space over looking Lake Michigan and the Chicago River.
  35. 35. *Hawaii Gateway Energy Center, Fascinating display of solar potential * The Hawaii Gateway Energy Center (HGEC) is a 3,600 sf, $3.4 million facility situated on the south coast of Kona on the Big Island of Hawaii. * HGEC is a fascinating display of the future potential for synergies of solar power and building efficiencies. The entire building is designed as a thermal chimney that captures heat and creates air movement using the structural form and thermodynamic principles. * Also, with the help of glazing, the building orientation and design eliminates the need for electric lighting during the day. Notably, HGEC consumes about 20% of the energy that‘s required by a comparable building.
  36. 36. *The new Las Vegas City Center, A model of sustainability *The new Las Vegas City Center is the largest privately financed development in North America. This $8 billion project is a joint venture between MGM Mirage and Dubai World. *Its designed as a model of sustainability, recycling construction waste, using environmentally friendly materials, emphasizing natural light and incorporating onsite co- generation power plant
  37. 37. *The World‘s First Passive Museum – Sweden, Heat supplied by the body heat of visitors *The world‘s first passive house museum is set to be built in Ulricehamn, Sweden, functioning as a visitor‘s center. *The building‘s heat will be supplied entirely by the body heat of visitors and the equipment located inside. *Solar cells on the roof will provide part of the energy used to run electrical equipment and heat water. *The circular design of the structure will allow efficient circulation of air to enhance the passive heating and cooling of the building.
  38. 38. *The Chicago Spire - US, The tallest green all-residential building in the world *The Chicago Spire is an ambitious project currently under construction in the Windy City. *At 2,000 feet, the spire will be North America‘s tallest free-standing structure and the tallest all-residential building in the world. *The Chicago Spire was designed to mimic the natural form of a nautilus shell. The structure is anticipated to have a LEED gold rating *It will be outfitted with rainwater harvesting systems, geothermal cooling and high performance glass designed to protect migratory birds.
  39. 39. *340 on the Park - Chicago, US, Designed with the energy consuming human in mind * Chicago‘s 340 on the Park was designed by Solomon Cordwell Buenz and is the first residential tower in Mid-western America to attain the silver LEED certification. * Featuring high tech insulation and rainwater capture systems, this structure really sets the environmental benchmark for residential skyscrapers in the US. * The tower was designed with the energy consuming human in mind, and thus integrates the most efficient technologies within the living and common spaces. * There are two story winter garden starting on the 25th floor that makes great use of the special windows designed for optimal sunlight dispersion throughout the building.
  40. 40. *Green Pix Zero Energy Media Wall – China, 20,000 square feet color LED display& solar panels *Designed by New York Simone Giostra & Partners, Green Pix is the largest color LED display sprawled over an area of 20,000 square feet, that is visible from a distance of one kilometer. *The sustainable building is also the first to be equipped with a photo-voltaic system integrated into the glass curtain wall, which makes it possible for the green building to harvest solar energy. *The energy is stored during the day can be used to illuminate the screen after dark or to display events like sports, weather forecasts, video gaming, etc.
  41. 41. *4th World Solar City Congress Building – China, World‘s largest solar office building *In 2009, China unveiled the largest solar-powered office building in the world. The 75,000-square- meter office building is located in Dezhou, in northwestern parts of China. *Based on the sun dial structure, this sustainable building highlights the importance of using renewable energy . *Minimum steel has been used to build the exterior of this building, which hosted the 4th World Solar City Congress.
  42. 42. *Insurance Solar Tower (Manchester, UK), Benchmark in retrofit renewable energy installation *The Co-operative Insurance Solar Tower in Manchester, England set a new benchmark by retroactively installing renewable energy technology onto the service tower during a renovation in 2006. *Boasting over 7000 solar panels and 24 wind turbines, the structure can generate more than 10% of the energy it needs. *The CIS tower represents a stunning achievement and a technological marvel that serves as a great example of integrating renewable energy technologies intro retrofits.
  43. 43. *Zira Island Masterplan ,Baku, Azerbaijan, Zero - energy resort *Commissioned by Avrosti Holding, the Zira Island Masterplan is a zero- energy resort situated within the Caspian Sea near Azerbaijan‘s Seven Peaks. *Designed to be a model for sustainable development, the resort utilizes wind, water and solar energy systems — including naturally powered desalination and water treatment plants.
  44. 44. *Shanghai Tower, A true green building in all sense *The asymmetrical twisting 632 m tall skyscraper designed by, Gensler architects, is a true green building in all sense is due to be opened in 2014. *The use of rainwater recovery and gray water recycling systems cut down the water use of the sustainable building by a minimum of 40%. *The skyscraper also facilitates black water treatment and wind energy harvesting for water and electricity. *Giant ice machines helps in the cooling and heating of the entire green building.
  45. 45. *Hearst Tower (New York, US), Excellent use of rainwater, less steel, recycled materials * The Hearst Tower was New York‘s first skyscraper to receive the gold LEED certification. Nearly 80% of the steel used was recycled, as well as much of the interior‘s flooring and ceiling materials. * The diamond-like shape of the steel support beams allow less material to be needed to achieve the same level of structural integrity; the unique shaping of the structure also ensures copious amounts of sunlight that can be utilized. * The Hearst tower also makes excellent use of rainwater; there‘s a 14,000 gallon tank in the basement of the building that serves as a starting point that enables the tower to cutoff 50% of its water needs by treating and redirecting resources to irrigate plants and provide for a stylish water sculpture at the entrance of the building.
  46. 46. *P.S.62 Richmond– New York (US), Net Zero School * P.S.62 Richmond is the first net-zero energy school in New York City and in the Northeast United States. * The cutting-edge building will harvest as much energy from renewable on-site sources as it uses on an annual basis. * Sustainable and low-energy features incorporated in the design include an ultra-tight high-performance building envelope, daylight offset corridors, energy efficient lighting fixtures, low-energy kitchen equipment, a greenhouse and vegetable garden, a geo-exchange system, energy recovery ventilators and demand- control ventilation, and a solar thermal system for hot water.
  47. 47. *Habitat 2020 – China, The Word's first breathing building *A new sustainable housing project called Habitat 2020 aims to be one of the leaders in bringing environmental initiatives to this growing country. *The Habitat 2020 building will feature an active skin: a membrane between the exterior and interior walls that will absorb air, water and light from outside and dispatch it inside as clean filtered water, natural air conditioning and electricity. *The same funnels on the membrane that pull these resources in will also emit clean, CO2-free air from inside the building.
  48. 48. *Residence Antilia - India, A stunning, unique, green piece of architecture. *Construction has begun on Residence Antilia despite opposition from those who see it as an 'excessive' design in a city where more than 65% of the population live in slums. *Politics aside and after you recover from the initial shock of seeing a skyscraper that resembles an Ikea cd rack, the building actually looks like it may succeed as a stunning, unique, green piece of architecture.
  49. 49. *21st-Century Oasis - Taiwan Tower, Rooftop garden visible from everywhere within the city * The 300-meter tower would provide a rooftop garden as well as a shaded outdoor space within its green building structure. * The structural elements of the tower are inspired by the Taiwanese banyan tree. * Green Building elements of this project include rainwater harvesting, solar hot water panels, wind turbines, ground source heat pump, and natural ventilation. * The appealing, streamlined green building architecture and rooftop garden would be visible from everywhere within the city.
  50. 50. *Transit bay Green Center - San Francisco, Packed with sustainable features *The transit center will consist of a glass tower and a five-and-a-half acre public park, and will be packed with sustainable features like green roofs, passive solar shading, wind turbines, a rain and grey water recycling system and geothermal heating and cooling. *The aim of the building is to centralize the region‘s transportation system while also providing a community space.
  51. 51. *Brazil 2014 World Cup Stadiums, Solar power facilities and rainwater collection systems *The New Mane Garrincha National Stadium - include solar power facilities and rainwater collection systems, a photo catalytic membrane is used which keeps fans cool and is capable of lowering pollution by an amount equivalent to that produced by 1,000 vehicles per day. *The Pernambuco Arena - possesses its own solar plant of 1MW of electricity. *The Arena Fonte Nov - The stadium features a membrane roof contains 30 per cent less steel than its similar structures, water harvesting and recycling installations, and maximum air ventilation for the comfort of spectators.
  52. 52. *Frasers Eco-friendly Broadway – Australia, Australia‘s most sustainable building *Frasers Broadway, a commercial, residential and retail complex, will be Australia‘s most sustainable building. *The designers ,London- based Foster + Partners, will incorporate eco-friendly features such as gas-powered co-generation electricity plant, green rooftops, a wastewater recycling plant, smart metering and solar power in an attempt to achieve carbon neutrality. *The 250,000 square meter development will be located in the old Kent Brewery in Sydney.
  53. 53. Environmentally conscious, green building architecture has become overwhelmingly popular today in response to the growing concern over depletion of non-renewable sources of energy, global warming and more. A large number of green buildings have started making use of sustainable materials to make them more energy efficient.
  54. 54. *Lighthouse skyscraper – Dubai (UAE) *The Lighthouse skyscraper is a 1000-foot-tall , 66-story office skyscraper that is designed to reduce 65% of the overall energy needs. *Designed by Atkins Middle East, the tower boasts a proposed amount of 4000 solar panels that will be integrated into the south facing facade, as well as three huge 225 kilowatt wind turbines coupled with strategies to reduce the use of and improve recovery of energy and water within the building. . *If/when built, this building will be a kind of working prototype for future green design in massive urban construction.
  55. 55. *10 MW Eco-Skyscraper – Dubai (UAE) *This 50 story renewable energy generating, Designed by UAE- based Studied Impact, will produce 10 times energy more than it needs. *A 5 MW wind turbine capable of operating for 1,600 hours per year, while the power of the sun is collected via a 3 MW concentrating solar system plus a 2 MW solar updraft system both capable of operating for 2,400 hours per year.
  56. 56. *The Dongtan China, World‘s First Eco - City *The Dongtan Eco-City is designed to be the world‘s first ―environmentally, socially, economically and culturally‖ sustainable city. To be built on Chongming Island, near Shanghai. *The site is over 50 square miles in size and will be split between agricultural and urban areas. The city relies on its own wind and solar energy as well as organic farming strategies. *Public transportation will be entirely emissions free.
  57. 57. *Singapore Most Green City Complex * Designed by London-based Foster + Partners, to be the most green complex in Singapore , measuring 150,000 square meters and set for multi-use functioning occupying an entire city block between the Marina Center and the Civic District. * The complex‘s exterior will be covered with solar cells, and direct sunlight will also be harvested by tall ribbon-like canopies rising into the skyline. * The slanted design of the facades will allow wind to flow into the building for a natural cooling effect, and vertical green spaces will provide ambient temperature moderation. * The building will also be equipped with a rainwater harvesting system, geothermal heating, chilled beams and an ice storage system for cooling.
  58. 58. *Gwanggyo Hanging Gardens City - Seoul, South Korea *A new city to be constructed south of South Korea‘s Seoul, as a hanging gardens- meets-metropolis. * Designed as a fully self- sufficient city for up to 77,000 inhabitants. *Within each ‗hill‘ an internal irrigation system stores extra water from the buildings and channels it to ‗planters‘ containing box hedges, which ring each floor. *These improve ventilation by filtering air as it passes through as well as reducing energy usage through evaporative cooling while the internal irrigation system reduces water usage.
  59. 59. *Penang Global City Centre, Malaysia *Following months of speculation and sturdy opposition, this humungous project is in the final stages of approval and apparently construction. * Even so, due to the size of the plan it will take at least 15 years to complete. *The area will be crowned by 2 x 200m towers and completely transform the small island of Penang
  60. 60. *Teatro del Agua – Spain, A Seawater Carbon Neutral Desalination *As water becomes an even hotter commodity in the future, Charles Patton is tackling this problem with his Seawater Greenhouse, a carbon-neutral desalination method which is being incorporated into the design of the Teatro del Agua. *This Theater of Water will be a performing arts center in Spain‘s Canary Islands. The center will operate almost entirely on renewable energy. *It works by coupling a series of evaporators and condensers such that the airborne moisture from the evaporators is then collected from the condensers, which are cooled by deep seawater.
  61. 61. *Copenhagen LM Office Towers & Bridge, Stunning Solar Icon * A welcoming beacon, Steven Holl Architects‗ LM project will update Copenhagen‘s waterfront with two eye-catching photovoltaic-sheathed skyscrapers and a sky bridge studded with wind turbines. * The project boasts a stunning public walkway that rises 65 meters over the harbor, securing the development‘s status as an iconic new addition to Copenhagen‘s waterfront. * Both skyscrapers incorporate glass curtain walls shaded by a photovoltaic-laden solar screens. The buildings also feature seawater heating and cooling systems, radiant floor heating, and excellent natural light with each of the towers‘ floors also contain operable windows that allow for natural ventilation
  62. 62. *Jakarta Ciliwung Recovery Project - CRP , Incredible Water Purifying Skyscraper *The project provides housing and features an integrated filtration system consisting of a series of tubes that pump and purify waters from the region's polluted rivers. *Designed by Rezza Rahdian, Erwin Setiawan, Ayu Diah Shanti, and Leonardus Chrisnantyo to help address the problems of river pollution as well as housing.
  63. 63. Clean technology and green design have both resulted in numerous innovations that continue to push the boundaries of energy generation and efficient resource consumption. Future’s architects and builders are charged with the task of envisioning trends that emphasizes ecologically imaginative aspects for the skyscrapers of the future.
  64. 64. *The Algae Harvesting Towers of San Francisco City *This vision shows what a totally eco- conscious San Francisco could look like 100 years from now, complete with algae-harvesting towers, geothermal energy mushrooms and fog catchers to distill fresh water from the city‘s foggy atmosphere. *Designed to make the most of the area‘s microclimate and geology, Hydro-Net is a network of both above-ground and underground systems that takes the need for alternative energy sources in mind with a connected network of water, power collection and distribution systems. *Carbon nanotube walls would collect and disperse hydrogen produced by algae, which would be used to hover- cars in underground tunnels.
  65. 65. *The Vincent Callebaut Anti-Smog, Design for Post Industrial Paris *Anti-Smog is a prototype project envisioned for a post- industrial area of Paris that aims to invent a new architecture — auto-sufficient, depolluting architecture, reactive to its environment. *The Vincent Callebaut Architectures prototype relies heavily on building-integrated, green innovation such as vertical axis wind turbines, rooftop solar panels, and living walls and greenery.
  66. 66. *Nano Vent-Skin (NVS) Building * It is a structure that acts like a skin. It is composed of mini wind turbines made out of micro organisms which generate energy from wind and sunlight. * NVS was born as a small scale alternative after seeing all the gigantic projects being built around the world. * This concept tries to make Architects and Designers think on a smaller scale and apply it to existing buildings, houses and structures or even tunnels and barriers to generate energy.
  67. 67. *The Zero Carbon Dice House *The Dice House is a zero carbon home, which can either stand alone or function as attached multiple dwellings. *Designed by Sybarite, a British architecture firm, the Dice House is a 9 x 9 meter cube that sits on an octagonal plinth. *Three levels inside the cube have large, plentiful windows to maximize views. *A large thermoplastic umbrella on the garden roof of the house shades and insulates the house and collects solar energy.
  68. 68. *The Inspiration Landscape House *Maul Dwellings designed the Landscape House, which won the AIA‘s 2006 Committee on Design competition to design ―a house for an ecologist‖. *The house features a double roof for enhanced air circulation, louvered shutters to harvest energy, a Water Pod to house efficient plumbing systems and a solar dehumidifier unit to capture moisture from the air for drinking water. *The house is also is designed for deconstruction and reuse. *This innovative structure, its intelligent eco-friendly features make it a great source of inspiration for future green homes.
  69. 69. *The Soft House , Harvests Energy Through Solar Collecting Textiles *Architect Sheila Kennedy has designed the Soft House, a structure that harvests energy through solar- collecting textiles hung in the home like curtains. *These thin-film photovoltaic textiles can create close to 16,000 watt-hours of electricity, providing about half of the home‘s power. *The high cost of this solar technology makes the Soft House unlikely to become reality any time soon.
  70. 70. *Solar and Wind Facades *SMIT, an acronym for Sustainably Minded Interactive Technology, spent the last two years in R&D with this interesting approach to solar and wind power micro cells fixed onto facades.
  71. 71. *The green building tower ,Taichung Gateway Park - Taiwan, intensifies the relation between the sustainable building site and the surrounding including an environmental integration of the park and the green land, the integration of green vertical platforms, sky gardens and living façades. *The tower actively contributes to the development of the use of new sustainable energies (solar and wind generated power, coupled with botanical and bio- technologies), emphasizes cohabitation and respectful attitude in order to reach even higher standards than regular green buildings. *Raising awareness of climate changes and the need for environmental protection, the tower will become the new landmark of sustainability, 100% self-sufficient with CO2 zero-emission, therefore contributing to government‘s policies in terms of energy saving and carbon emission reduction. *The Taiwan Green Building Tower
  72. 72. *Urban Skyscraper Farms *Urban skyscraper farms are still purely conceptual for now but are amazing theoretical propositions. *They would provide locally grown food in densely packed urban centers. Such designs incorporate elaborate rainwater reuse systems and other sustainable strategies intended to minimize their environmental impact and maximize their productivity. *They are massive in scale and would cost a great deal to build.
  73. 73. *Garden Skyscrapers Concepts
  74. 74. *Office Building of the Future, Just Like a Tree! *Blending nature and man-made construction, the Office Building of the Future will positively impact the environment and interaction between human and natural environments *Solar and geothermal power create energy, tree-filled terraces recycle water, and multiple skins weatherproof and insulate the inside of the building. *The building, designed with materials that can either be reused or returned safely to the earth, is made to absorb natural light as well.
  75. 75. *World of Chlorophyll‘ Skyscraper * Designed by Architect Ahmed Elseyofi of IAMZ, a mixed-use building featuring individual units stemming from central columns that ―imitate the ‗branch and leaf‘ structure‖ of plants. * Just as a plant‘s chlorophyll would utilize sunlight for photosynthesis, the unique design of the building would harness the elements to power his experimental edifice. * Each level of the building would include 10 residential units, and each unit would contain five floors. The staggered, leaf-like orientation would maximize exposure to sun and wind. * The design makes the sun permeate the whole building which will provide natural lighting and ventilation, and creates air currents can be exploited in the generation of energy. * Passive solar design seeks to trap and use energy from the sun to heat and cool buildings which is key component of creating affordable, zero-energy housing in cold climates.
  76. 76. *Lily Pad Project, Floating Self- Sufficient Eco-city Islands *As water levels rise around the world, the Lily pad Project is perhaps the most fantastical of these green wonders and certainly the farthest from being built but is too amazing a concept. *The idea is to create a series of floating self- sufficient ocean-going eco- city islands. Each one would be able to house 50,000 residents and would support a great deal of biodiversity. *Collecting pools located in their centers would gather and filter water for use on board.
  77. 77. *New Orleans Arcology Habitat *In the effort to rebuild New Orleans in the wake of 2005′s Hurricane Katrina, the New Orleans Arcology Habitat has been proposed. The concept includes hotels, condominiums, commercial property, and even casinos, all of which could potentially breathe new life into the New Orleans economy. *As currently depicted, the habitat would float on the surface of the water within an enclosed basin near the Mississippi riverfront and the central business district.
  78. 78. *Project Utopia Floating Island, Luxury Green Building *Measuring 100 meters across and comprised of more than 11 decks, there is plenty of room on this luxury Green Building *Project Utopia isn‘t designed to move or travel but rather as a stationary destination out in the wild blue. *With an observation deck rising 65 meters above sea level and providing a 365- degree view of the surrounding ocean, it sounds like quite a unique destination.
  79. 79. * Hydropolis is the first luxury underwater hotel with landing station; connection tunnel and 220 suites where an estimated 3,000 people can stay. * Other features include parking lot, storage rooms, movie theater, a ballroom, light shows and a marine study lab. * Architecture of this lab is a ―physical landmark,‖ and was originally created for the builder‘s (Joachim Hauser) love of water *Two quotes said by Hauser are ―…The future lies in the sea,‖ and ―… It‘s not a project; it‘s a passion‖. *Hydropolis, Luxury Underwater Hotel
  80. 80. *Floating Skyscrapers
  81. 81. Everything from single-family residences to giant several million-square-foot complexes and giant skyscrapers are getting some sort of the green and renewable energy treatment.
  82. 82. *Solar & Wind Turbines * Solar wind turbines operate at a speed of 1.5 to 60 meters per second, thus rotating slowly and silently. * The turbine is capable of transforming wind power into thermal or electric energy. * The system is estimated to pay-off the homeowner’s initial expenses within 3-5 years. For example, three turbines with a general capacity of 75 kW on a nine- story apartment can supply 8 percent of the total energy usage by the whole building. * Turbines look modern and attractive, many models available.
  83. 83. *Modern Solar-Wind Technologies
  84. 84. *MagLev Wind Turbine *The MagLev Wind Turbine is a big step forward in the world of wind power. *By using magnetism to levitate the blades friction is eliminated and more power can be produced without any additional power expense (since the magnetics require no energy to run). *The MagLev has a low threshold velocity for producing energy, could theoretically survive for centuries and can power up to 750,000 homes.
  85. 85. *Solar Updraft Towers *Solar updraft towers combine three proven technologies: the chimney effect, the greenhouse effect, and the wind turbine. *Air is heated by sunshine and contained in a very large greenhouse-like structure around the base of a tall chimney, and the resulting convection causes rising airflow to rise through the updraft tower. *The air current from the greenhouse up the chimney drives turbines, which produce electricity.
  86. 86. *Vortex Engine * The concept of a Vortex Engine aims to replace large physical chimneys with a vortex of air created by a shorter, less- expensive structure. * The air flow through the louvers at the base drive low-speed air turbines a less-expensive alternative to a physical solar updraft tower. * The heat is provided by a large area of ground heated by the sun and covered by surface that traps hot air, in the manner of a Greenhouse. * In operation, the vortex expels heavier, colder external air, and therefore forms a large, low- pressure chimney of hot air. * A vortex installation height of only 12 meters allows getting 10 kW of electrical energy from the rotating air flow in it. * In theory, the power of the vortex can reach 100 MW at altitudes of up to 600 meters.
  87. 87. *Downdraft Tower Energy Skyscraper *The downdraft tower , proposed, is essentially a large cylinder 2,250 feet high , 1,200 feet wide at the top and 1,500 feet wide at the base with an open top, surrounded by 25 generating plants at the base. *The tower creates its own internal wind by spraying water droplets into the tower mouth. *The moist air drops and accelerates to up to 50 miles per hour toward dry, lower, and lower-pressure air, especially if the temperature at the base is significantly lower than at the top with the denser air at the bottom achieving its coolness through evaporation. *The tower can recapture and reuse about 75 to 80 percent of the water it uses.
  88. 88. *Solar Streets!
  89. 89. * While unit renewable costs are falling as the wind and solar industries scale up, yet the technologies must reach larger scale to further reduce costs and address the challenges associated with the intermittent nature of the output – renewable energy supply now in the 5% range * Continued cost reductions to free wind and solar energies of subsidy dependence would be critical to bringing either source to a larger scale. The current subsidies for renewables are not scalable. * The system-wide costs of integrating these variable renewable energy sources into the electricity grid can mount up quickly as renewables penetration increases. * Driving cost reductions may require re-prioritizing investments in renewable energy. In 2012 Public and private sectors spent about $250 billion globally to deploy commercially available wind and solar technologies. * In the long-term, new grid-scale energy storage technologies may be essential to achieving high penetrations of wind and solar energies.

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