Henry murray


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Henry murray

  1. 1. Henry M. Murray May 13, 1893 - June 23, 1988
  2. 2. <ul><li>He earned his bachelor's degree in history in 1915, </li></ul><ul><li>a medical degree from Columbia in 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>then completed a doctorate in biochemistry from Cambridge nine years later.   </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>His start in psychology occurred after reading Jung and eventually arranging a meeting with him.  During this meeting, Jung convinced Murray to study psychoanalysis, which he did at Harvard University.  </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>After competing his training, Murray actually began teaching psychology and psychoanalytic theory at Harvard, and he remained there for the rest of his professional career. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Although considered a trait theorist, Murray's medical background, combined with his analytical training give a unique flair to his research and writing.  </li></ul><ul><li>This is probably most evident in his development of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), a personality test designed to determine personality themes as well as unconscious motivation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>He was focused on basic needs in personality which he called psychogenic needs.  </li></ul><ul><li>He believed these needs were largely at the unconscious level.  </li></ul><ul><li>After researching this area, he narrowed these needs down to 27, although the list and names vary </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Topic Outline </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Structure of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings and Serials </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Dynamics of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Press </li></ul><ul><li>Tension Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Thema </li></ul><ul><li>Need Integrate </li></ul><ul><li>Unity –Thema </li></ul><ul><li>Regnant Process </li></ul><ul><li>Vector-Value Scheme </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Development of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Infantile complexes </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic-Maturational Determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Socio Cultural Determinants </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious Process </li></ul><ul><li>The Socialization Process </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>An individuals personality is an abstraction formulated by the theorist and not merely a description of the individual’s behavior. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personality 2. An individuals personality refers to a series of events that ideally span the person’s lifetime:” The history of the personality is the personality”
  11. 11. Personality 3. A definition of personality should reflect the enduring and recurring elements of behavior as well as the novel and unique.
  12. 12. Personality 4. Personality is the organized or governing agent of the individual. Its functions are to integrate the conflicts and constraints to which the individual is exposed, to satisfy the individual’s needs, and to make plans for attainment of future goals.
  13. 13. Personality 5. Personality is located in the brain “No brain, No personality”
  14. 14. Proceedings are the things which we observe and try to represent with models, and to explain , the things which we attempt to predict, the facts against which we test the adequacy of our formulations (Murray, 1951) A directional organized intermittent succession of proceedings may be called a Serial.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Establishments of Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Murray agreed with Freud in conceiving of the id as the repository of primitive and unacceptable impulses </li></ul><ul><li>The super Ego in Murray’s theory, as in Freud, is considered to be a cultural implant </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to note that Murray’s conception of the super ego and ego ideal provided more latitude for alteration and development in the years subsequent to childhood than does the orthodox psychoanalytic view. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Dynamics of Personality
  17. 17. <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>A need is a construct (a convenient or hypothetical concept) which stands free for a force…. In the brain region, a force which organizes perception, apperception, intellection, conation and action in such a way as to transform in a certain direction existing, unsatisfying situation. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Basis for Distinguishing between types of needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and Secondary Need </li></ul><ul><li>Overt and Covert Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Focal and Diffuse Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive and Reactive Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Process activity, modal needs and effect needs </li></ul>
  19. 19. To surrender and accept punishment 1. Abasement Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  20. 20. To overcome obstacles and succeed 2. Achievement Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  21. 21. To obtain possessions 3. Acquisition Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  22. 22. To make associations and friendships 4. Affiliation Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  23. 23. To injure others 5. Aggression Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  24. 24. To resist others and stand strong 6. Autonomy Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  25. 25. To avoid blame and obey the rules 7. Blameavoidance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  26. 26. To build or create 8. Construction Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  27. 27. To be unique 9. Contrariance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  28. 28. To defend honor 10. Counteraction Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  29. 29. To justify actions 11. Defendance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  30. 30. To follow a superior, to serve 12. Deference Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  31. 31. To control and lead others 13. Dominance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  32. 32. To attract attention 14. Exhibition Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  33. 33. To provide information, educate 15. Exposition Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  34. 34. To avoid pain 16. Harmavoidance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  35. 35. To avoid failure, shame, or to conceal a weakness 17. Infavoidance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  36. 36. To protect the helpless 18. Nurturance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  37. 37. To arrange, organize, and be precise 19. Order Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  38. 38. To relieve tension, have fun, or relax 20. Play Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  39. 39. To gain approval and social status 20. Recognition Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  40. 40. To exclude another 22. Rejection Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  41. 41. To enjoy sensuous impressions 23. Sentience Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  42. 42. To form and enjoy an erotic relationship 24. Sex Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  43. 43. To empathize 25. Similance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  44. 44. To seek protection or sympathy 26. Succorance Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  45. 45. To analyze and experience , to seek knowledge 27. Understanding Murray's Psychogenic Needs
  46. 46. Theories of personality based upon needs and motives suggest that our personalities are a reflection of behaviors controlled by needs.
  47. 47. <ul><li>While some needs are temporary and changing, other needs are more deeply seated in our nature. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the unconscious level, but play a major role in our personality. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Interrelation of Needs <ul><li>Prepotency </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Fusion of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Subsidation </li></ul>
  49. 49. Henry Murray and Psychological Needs Murray from a Psychoanalytic Perspective Murray used the term personology to describe his study of human lives and individual differences in personality Murray described a habit system as automatic, unconscious behaviors shaped by the id, ego, and superego Murray emphasized positive instincts related to motivation and needs
  50. 50. <ul><li>American psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>developed a theory of personality that was organized in terms of motives, presses, and needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Murray described a needs as a, &quot;potentiality or readiness to respond in a certain way under certain given circumstances&quot; (1938).  </li></ul>