Egypt is located in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim World. Covering an area of about 1,010,000 square KM, Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south and Libya to the west.
Egypt , wrote Herodotus the Greek historian 25 centuries ago, is “the Gift of the Nile”,
Pre-Historic Egypt: Evidences of rock carving can be found al ong t he N l e i t er r aces and i n deser t oases. I n t he 10t h Millennium BC, a culture of hunter gatherers and fishers replaced a grain-grinding cul t ur e. C i m e changes and/or over gr azi ng ar ound 8000 B l at C began t o desi ccat e t he past or al l ands of Egypt , f or m ng i t he Sahar a. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural econom and m e cent r al i zed y or soci et y.
By about 6000 BC a Neolithic culture r oot ed i n t he N l e iVal l ey. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Low Egypt . er C em aneous Low ont por er Egypt i an com uni t i es coexi st ed m w t h t hei r sout her n count er par t s f or m e t han t w i or o t housand year s, r em ni ng cul t ur al l y di st i nct , but ai m nt ai ni ng f r equent cont act t hr ough t r ade. aiThe earliest known evidence of Egyptianhieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynasticperiod on N agada I I I pot t er y vessel s, dat ed t o about3200 B .C
A unified kingdom was founded 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, art, language and customs. The first two ruling dynasties of a unified Egypt set the stage for the Old Kingdom period, 2700–2200 BC, which constructed many pyramids, most notably the third Dynasty Pyramid of Dioser and the fourth dynasty Giza Pyramids. Tut Ankh Amoun
The Ptolemaic Kingdom was a powerful Hellenistic state, extending from southern Syria in the east, to Cyrene to the west, and south to the frontier with Nubia. Alexandria became the capital city and a center of Greek culture and trade. To gain recognition by the native Egyptian populace, they named themselves as the successors to the Pharaohs. The later Ptolemies took on Egyptian traditions, had themselves portrayed on public monuments in Egyptian style and dress, and participated in Egyptian religious life. Alexander the Great
The last ruler from the Ptolemaic line was Cleopatra VII, who committed suicide with her lover Mark Antony, after Caesar Augustus had captured them. Queen Cleopatra The Ptolemies faced rebellions of native Egyptians often caused by an unwanted regime and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its annexation by Rome. Nevertheless Hellenistic culture continued to thrive in Egypt well after the Muslim Conquest.
Christianity was brought to Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist in the 1st century. Diocletian’s reign marked the transition from the Roman to the Byzantine era in Egypt, when a great number of Egyptian Christians were persecuted. The New Testament had by then been translated into Egyptian. After the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, a distinct Egyptian Coptic Church was firmly established. St Catherine Monastery
The Byzantines were able to regain control of the country after abrief Persian invasion early in the 7th century, until 639-42, whenEgypt was invaded and conquered by the Islamic Empire of MuslimArabs. When they defeated the Byzantine Armies in Egypt, the Arabs brought Sunni Islam to the country. Early in this period, Egyptians began to blend their new faith with indigenous beliefs and practices, leading to various Sufi orders that have flourished to this day. These earlier rites had survived the period of Coptic Christianity.1517 was the beginning of the Ottoman Turks rule to Egypt. Sincethen when it became a province of the Ottoman Empire by Selim I.
Due to its strategic and important location between the east and the west, Egypt was invaded and colonized by the French; Led Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798. Napoleon Bonaparte The French colonization lasted only for three years and they were expelled in 1801 by Ottoman, Mamluk and British forces. However, this was followed by four years of anarchy in which Ottomans, Mamluks, and Albanians wrestled for power. Out of this chaos, the commander of the Albanian regiment, Muhammad Ali emerged as a dominant figure and in 1805 he was acknowledged by the Sultan in Istanbul as his viceroy in Egypt. Muhammad Ali, an ambitious and able leader, established a dynasty that was to rule Egypt until the revolution of 1952. that later years, it became a British puppet. Muhammad Ali
After World War I, Saad Zaghloul and the Wafd Party led the Egyptian nationalist movement to a majority at the local Legislative Assembly. Saad Zaghloul Egypt’s 1st modern revolution was on March 8th, 1919 when the British exiled Zaghlul and his associates to Malta. The revolt led the British to issue a unilateral declaration of Egypt Independence on 22nd, February 1922.Feminine demonstrations 1919
The new government drafted and implemented a constitution in 1923 based on a parliamentary system. Saad Zaghloul was popularly elected as Prime Minister of Egypt in 1924. In 1936, the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty was concluded. Continued instability due to remaining British influence and increasing political involvement by the king led to the dissolution of the parliament in a military coup détat known as the 1952 Revolution. The Free Officers Movement forced the last King Farouk to abdicate in support of his son Fuad. British military presence in Egypt lasted until 1954. King Farouk
On 18th June 1953, the Egyptian Republic wasdeclared, with General Muhammad Nguib as thefirst President of this Republic.Naguib was forced to resign in 1954 by GamalAbdel Nasser, the real architect of the 1952movement, and was later put under house arrest. Muhammad NguibNasser assumed power as President in June, 1956.British forces completed their withdrawal from theoccupied Suez Canal Zone on 13th June 1956.As a result of the WB refusal to fund building theHigh Dam in Egypt, Nasser nationalized the SuezCanal on July 26th 1956, prompting the 1956 SuezCrisis. Naser
In the 1967 the Six Days War, Israel invaded and occupied Egypts Sinai Peninsula. Sadat, successor of Naser after his death in 1970, switched Egypts Cold War allegiance from the SU to the US. Sadat launched the Infitah (opening) economic reform policy, while clamping down on religious and secular opposition. In 1973, Egypt, along with Syria, launched the October war. a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights. Sadat It was an attempt to regain part of the Sinai territory Israel had captured 6 years earlier. Sadat hoped to seize some territory through military force, and then regain the rest of the peninsula by diplomacy.
The second UN-mandated ceasefire haltedmilitary action. However, the war ended witha military stalemate, it presented Sadat with apolitical victory that later allowed him toregain the Sinai in return for peace withIsrael. Sadat made a historic visit to Israel in 1977, which led to the 1979 Peace Treaty in exchange for Israeli withdrawal from Sinai.Sadat in IsraelSadats initiative sparked enormous controversyin the Arab World and led to Egypts expulsionfrom the Arab League. However, it was supportedby most Egyptians.Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak, Sadat wasassassinated by a fundamentalist military soldierin Cairo in 1981. Mubarak
Lasted for more than 30 years, On 25th January 2011 widespread protests began against Mubaraks regime aiming to remove him from power. By January 29th it was becoming clear that Mubaraks government had lost control when a curfew order was ignored, and the army took a semi-neutral stance on enforcing the curfew decree.
On February 11th 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled Cairo. Vice President Omar Solyman announced that Mubarak had stepped down and that the Egyptian Military Council would assume control of the nations affairs in the short term. On February 13th 2011, the high level military command of Egypt announced that both the constitution and the parliament of Egypt had been dissolved. According to decrees by MC Egypt held its 1st parliamentary election on 28th Nov. 2011; since the previous regime had been in power. Turnout was high and there were no reports of irregularities or violence, although members of some parties broke the ban on campaigning at polling places by handing out pamphlets and banners
Basic DataFiscal Year 1st July–30th June Egyptian pound (EGP)Currency = 100 piasters 6.02685 = 1$