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Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch09


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Insel10ebrup Ppt Ch09

  1. 1. Nutrition Basics Chapter 9
  2. 2. Nutritional Requirements: Components of A Healthy Diet <ul><li>45 Essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins, Fats, Carbohydrates, Vitamins, Minerals and Water. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuel Potential. Kilocalories (kcalorie). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Kcalorie = amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of fluid 1 degree of centigrade. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2000 kcalorie or calories per day meets a person needs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000 calories = 1 kcalorie. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 supply energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat = 9 calories per gram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein = 4 calories per gram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates = 4 calories per gram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Proteins <ul><li>Forms muscle, bone, blood, enzymes, hormones and cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twenty common amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nine essential amino acids. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eleven nonessential amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete proteins provide all essential amino acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most animal proteins. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most plant proteins are incomplete. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combine 2 vegetables to make up missing amino acids. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended amount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.8 gram per kilogram of body weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-35% of total calorie intake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average is 15-16% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Fats or Lipids <ul><li>Most concentrated source of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stored energy and provides insulation and support for body organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha-linoleic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% from saturated fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triglycerides - glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Mono-unsaturated </li></ul><ul><li>Poly-unsaturated </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogenation </li></ul><ul><li>Trans fatty acids </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fats and Health <ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Density Lipo-Protein (HDL’s) – good cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Density Lipo-Protein (LDL’s) – bad cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absorbs Fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E & K) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up 25%-35% of total daily calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7% from saturated fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% from polyunsaturated fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% from monounsaturated fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids – AMDR -5-10% </li></ul><ul><li>Omega-6 fatty acids – AMDR – 0.6-1.2% </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men 17 grams per day of linoleic and 1.6 grams of alpha-linoleic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women 12 grams per day of linoleic and 1.1 grams of alpha-linoleic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3-4 teaspoons (15-20 grams) of vegetable oil per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMDRs for total fat 20-35% </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Supply energy for the body cells </li></ul><ul><li>Two groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Carbs: One or two sugar units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit, sugar, honey, malt, and milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Carbs: Multiple sugar units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starches and fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grains – wheat, rye, rice, oats, barley, and millet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes – dry beans, peas, and lentils </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tubers – potatoes and yams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth and small intestines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break down to glucose </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Refined Carbohydrates Versus Whole Grains <ul><li>All grains before processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer, germ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle layer, endosperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer layer, bran </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germ and bran are removed leaving just the starch of the endosperm </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response <ul><li>Insulin and glucose levels </li></ul><ul><li>Quick rise in glucose and insulin levels = high glycemic index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating high glycemic index foods may increase appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May increase risk of diabetes and heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrefined grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes – relatively low glycemic index </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Recommended Carbohydrate Intake <ul><li>Average American – 200-300 grams </li></ul><ul><li>130 grams needed to meet the body’s requirements for essential carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Adults – 45-65% of total daily calories or 225-325 grams </li></ul>
  10. 12. Fiber – A Closer Look <ul><li>Food and Nutrition Board </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber nondigestible carbohydrate that is present naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional fiber nondigestible carbohydrate that has been isolated or synthesized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total fiber is the sum of both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All plant substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>38 grams for adult men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 grams for adult women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to come from foods not supplements </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic (carbon-containing) substances required in small amounts to promote specific chemical reactions (catalyst) within a living cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirteen vitamins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Fat Soluble: A, D, E, and K. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine Water Soluble: C and 8 B-complex vitamins. Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Folate, B-12, Biotin and Pantothenic acid. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human body does not manufacture most vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant in fruits, vegetables and grains </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to regulate body functions,aid in growth,maintenance of body tissues, and a catalyst for energy release. </li></ul><ul><li>17 essential minerals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major minerals - 100 milligrams or more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, sodium, potassium and chloride. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace minerals – minute amounts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cobalt, copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and zinc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Water <ul><li>Composed of about 50-60% water </li></ul><ul><li>Can live up to 50 days without food , but only a few days without water </li></ul><ul><li>Water and other beverages make-up 80-90% of your daily water intake </li></ul><ul><li>Men – 3.7 total liters of water, with 3.0 liters (13 cups) coming from beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Women – 2.7 total liters of water, with 2.2 (9 cups) coming from beverages </li></ul>
  14. 16. Other Substances in Food <ul><li>Antioxidants – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in cancers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin C & E, selenium, carotenoids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soy foods may help lower cholesterol levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cruciferous vegetables render some carcinogenic compounds harmless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allyl sulfides (garlic and onions) boosts the cancer-fighting immune cells </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) <ul><li>Set standards by Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences - developed RDAs and AI (adequate intake) </li></ul><ul><li>Include standards for both recommended and maximum intakes </li></ul><ul><li>Established standards for nutrient intake in order to prevent nutrient deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Should you take supplements? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DRIs guide you will the nutritional needs with food, rather than the use of supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily values – U.S. Food and Drug Administration use on food labels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on 2000 calorie diet </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Eating a variety of nutrient-dense foods </li></ul><ul><li>Control calorie intake to manage healthy weight </li></ul><ul><li>Physically active every day </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of grains, vegetables and fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Choose fats wisely </li></ul><ul><li>Choose carbohydrates wisely </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare foods with little salt and sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation of alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Keep foods safe to eat </li></ul>
  17. 19. Weight Management <ul><li>Overweight and obesity are major public health problem </li></ul><ul><li>Americans need to reduce the amount of calories </li></ul><ul><li>Increase physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Make wiser food choices </li></ul>
  18. 20. Physical Activity <ul><li>Aim to accumulate at least 30 minutes (adults) or 60 minutes (children) of moderate physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Brisk walk at a pace of 3-4 mile per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Manage body weight engage in 60 minutes of moderately to vigorous intense activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sustain weight loss engage daily in at least 60-90 minutes of moderate activity </li></ul>
  19. 21. Food Groups to Encourage <ul><li>Fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>41/2 cups or the equivalent of 9 servings each day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark green vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orange vegetables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Whole grains </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Fat and Fat-free milk and milk products </li></ul>
  20. 22. Fats <ul><li>Fats and oils provide the essential fatty acids needed </li></ul><ul><li>Total fat: 20-35% of total daily calories </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated Fat: Less than 10% of total calories </li></ul><ul><li>Trans fat: as little as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol: Less than 300 mg per day </li></ul>
  21. 23. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Important energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber promotes healthy digestion and helps reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Consumption of foods and beverages high in added sugar should be avoided </li></ul>
  22. 24. Food Safety <ul><li>Foodborne disease affect 76 million Americans each year </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shellfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. USDA’s MyPyramid
  24. 26. Key Messages of MyPyramid <ul><li>Remind consumers to make healthy food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization </li></ul><ul><li>Daily physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Proportionality </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual improvement </li></ul>
  25. 28. Serving Sizes <ul><li>Grains - 1 slice of bread,1 small muffin (2.5 diameter), 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal flakes </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable – 1 cup raw leafy vegetables, 1/2 cup cooked or raw vegetables, 1/2 cup of vegetable juice </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit – ½ cup fresh, canned, or frozen fruit, 1/2 cup 100% fruit juice,1 small whole fruit, 1/4 cup dried fruit, 3/4 cup fruit juice </li></ul>
  26. 29. Serving Sizes <ul><li>Milk/Dairy -1 cup milk or yogurt,1/2 cup ricotta cheese,1.5 oz natural cheese,2 oz. Processed cheese. </li></ul><ul><li>Meat and Beans – 1 ounce cooked lean meat,.1/4 cup cooked dry beans or tofu, 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, ½ ounce nuts or seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Oils </li></ul><ul><li>Discretionary Calories, solid fats, and added sugars </li></ul>
  27. 30. Vegetarians <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Types : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacto-vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacto-ovo-vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial vegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pescovegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semivegetarians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A food plan for vegetarians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin B-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups <ul><li>Children and Teenagers </li></ul><ul><li>College Students </li></ul><ul><li>Older Adults </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes </li></ul><ul><li>People with Special Health Concerns </li></ul>
  29. 32. Personal Plan: Making Informed Choices About Food <ul><li>Reading Food Labels </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Dietary Supplement Labels </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating Functional Foods </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Organic Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Additives in Food </li></ul><ul><li>Food Irradiation </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically Modified (GM) Foods </li></ul>
  31. 35. Protecting yourself Against Foodborne Illness <ul><li>Causes of Foodborne Illnesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Campylobacter jejuni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shigella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listeria monocytogenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clostridium botulinum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norovirus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing and treating foodborne illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Contaminants and organic foods </li></ul><ul><li>Food Allergies </li></ul>
  32. 36. Food Allergies and Food Intolerances <ul><li>Food allergies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction of the body’s immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect 2% of the adult population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-6% of infants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of food allergies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Food intolerances </li></ul>
  33. 37. Nutrition Basics Chapter 9