African SlaveryEssential Questions:Why do humans sell other human beings?How do people overcome obstacles/surviveslavery?
1. What is a Slave (Summarize in your own words)Legal ownership of another human being as personal propertyLaws permit the sale, purchase, and return of runaway slaves, just like animalsIn all cultures, this ownership was demonstrated by brands, tattoos, or special clothing
An enslaved North African Arab inEurope inthe 1500s
2. When did Slavery Begin? Where was it Practiced?Slavery begins with recorded timeUniversal – practiced everywhere including ancient Egypt, China, Rome, Europe, etc.Slavery was not racial and not permanent until the 1500s.Slaves were NOT property until the 1500s.
Clay tablet sale document for a family of eight slaves. In 3100 BCE inmodern day IRAQ
3. Slavery in EuropeRoman Empire: up to 100 million were slaves (25% of population) including Jews and ChristiansNorth African Barbary pirates took 1.25 million people from southern Europe and sold them as slaves in North Africa and Turkey.1-3 million Slavs from Eastern Europe and Russia/Black Sea were sold into slavery in the Middle East and the Mediterranean(#s are on your map activity)
4. What was Slavery like in Africa?Reasons: Captured in war, cannot pay debts, committed a crime like adulteryConditions: work to raise crops, as skilled labor, as personal servantsLength: can eventually earn freedom, act independently, children are NOT slaves
5. Why did Africans cooperate with Slave Traders?A. There were no large kingdoms to resist European/Islamic countries or empires.B. Gain wealth and better quality of life through metal tools, cloth, and guns traded for slaves.C. “Iron – Slave cycle” once you trade slaves for continuously be obtained or others will make slaves of you. Britain alone sold 150,000 guns a year to African ethnic groups.
The “Iron – Slave Cycle” Asante Warriorgoing to captureslaves or defend his tribe from others.
6. African SlaverySlave Trade 700s thru 1400s: 11- 18 million to theMiddle East and Indian Ocean countries
7. How did the Middle East use African Slaves? Arabs traded for female slaves asservants. Men were used for soldiers, skilled labor, andirrigation, etc. Islam preaches an owner must improve his slaves’ lives.
8. Why didEuropean wantAfrican slaves?TO:1. mine gold +silver in the NewWorld.2. grow sugar,tobacco, cotton,+ rice.3. clear the land
9. Why African Slavery in the New World1. Up to 90% or 18 million Amerindians died of diseases like small pox, measles, and tuberculosis. They were both overworked and underfed. They also ran away.2. Too few Europeans moved/migrated to the Americas to work for land owners in mines for gold or on plantations for sugar, tobacco, and rice.
10. How many Africans were brought to the New World?New World Colonies Number of Slaves Percentage• Brazil (Portugal) 4,000,000 35.4• Spanish Empire 2,500,000 22.1• British West Indies 2,000,000 17.7• French West Indies 1,600,000 14.1• British North America• and United States 500,000-600,000 4.4 – 6.0• Dutch West Indies 500,000 4.4• Danish West Indies 28,000 0.2• Europe (and Islands) 200,000 1.8OVERALL 10-12 million people with 10-20% dying in crossing the Atlantic Ocean
11. How did Natural resources, agriculture, and manufactured goods drive the slave trade? Slaves in the Americas raised cash crops and mined for gold + silver. Cash Crops sold to Europe from the colonies Manufactured goods like guns and steel tools to Africa for slaves
EXIT SLIP:Write your reaction to this painting using at least some of your notes.