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10 03 ancient egypt history


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10 03 ancient egypt history

  1. 1. Rivers <ul><li>Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Niger </li></ul><ul><li>Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Zambezi </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts </li></ul>
  2. 2. Climate Zones <ul><li>Tropical Wet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainforest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical Wet & Dry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savannah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semi-Arid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kalahari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Namib </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahara </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. North Africa <ul><li>Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Aksum </li></ul><ul><li>Kush </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ancient Egypt
  5. 5. Pre-Dynastic Period 3200-2600 BC <ul><li>Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt separate kingdoms united </li></ul><ul><li>Dynastic System develops </li></ul><ul><li>Ruler (Pharoah) considered divine </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation projects lead to an abundance of food and population explosion </li></ul>
  6. 6. Location <ul><li>Egypt was located in the Nile River Floodplain </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Three Seasons of the Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Season of Going Out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floodwaters receded exposing fertile land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers planted and tended crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Season of Harvest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers harvested crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All crops belonged to Pharaoh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Huge surplus lasted the entire year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Season of Flood Spring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral rich silt was carried down stream from mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provided very fertile soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers spent these months working for the Pharaoh </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Old Kingdom Egypt The Pyramid Age 2600 BC – 2150 BC <ul><li>Era of Relative Peace and Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Major construction projects </li></ul><ul><li>2600 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st Pyramid Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tombs of Pharaohs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2500 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Pyramids & Sphinx constructed at Giza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics standardized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of graffiti at tombs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2100 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional nobles competed for control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynasty loses control </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Middle Kingdom Egypt World Trading Power 2100 BC – 1700 BC <ul><li>2000 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Pharaohs from Thebes gain control of the kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentuhotep II regains control over all of Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New capital in Lisht </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt becomes an international power by reconquering Nubia and expanding trade routes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreigners called Hyksos from eastern Mediterranean settle in Egypt during good times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1500 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyksos eventually gain control of Lower Egypt. Native Egyptians still control Upper Egypt from Thebes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>1550 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers from Thebes reassert control and drive out Hyksos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand borders of Egypt in military campaign designed to strengthen the empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take control of Nubia and the Levant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Force tribute from Babylon, Assyria and other neighbors top the East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1400 BC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) attempts to impose monotheism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1320 Ramses II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong, warrior Pharaoh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed treaty w/ Hittites </li></ul></ul>New Kingdom Egypt The Age of Empire 1550 BC – 1075 BC
  10. 10. Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Three Kingdoms </li></ul>Old Middle New
  11. 11. Government <ul><li>Bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaoh a living god </li></ul><ul><li>Vizier chief administrator of Pharaoh’s government </li></ul><ul><li>Local nobility and priests administer government responsibilities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Religion <ul><li>Polytheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Fair & predictable gods </li></ul><ul><li>Pharaoh was divine </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians belief in an afterlife led to mummification </li></ul><ul><li>“ Book of the Dead” outlines requirements for afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramids represent importance of afterlife in Egyptian thought </li></ul>
  13. 13. Economics <ul><li>Nile river the foundation of a strong, stable economy </li></ul><ul><li>Silt provided enough fertile land to produce enough crops for the entire population for a full year </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus used for trade and to support the less fortunate </li></ul><ul><li>Season of Flood provide a huge urban work force </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom began to become a world trade power </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hieroglyphics Chart <ul><li>Use this chart to write your name and a secret message using Egyptian Hieroglyphics! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hieroglyphics A (cat) A (make) B C CH D E (pet) E (be) F G (gym) G (girl) H I J K L M N O (dog) O (sew) P Q/U R S S (rays) SH T V Y Z
  16. 16. Reasons for Decline <ul><li>Old Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disunity / greed of local nobles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyksos Conquer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assyrians Conquer </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Geography Government Economics Religion Social Structure Isolated River Valley Regular Flooding Plentiful Food & Water Theocratic Dynastic Bureaucratic Agrarian Stable Strong Surplus Polytheistic Animistic Positive Predictable Hierarchical