DIP SEMINAR TO THE HUMAN GEOGRAPHY             DEPARTMENT OF LUNDS UNIVERSITET - SWEDEN             Critique of available ...
2     Presentation Overview     Presentation Objectives: discuss current     tourism development explanatory models in    ...
Why is Tourism Relevant?• In 2011, it is forecasted to be directly  responsible for:   – 2.8% of World GDP (2.9% in 2021) ...
Why is Tourism Relevant? Direct Travel &    Tourism  Contribution•Commodities •Accommodation •Transportation •Entertainmen...
Inbound Tourism as Export                                                                                  2009-10 2008-09...
Identifying Research Interests• Sustainability• Tourism Development• Strategies
Research AimTo contribute with the current body ofknowledge on processes ofimplementation of higher degrees ofsustainabili...
Framework for the Research Focus• Vision• Drivers and  Inhibitors• Strategy• Intervening  Conditions• Context
Competition and CooperationThe control of a complex         • Complex Adaptive Systemsadaptive system tends to be        (...
Degrees of SustainabilityConsidering sustainability infers a strongvision for the future and that the futureposes a lot of...
World Heritage EnlistmentInternational Convention Concerning theProtection of the World Cultural andNatural Heritage (UNES...
World Heritage EnlistmentIf a site loses thecharacteristics whichdetermined its inscription onthe World Heritage List, the...
Research Focus• Sustainability Degrees• Competition and  Cooperation• World Heritage  Enlistment• Small Oceanic Islands• D...
Research QuestionsPrimary Question:1. How do different types of competition and   cooperation among tourism stakeholders o...
Overarching Research Framework                                    Sustainability and Research Topic                   Tour...
Proposed Research Methodology• Qualitative Embedded Multiple Case  Study• Three Sources of Data and Evidence  per Case (Yi...
Small Oceanic Islands• Size• Coastal Areas (Climate Change)• Isolation• Amplification of conditions and  consequences• Sca...
Cases Selection Process                                                                                                   ...
Multiple Case Study Site Selection                              FERNANDO                            DE NORONHA            ...
Lord Howe Island Group
Fernando de Noronha Archipelago
Sites Characteristics          Island Name               Fernando de Noronha Lord Howe Island          Country Name       ...
Definitions of TourismConsider tourism as:• Sector/Industry;• Activity; or• Phenomenon.Leiper (1979) categorises definitio...
Economic Definitions of TourismTourism is an indentifiable nationallyimportant industry. The industry involvesa wide cross...
25      Technical Definitions of Tourism      UNWTO:      • “Tourism comprises the activities of        persons travelling...
26      Holistic Definitions of Tourism      Hunkizer and Krapf (1943):      • Tourism is the sum of the phenomena        ...
Tourism Models• Explanatory Models          Versus• Prescriptive Models• Tourism Spatial Models          Versus• Tourism S...
28                                Leiper’s Tourism Model (1979) The three basic elements of Leiper’s Model: • Tourists • G...
Tourism System (SISTUR – Sistema de Turismo, Beni, 2001)
30      Tourism Impacts and Meta Impacts     Impacts    Economic                     Social     Positive   Multiplier Effe...
Tourism Development Models• Tourism Development          Versus• Tourism Evolution• Tourism Dev. Explanatory Models   Vers...
32                                       Tourist Psychographic Personality                                       Profiles ...
33                                            Tourist Area Life Cycle (Butler, 1980)Of key importance is the intervention ...
Trend Dynamics (Vejlgaard, 2008, p. 64)The role of trend-settersand trend followers in theprocess of making trendsmainstre...
Managing Limits to Tourism FlowsDimensions of Carrying   • Miguel Cifuentes – CC (Wearing, 1999)Capacity (CC):           •...
Proposed Human-Environment Relations Base Model                                                   Human Needs             ...
Proposed Tourism DefinitionTourism is the sum of temporary and sporadichuman travel to non-routine areas. It ismotivated b...
Tourism Development Sustainability DefinitionTourism development sustainability isunderstood as the degree of resilience o...
Proposed Tourism Development Model   + Endogenous Atributes or     Degree of Authenticity                                 ...
40      References      AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM AND RECREATION 1975. Development of Tourism in      Australia, Ca...
41      References      PORTER, M. E. 1998. Clusters and the New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business      Review, 7...
Further informationAccess www.lndmoraes.id.au for:• Current state of research• Research project and methodology• Photos an...
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Tourism development in the context of sustainability

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It discusses current tourism development explanatory models in the context of sustainability and presents the proposal of a new integrative model; it introduces the research I am undertaking as part of my PhD as the context for the above mentioned discussion.

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  • Economic ImpactsMultiplier effectService Intensive – Job GeneratingInvisible Export (International Inbound Tourism) and Invisible Export (International Outbound Tourism)Geographical Redistribution of Currency and Currency Leakage to other regions
  • GlobalisationLevel of International Connectedness and therefore dependenceCreative Hubs / New TrendsCompetition with other industries
  • Tourism development in the context of sustainability

    1. 1. DIP SEMINAR TO THE HUMAN GEOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT OF LUNDS UNIVERSITET - SWEDEN Critique of available explanatory models and proposal of a new integrative one TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY03/11/2011 LEONARDO NOGUEIRA DE MORAES THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE
    2. 2. 2 Presentation Overview Presentation Objectives: discuss current tourism development explanatory models in the context of sustainability and present the proposal of a new integrative model; introduce the research I am undertaking as part of my PhD as the context for the above mentioned discussion Presentation Contents: 1. Context for the Discussion 2. Current Tourism Definitions 3. Current Tourism (Development) Models 4. Proposed Human-Environment Relations Model 5. Proposed Tourism Definitions and Model12
    3. 3. Why is Tourism Relevant?• In 2011, it is forecasted to be directly responsible for: – 2.8% of World GDP (2.9% in 2021) – 3.4% of World Employment (3.6% in 2021)• Considering its multiplying effect on the economy, its importance raises to: – 9.1% of World GDP (9.6% in 2021) – 8.8% of World Employment (9.7% in 2021) (WTTC, 2011b)
    4. 4. Why is Tourism Relevant? Direct Travel & Tourism Contribution•Commodities •Accommodation •Transportation •Entertainment •Attractions Indirect Travel & Induced•Industries Tourism Contribution •Hotels and Contribution (spending of Catering direct and •Retail • T&T investment indirect •Transportation spending employees) services • Government •Business services collective T&T • Food & beverages•Sources of spending • Recreation Spending • Impact of • Clothing •Residents’ purchases from • Housing domestic T&T suppliers • Household goods Spending •Businesses’ domestic travel spending •Visitor exports •Individual government T&T spending (WTTC, 2011b)
    5. 5. Inbound Tourism as Export 2009-10 2008-09 (AUD to Rank Export Item (DFAT, 2010) million) 2009-10 1 Coal 36,445 -33.4% 2 Iron Ore & Concentrates 35,090 2.5% 3 Education-Related Travel Serv. 18,507 10.6% 4 Gold 14,301 -18.3% 5 Personal Travel (excl ed) Serv. 12,121 3.9% 5.9 million visitor arrivals in 2010 (Tourism Australia, 2011) 6 Crude Petroleum 8,955 8.5% 7th position in the WTTC WorldTourism Economy Ranking (2011a) 7 Natural Gas 7,789 -22.7%
    6. 6. Identifying Research Interests• Sustainability• Tourism Development• Strategies
    7. 7. Research AimTo contribute with the current body ofknowledge on processes ofimplementation of higher degrees ofsustainability within tourismdevelopment
    8. 8. Framework for the Research Focus• Vision• Drivers and Inhibitors• Strategy• Intervening Conditions• Context
    9. 9. Competition and CooperationThe control of a complex • Complex Adaptive Systemsadaptive system tends to be (Waldrop, 1992)highly dispersed. (…) If thereis to be any coherent • Economic Clustering Theorybehaviour in the system, it (Porter, 1998)has to arise from • Tourism Micro-Clusters and Networkscompetition andcooperation among the (Michael, 2007)agents themselves(Waldrop, 1992, p. 145).
    10. 10. Degrees of SustainabilityConsidering sustainability infers a strongvision for the future and that the futureposes a lot of uncertainty, it is preferableto suggest that a certain pathway seemsmore or less sustainable according toscenarios that are projected, but stilluncertain, rather than simply sustainableor unsustainable. Classifying pathways assustainable or unsustainable is onlypossible when analysing the past forpresent consequences are known, butnever the future as it is still to be seen.
    11. 11. World Heritage EnlistmentInternational Convention Concerning theProtection of the World Cultural andNatural Heritage (UNESCO, 1972).The inscription of a site on the WorldHeritage List brings an inevitable andwelcomed awareness and curiosityabout the site and its outstanding values(UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 2008).
    12. 12. World Heritage EnlistmentIf a site loses thecharacteristics whichdetermined its inscription onthe World Heritage List, theWorld Heritage Committeemay decide to delete theproperty from both the Listof World Heritage in Dangerand the World Heritage List(UNESCO World HeritageCentre, 2008).
    13. 13. Research Focus• Sustainability Degrees• Competition and Cooperation• World Heritage Enlistment• Small Oceanic Islands• Development Contexts
    14. 14. Research QuestionsPrimary Question:1. How do different types of competition and cooperation among tourism stakeholders of natural World Heritage enlisted small oceanic island destinations influence the sustainability of their tourism development?Secondary Questions:1. How does UNESCO’s World Heritage enlistment program influence competition and cooperation among tourism stakeholders of enlisted small oceanic island destinations?2. How do the cultural, socio-economic and regulatory contexts of such destinations influence these relationships?3. Which other significant factors currently affect the way such stakeholders compete and cooperate and how?
    15. 15. Overarching Research Framework Sustainability and Research Topic Tourism Development Socio-Ecological Research Object Complex Adaptive Systems Holistic and Inductive-Research Approach Deductive Embedded Research Design Qualitative Multiple Case Study Social and Multiple Tourist Organisation Data Collection Sources Destinations Organisational s and People Networks Sustainability Structure Agency Grounded Data Analysis Theory and Tourism (Competition (Competition Development and Coop.) and Coop.)
    16. 16. Proposed Research Methodology• Qualitative Embedded Multiple Case Study• Three Sources of Data and Evidence per Case (Yin, 2009) and Data Triangulation (Patton, 2002, p. 247)• Two Stages of Field Data Collection• Data Analysis using a Grounded Theory Approach (Glaser 1967)
    17. 17. Small Oceanic Islands• Size• Coastal Areas (Climate Change)• Isolation• Amplification of conditions and consequences• Scarcity of resources• Sense of Limits
    18. 18. Cases Selection Process Reason(s) to Natural Heritage and Mixed Small Oceanic Year of Disconsider as a Case Country Criteria Island Sites Inscription Study Uninhabited / No Heard and McDonald Islands Australia 1197 viii;ix permanent Population • Small oceanic islands Lord Howe Island Group Australia 1982 vii; x No reasonFilter 1 Uninhabited / No Macquarie Island Australia 1997 vii; viii permanent Population Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha No reason for FEN; No • Succesfully conserve their natural Brazil 2001 vii; ix; x (FEN) and Atol das Rocas Reserves (ADR) tourists allowed in ADR heritage and are enlisted by UNESCOFilter 2 Uninhabited / No Malpelo Fauna and Flora Sanctuary Colombia 2006 vii; ix permanent Population Uninhabited / No • Tourism destinations that are visited Cocos Island National Park Costa Rica 1997 ix; x permanent Population by tourists which stay inland vii; viii; Enlisted as in danger Galápagos Islands Equator 1978Filter 3 overnight ix; x property New Uninhabited / No New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands 1998 ix; x Zealand permanent Population • Existence of permanent population Russian Uninhabited / No Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve 2004 ix; x Federation permanent Population that is involved with tourismFilter 4 Uninhabited / No Aldabra Atoll Sychelles 1982 vii; ix; x permanent Population United Uninhabited / No Gough and Inaccessible Islands 1995 vii; x Kingdom permanent Population United Uninhabited / No Henderson Island 1988 vii; x Kingdom permanent Population
    19. 19. Multiple Case Study Site Selection FERNANDO DE NORONHA ARCHIPELAGO LORD HOWE ISLANDS
    20. 20. Lord Howe Island Group
    21. 21. Fernando de Noronha Archipelago
    22. 22. Sites Characteristics Island Name Fernando de Noronha Lord Howe Island Country Name Brazil Australia Country Population 191,429,828 21,844,831 Country Area 8,511,965 sq km 7,692,024 sq km Country Density 22.4 per sq km 2.8 per sq km State PE NSW Island Population 2,321 364 Island Area 16.99 sq km 15.2 sq km Island Density 136.6 per sq km 23.9 per sq km Visitors Limit 450 400 Distance from Connecting Airport 545 km 700 km Part of National Marine Park Yes YesWorld Heritage Enlisted by UNESCO 2001 1982
    23. 23. Definitions of TourismConsider tourism as:• Sector/Industry;• Activity; or• Phenomenon.Leiper (1979) categorises definitions as:• Economic;• Technical; and• Holistic
    24. 24. Economic Definitions of TourismTourism is an indentifiable nationallyimportant industry. The industry involvesa wide cross section of componentactivites including the provision oftransportation, accommodation, recreation, food, and related services (AustralianDepartment of Tourism &Recreation, 1975).
    25. 25. 25 Technical Definitions of Tourism UNWTO: • “Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes” (MacIntosh et al, 1995). • Facilities for social sustainability
    26. 26. 26 Holistic Definitions of Tourism Hunkizer and Krapf (1943): • Tourism is the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected to any earning activity (Burkart, 1981). • Facilities for social sustainability
    27. 27. Tourism Models• Explanatory Models Versus• Prescriptive Models• Tourism Spatial Models Versus• Tourism Structural Models
    28. 28. 28 Leiper’s Tourism Model (1979) The three basic elements of Leiper’s Model: • Tourists • Geographical Elements • Tourism Industry It lacks to acknowledge: • Locals (hosts) • Other regions of the globe • Facilities for social sustainability
    29. 29. Tourism System (SISTUR – Sistema de Turismo, Beni, 2001)
    30. 30. 30 Tourism Impacts and Meta Impacts Impacts Economic Social Positive Multiplier Effect Decrease of Social Service Intensive (Jobs) Differences Invisible Export (Inbound) Sense of Community Spatial Redistribution of New social structures Currency Local Development Wider Access to Products Negative Invisible Import Increase of Social (Outbound) Differences Currency Leakage Crime Rates, Diseases, etc Inflation Sense of Community Competition with New Social Structures traditional industries Neo Colonialism Impacts Environmental (Meta) Cultural Positive Help Protect and Identity Recall Conserve Heritage Value Help Change Mindset and Broadening of Global Behaviour Understading Negative Help Damage and Destroy Demonstration Effect Help Change Priorities Xenophobism and Behaviour Staged Behaviour
    31. 31. Tourism Development Models• Tourism Development Versus• Tourism Evolution• Tourism Dev. Explanatory Models Versus• Tourism Dev. Prescriptive Models• Product (Destination) Centric• Market (Tourist) Centric• Product and Market Centric
    32. 32. 32 Tourist Psychographic Personality Profiles (Plog, 2001) Venturers: more independent, intellectually curious, willing to take risks and to be challenged and that would require a lot of self-confidence, quick decisions and their own personal judgement Dependables: seek experiences that are more familiar, somehow conservative and passive, more predictive and well-thought of, more popular and well-established • Facilities for social sustainability
    33. 33. 33 Tourist Area Life Cycle (Butler, 1980)Of key importance is the intervention ofmanagement to prevent developmentexceeding the inherent capacity of thedestination (capacity defined in terms oflimits of economic, social, environmentaland physical parameters), on the basisthat if capacity levels wereexceeded, decline in quality of visitorand resident experiences wouldresult, along with environmental andother problems, and these would resultin a decline in visitation and thus alsotourist expenditure and funds forreinvestment in the destination(Butler, 2009, p. 348).
    34. 34. Trend Dynamics (Vejlgaard, 2008, p. 64)The role of trend-settersand trend followers in theprocess of making trendsmainstreamKey people in the tourismdestination could beresponsible for beginningthe process of tourist-hostacculturation.
    35. 35. Managing Limits to Tourism FlowsDimensions of Carrying • Miguel Cifuentes – CC (Wearing, 1999)Capacity (CC): • Visitor Impact Management – VIM• Ecological (Farrell, 2002)• Social • Limits of Acceptable Change – LAC (Stankey, 1985)• Cultural • Visitor Activity Management Process – VAMP• Economic (Eagles, 2002)• Psychological • Tourism Optimization Model – TOMM (ibid)• Physical • Recreation Opportunity Spectrum – ROS (ibid)• Tourist • Visitor Experience and Resources Protection - VERP (US Department of Interior, 1997)
    36. 36. Proposed Human-Environment Relations Base Model Human Needs Human Beings Human Resources Human Systems Environmental Systems Environmental Biosphere Resources Atmosphere Hydrosphere Litosphere Reshaping Consequence of Reshaping
    37. 37. Proposed Tourism DefinitionTourism is the sum of temporary and sporadichuman travel to non-routine areas. It ismotivated by the search for alternative ways tosatisfy specific human needs to those that areavailable in their areas of residency. Tourism iscapable to transversely impact theenvironmental and human resources andsystems of all areas delineated by its occurrence(originating, transit, destination and all otherregions) as well as the globe as a whole. It thusinterferes positively and negatively with thehuman capacity to survive (global dimension oftourism development sustainability) as well aswith the tourist destination’s capacity tocontinue to attract tourism flows (sectoraldimension of tourism developmentsustainability).
    38. 38. Tourism Development Sustainability DefinitionTourism development sustainability isunderstood as the degree of resilience of atourism development operational model(and therefore its capacity to increase thechances of its long-term continuance).Such resilience is understood as beingdependent on the model’s capacity toestablish a mutual positive outcomerelationship with global and local(destination, transit route, origin and otherareas) human and environmental systemsit relates to, aiming at the conservationand democratic access of human andenvironmental resources for existing andfuture generations.
    39. 39. Proposed Tourism Development Model + Endogenous Atributes or Degree of Authenticity Human Needs Exogenous Atributes or Degree of Tourism Humans Beings Orientation Human Resources Human Systems Environmental Systems Environmental Resources Temporary Not Reshaped Relocation Reshaping Reshaped not for Tourism Purposes Consequence Reshaped for Of Reshaping Tourism Purposes
    40. 40. 40 References AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM AND RECREATION 1975. Development of Tourism in Australia, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service. BENI, M. C. 2001. Análise Estrutural do Turismo, São Paulo, SENAC. BURKART, A. J. & MEDLIK, S. 1981. Tourism: past, present and future, London, Heinemann. BUTLER, R. W. 1980. The Concept of a Tourist Area Life Cycle of Evolution: implication for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer, 24, 5-12. EAGLES, P. F. J., MCCOOL, S. F. & HAYNES, C. D. 2002. Sustainable tourism in protected areas: Guidelines for planning and management, Gland, World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). FARRELL, T. A. & MARION, J. L. 2002. The protected area visitor impact management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10, 31-51. GLASER, B. G. & STRAUSS, A. L. 1967. The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research, Chicago, Aldine Pub. Co. HUNZIKER, W. & KRAPF, K. 2011. Grundriß Der Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre, Zürich, Polygr. Verl. MCINTOSH, R. W., GOELDNER, C. R. & RITCHIE, J. R. B. 1995. Tourism: principles, practices, philosophies, New York, Wiley. MICHAEL, E. J. 2007. Micro-clusters and networks: the growth of tourism, Oxford, Elsevier. PATTON, M. Q. 2002. Qualitative research and evaluation methods, Thousand Oaks, California, Sage Publications. PLOG, S. 2001. Why Destination Areas Rise and Fall in Popularity: An Update of a Cornell Quarterly Classic. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42, 13-24.12 • Facilities for social
    41. 41. 41 References PORTER, M. E. 1998. Clusters and the New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business Review, 76, 77-90. TOURISM AUSTRALIA. 2011. Tourist Arrivals Data [Online]. Sydney: Tourism Australia. Available: http://www.tourism.australia.com/en-au/research/default_3935.aspx [Accessed 26/07/2011. UNESCO 1972. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. In: NATIONS, U. (ed.). Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE CENTRE. 2008. World Heritage Information Kit [Online]. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Available: http://whc.unesco.org/en/activities/567/activity- 567-1.pdf. US DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR. 1997. The Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) framework: a handbook for planners and managers [Online]. Denver: National Park Service. Available: http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/3849348 [Accessed 30/08/2010. VEJLGAARD, H. 2008. Anatomy of a trend, New York, McGraw-Hill. WALDROP, M. M. 1992. Complexity: the emerging science at the edge of order and chaos, New York, Simon & Schuster. WEARING, S. & NEIL, J. 1999. Ecotourism: impacts, potentials, and possibilities, Oxford ; Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann. WTTC 2011a. Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2011: Australia. World Travel & Tourism Council. London. WTTC 2011b. Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2011: World. World Travel & Tourism Council. London. YIN, R. K. 2009. Case study research: design and methods, Thousand Oaks, Calif., SAGE.12 • Facilities for social
    42. 42. Further informationAccess www.lndmoraes.id.au for:• Current state of research• Research project and methodology• Photos and videos of the two sites• Information about the two case study sites• Contact information

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