Fernando	  de	  Noronha	                                             Wet	  Season	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  MORAES	  
Fernando	  de	  Noronha	                                             Dry	  Season	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  MORAES	  
Fernando	  de	  Noronha	                                             Water	  and	  Agriculture	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	...
Fernando	  de	  Noronha	                                             Energy	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  MORAES	  
Fernando	  de	  Noronha	                                             Marine	  Park	  Tourist	  AcBviBes	  LEONARDO	  NOGUE...
Fernando	  de	  Noronha	                                             Cultural	  Heritage	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  MORA...
Three	  Sources	  of	  Evidence/Data	                                             (adapted	  from	  Yin,	  2009,	  p.	  10...
Two	  Stages	  of	  Field	  Data	  CollecBon	                                             •  Stage	  0:	                  ...
Secondary	  Data	  (Context)	                                              Seeking	  to	  understand:	                    ...
Direct	  ObservaBon	  (Outcomes)	                                                With	  its	  core	  focus	  on	  outcomes...
In-­‐Depth	  QualitaBve	  Interviews	                                             •  1st	  stage	  (2-­‐3	  per	  site)	  ...
Contextual	  Interviews	  (1st	  stage)	                                             Two	  or	  three	  key	  informants	 ...
Focused	  Interviews	  (1st	  and	  2nd	  stages)	                                                     •  Regulatory	  and...
Choice	  of	  CommunicaBon	  Strategy	                                             •  Is	  the	  researcher	  looking	  fo...
Choice	  of	  Recording	  Equipment	                    	                       •  What	  kind	  of	  data	  is	  being	  ...
Interview	  Room	  Layout	                                                                 3600mm.                        ...
Board	  as	  Medium	                                             •  ConstrucBve	  rather	  than	  ReporKve	               ...
Sefng	  Boundaries	  and	  Data	  CollecBon	                                             •  Pre-­‐selected	  interdependen...
Samples	    •  RelaKonships	  within	       the	  same	  categories	       of	  elements	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  MORA...
Samples	    •  RelaKonships	       between	  different	       categories	  of	       elements	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  ...
Approvals	  and	  Support	                                             •  UNESCO	  Observatory	  for	  MulK-­‐Disciplinary...
22                                           PART	  6	  –	  DISCUSSION	  OF	                                             P...
Land	  Tenure	                                             •  Different	  schemes	  of	  land	  tenure	  will	  bring	     ...
World	  Heritage	                                             •  As	  any	  other	  type	  of	  protected	  area	         ...
Tourist	  Carrying	  Capacity	                                             •  Different	  ways	  of	  controlling	  tourism...
Tourism	  Vs.	  Other	  Local	  Sectors	        Size	  of	  Local	  Economic	                      •  Tourism	  can	  both...
27                                           PART	  7	  –	  FINAL	  REMARKS	  LEONARDO	  NOGUEIRA	  DE	  MORAES	  
Some	  of	  my	  conclusions	  so	  far	                                             •  Tourism	  can	  be	  a	  great	  t...
29                                           Further	  informaBon	                                             Access	  ww...
30                                           References	                                             •    AUSTRALIAN	  DEP...
31                                           References	  (cont.)	                                             •    MTUR.	...
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The economics of tourism development 2012 part 3


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This guest lecture was presented as part of the Subject The Economies of Cities and Regions of the Master of Urban Planning programme of the University of Melbourne. It introduces students to key concepts in tourism, tourism development and sustainability that allow the debate of the sustainability of tourism development in selected case studies from an economic perspective.

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The economics of tourism development 2012 part 3

  1. 1. Fernando  de  Noronha   Wet  Season  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  2. 2. Fernando  de  Noronha   Dry  Season  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  3. 3. Fernando  de  Noronha   Water  and  Agriculture  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  4. 4. Fernando  de  Noronha   Energy  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  5. 5. Fernando  de  Noronha   Marine  Park  Tourist  AcBviBes  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  6. 6. Fernando  de  Noronha   Cultural  Heritage  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  7. 7. Three  Sources  of  Evidence/Data   (adapted  from  Yin,  2009,  p.  102)   “…  a  major  strength  of  case  study  data   1.  Secondary  Data   collecBon  is  the  opportunity  to  use  many   (context)   different  sources  of  evidence.   2.  In-­‐Depth  QualitaKve   Furthermore,  the  need  to  use  mulBple   Interviews   sources  of  evidence  far  exceeds  that  in   (relaKonships)   other    research  methods  such  as   3.  Direct  ObservaKon   experiments  surveys  or  histories”  (Yin,   (outcomes)   2009,  p.  114-­‐5).  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  8. 8. Two  Stages  of  Field  Data  CollecBon   •  Stage  0:   –  Secondary  Data  (Off-­‐Site)   •  Stage  1:   –  Contextual  Interviews  (Core)   –  Focused  Interviews  (Pilot)   –  Secondary  Data  (Core)   –  Direct  ObservaBon  (Core)   •  Stage  2:   –  Focused  Interviews  (Core)   –  Secondary  Data  (Complementary)   –  Direct  ObservaKon  (Complementary)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  9. 9. Secondary  Data  (Context)   Seeking  to  understand:   •  Formal  Vision  of  Sustainability  and  of   (Tourism)  Development   To  be  carried  out   throughout  the  research   •  Formally  implemented  or  aYempted   process,  it  includes:   strategies   •  Legal  and  Public  Policy   •  Formal  awareness  of  the  role  of   Documents   compeBBon  and  cooperaBon  as   •  StaKsKcs   drivers  and  inhibitors  of  higher  levels   •  Master  Plans   of  sustainability  within  tourism   •  Management  Plans   development   •  Reports  and  others   •  History,  trends  and  paXerns  of   development  in  general   •  SituaBonal  context  in  which  tourism   development  occurs  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  10. 10. Direct  ObservaBon  (Outcomes)   With  its  core  focus  on  outcomes,  it   includes:   •  Landscape   It  was  carried  out   •  Landmarks   (mainly  in  the  1st  stage)   through  a  qualitaBve   •  Infra-­‐structure   approach,  by  the   •  PopulaKon  Behaviour   adaptaBon  of  the   •  Tourist  Behaviour   UNWTO’s  sustainable   tourism  indicators  and   •  Trade  Behaviour   the  use  of  observaBon   •  Others   scripts  and  forms   With  regard  to  relaKonships  it  includes:   •  Public  MeeKngs  and   •  Private  MeeKngs  (when  authorised)  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  11. 11. In-­‐Depth  QualitaBve  Interviews   •  1st  stage  (2-­‐3  per  site)   –  Contextual  Interviews  (core)   –  Focused  Interviews  (pilot)   •  2nd  stage  (17-­‐23  per  site)   –  Focused  Interviews  (core)   Total:  40-­‐50  interviews  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  12. 12. Contextual  Interviews  (1st  stage)   Two  or  three  key  informants  in  each  site   that  could  help  with  an  overview  of  the   place,  of  further  sources  of  secondary   data  and  with  the  start  of  the  snowball   approach  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  13. 13. Focused  Interviews  (1st  and  2nd  stages)   •  Regulatory  and  Law  Enforcement   Bodies  (≈  3)   •  Planning  and  Management  Bodies  (≈  2)   •  2  or  3  Key  Informants   per  site  (pilot:  1st  stage)   •  Tourism  Industry  (≈  5)   •  17  to  23  RepresentaBves   •  Complementary  Industries  (≈  2)   of  each  group  that  is   •  CompeKng  Industries  (≈  1)   involved  or  affected  by   the  development  of   •  Local  Community  (≈  3)   tourism  per  site  (2nd   •  NGOs  (≈  2)   stage)   •  Researchers  (≈  1)   •  Others  (e.g.  Military,  if  applicable)  (≈  1)   •  Total  ≈  20  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  14. 14. Choice  of  CommunicaBon  Strategy   •  Is  the  researcher  looking  for  a  more   subjecKve  or  objecKve  view  from  the   interviewee?   •  SubjecKve  X   •  Is  the  researcher  ader  a  more  descripKve   ObjecKve   or  analyKcal  response  from  the   •  ReporKve  X   interviewee?   ConstrucKve   •  What  is  the  role  of  the  interviewer  when   conducKng  the  interview?  What  is  the   •  Individual  X   overall  objecKve  of  the  interview?  Is  the   CollaboraKve   interviewer  supposed  to  have  a  more   •  DeducKve  X   recepKve  or  interacKve  role  in  the   InducKve   interview?   •  Is  the  data  being  gathered  supposed  to   provide  input  for  the  way  the  rest  of  the   interview  is  being  conducted?  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  15. 15. Choice  of  Recording  Equipment     •  What  kind  of  data  is  being  collected?     •  How  comfortable  are  the  interviewers   Video  Cameras   with  disclosing  such  data?   X   •  Can  the  researcher  collect  the  data  in   Audio  Recorders  and   a  way  in  which  the  interviewer  is   comfortable  enough  to  disclose   Photo  Cameras   sensiKve  informaKon  when  this  is   required?  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  16. 16. Interview  Room  Layout   3600mm. 900mm. •  Chair  posiKoning   ’EE   •  Camera  posiKoning   C •  Voice  recorder   posiKoning   5750mm. ‘ER   •  Board  posiKoning   •  Table  posiKoning   •  Windows   1500mm. 1500mm.LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  17. 17. Board  as  Medium   •  ConstrucBve  rather  than  ReporKve   •  CollaboraBve  rather  than  Individual   •  Provides  a  more  suitable  plaiorm  for   inducBve  research   •  What  is  registered  can  be  more  easily   referred  back  to   •  Caters  for  a  more  objecBve  interview,   as  it  sets  the  boundaries  to  what  is   being  discussed   •  Most  importantly,  provides  a  medium   throughwhich  interviewees  can   comunicate  sensiBve  data  without   feeling  exposed  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  18. 18. Sefng  Boundaries  and  Data  CollecBon   •  Pre-­‐selected  interdependent  groups  of   elements  to  be  idenKfied   People   •  IniKal  set  is  created  with  research  on   OrganisaBons   secondary  sources  and  with  the   Groups   contextual  interviews   Drivers  and  Inhibitors   •  New  elements  are  added  by   Indicators   interviewees  during  the  focused   interviews  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  19. 19. Samples   •  RelaKonships  within   the  same  categories   of  elements  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  20. 20. Samples   •  RelaKonships   between  different   categories  of   elements  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  21. 21. Approvals  and  Support   •  UNESCO  Observatory  for  MulK-­‐Disciplinary   Research  in  the  Arts  (University  of  Melbourne)   •  Architecture,  Building  and  Planning  Human   Ethics  Advisory  Group  (University  of  Melbourne)   •  LHIB  -­‐  Lord  Howe  Island  Board   •  ICMBio  -­‐  InsKtuto  Chico  Mendes  de   Conservação  da  Biodiversidade   •  ADEFN  –  Administração  do  Distrito  Estadual  de   Fernando  de  Noronha  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  23. 23. Land  Tenure   •  Different  schemes  of  land  tenure  will  bring   different  consequences  to  the  sustainability  of   local  communiKes  embedded  in  different   cultural  contexts  and  under  different  types  of   pressure.   •  Building  codes  and  restricKons  on  the   importaKon  of  building  materials  are   complementary  to  land  tenure  as  means  of   development  control,  but  these  must  be   carefully  orchestrated  so  as  not  to  result  in   controversial  outcomes.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  24. 24. World  Heritage   •  As  any  other  type  of  protected  area   conservaKon  scheme,  World  Heritage  LisKng   can  be  used  not  only  for  conservaKon  purposes   but  also  for  poliKcal  reasons  as  it  infers  change   of  control  over  land  areas.   •  The  effects  of  lisKng  are  mulKple  and  must  be   studied  in  more  depth  as  they  can  greatly  vary   from  site  to  site  and  can  be  considerable.   •  The  very  concept  of  heritage  must  be  more   deeply  debated  in  light  of  concepts  of  resilience   and  complex  adapKve  systems  in  order  to  make   them  more  of  an  instrument  of  sustainability   rather  than  simply  of  conservaKon.   •  World  Heritage  LisKng  must  be  beYer   integrated  with  other  internaKonal  conservaKon   schemes  in  order  to  beYer  make  use  of  its   potenKal  and  avoid  bringing  up  controversial   consequences.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  25. 25. Tourist  Carrying  Capacity   •  Different  ways  of  controlling  tourism  carrying   capacity  can  lead  to  different  economic   outcomes   •  By  restricKon  of  the  number  of  beds  (and   accommodaKon  providers)  but  not  the  number   of  local  tour  operators,  different  scenarios  of   compeKKon  arise  in  these  two  sectors  of  the   local  tourism  industry.   •  By  controlling  the  number  of  tourists  that  can   enter  the  desKnaKon  on  any  given  day,  the   control  of  tourism  flows  is  more  relaxed  and  can   bring  different  consequences  in  regards  to   tourism  impact  on  the  economy  and  the   environment.  It  can  push  for  innovaKon,  in  the   sense  of  trying  to  sKmulate  longer  stays,  but  it   can  also  sKmulate  overdevelopment  with  most   residents  transforming  their  residences  in   accommodaKon  (more  democraKc),  for   instance.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  26. 26. Tourism  Vs.  Other  Local  Sectors   Size  of  Local  Economic   •  Tourism  can  both  compete  and  cooperate  with   Sectors   other  local  economic  sectors  in  different  ways;   •  Increased  connecKons  with  originaKng  regions   Tourism   make  it  easier  for  tourism  to  became  the  major,   if  not  the  only,  economic  sector  for  isolated   Agriculture   small  tourism  desKnaKons;   •  By  doing  that,  tourist  actually  decreases  the   Livestock   local  economic  diversity  leading  to  loss  of   resilience.   Others  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  28. 28. Some  of  my  conclusions  so  far   •  Tourism  can  be  a  great  tool  for  economic   development  and  environmental  conservaKon,   but  it  can  also  easily  lead  to  the  development  of   economic  relaKons  of  new-­‐colonialism,  leading   to  loss  of  resilience  of  the  local  communiKes   and  consequently  of  local  environments  in  the   long  run.   •  Localised  protected  areas  MUST  try  their  best  to   conciliate  human  development  with  ecological   cycles  rather  than  simply  imposing  restricKons   that  end  up  leading  to  unsustainable  outcomes   at  the  global  level  and  loss  of  social-­‐ecological   resilience  at  the  local  level.   •  If  planners  are  to  implement  changes  in  the   model  of  tourism  development  in  place  for  a   certain  desKnaKon,  they  first  need  to   understand  what  are  the  self-­‐moderaKng  and   self-­‐reinforcing  process  that  will  facilitate  or   make  harder  the  planned  transiKon.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  29. 29. 29 Further  informaBon   Access  www.lndmoraes.id.au  for:   •  Current  state  of  research   •  Research  project  and  methodology   •  Photos  and  videos  of  the  two  sites   •  InformaKon  about  the  two  case  study   sites   •  Contact  informaKon  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  30. 30. 30 References   •  AUSTRALIAN  DEPARTMENT  OF  TOURISM  AND  RECREATION  1975.  Development  of  Tourism  in  Australia,  Canberra,   Australian  Government  Publishing  Service.   •  BENI,  M.  C.  2001.  Análise  Estrutural  do  Turismo,  São  Paulo,  SENAC.   •  BURKART,  A.  J.  &  MEDLIK,  S.  1981.  Tourism:  past,  present  and  future,  London,  Heinemann.   •  BUTLER,  R.  W.  1980.  The  Concept  of  a  Tourist  Area  Life  Cycle  of  EvoluKon:  implicaKon  for  management  of  resources.   The  Canadian  Geographer,  24,  5-­‐12.   •  COMTUR  DE  BONITO  1995.  Resolução  NormaKva  No  001/95  -­‐  Voucher  Único.   •  DFAT.  2010.  Australias  Top  25  Exports:  Goods  and  Services  [Online].  Canberra:  Australian  Government  Department   of  Foreign  Affairs  and  Trade.  Available:  hYp://www.dfat.gov.au/publicaKons/tgs/exports-­‐top25-­‐2009.pdf  [Accessed   30/08/2010].   •  EAGLES,  P.  F.  J.,  MCCOOL,  S.  F.  &  HAYNES,  C.  D.  2002.  Sustainable  tourism  in  protected  areas:  Guidelines  for   planning  and  management,  Gland,  World  Commission  on  Protected  Areas  (WCPA)  InternaKonal  Union  for   ConservaKon  of  Nature  (IUCN).   •  FARRELL,  T.  A.  &  MARION,  J.  L.  2002.  The  protected  area  visitor  impact  management  (PAVIM)  framework:  A   simplified  process  for  making  management  decisions.  Journal  of  Sustainable  Tourism,  10,  31-­‐51.   •  GEELS,  F.  W.  2011.  The  mulK-­‐level  perspecKve  on  sustainability  transiKons:  Responses  to  seven  criKcisms.   Environmental  InnovaKon  and  Societal  TransiKons,  1,  24-­‐40.   •  GILMORE,  J.  H.  &  PINE,  B.  J.  2007.  AuthenKcity:  what  consumers  really  want,  Boston,  Mass.,  Harvard  Business  School   Press.   •  GLASER,  B.  G.  &  STRAUSS,  A.  L.  1967.  The  discovery  of  grounded  theory:  strategies  for  qualitaKve  research,  Chicago,   Aldine  Pub.  Co.   •  HUNZIKER,  W.  &  KRAPF,  K.  2011.  Grundriß  Der  Allgemeinen  Fremdenverkehrslehre,  Zürich,  Polygr.  Verl.   •  IBGE.  2010.  Países@  [Online].  Brasília:  InsKtuto  Brasileiro  de  Geografia  e  Esta•sKca  -­‐  Ministério  do  Planejamento  -­‐   Governo  Federal  da  República  FederaKva  do  Brasil.  Available:  hYp://www.ibge.gov.br/paisesat/  [Accessed   09/09/2010].   •  INSTITUTO  ESTRADA  REAL.  2010.  Produção  Associada  ao  Turismo  [Online].  Belo  Horizonte:  InsKtuto  Estrada  Real.   Available:  hYp://www.estradareal.org.br/hotsite/prod_turismo/home/index.asp  [Accessed  07/07/2010].   •  INSTITUTO  MARCA  BRASIL.  2010.  Tour  da  Experiência  [Online].  Brasília.  Available:  hYp:// www.tourdaexperiencia.com/  [Accessed  18/06/2010].   •  ITCP-­‐COPPE-­‐UFRJ.  2010.  Projeto  CooperaKvas  no  Turismo  [Online].  Rio  de  Janeiro:  UFRJ.  Available:  hYp:// www.itcp.coppe.ufrj.br/projetos_turismo.php  [Accessed  09/06/2010].   •  LEIPER,  N.  1979.  The  framework  of  tourism:  Towards  a  definiKon  of  tourism,  tourist,  and  the  tourist  industry.  Annals   of  Tourism  Research,  6,  390-­‐407.   •  MCINTOSH,  R.  W.,  GOELDNER,  C.  R.  &  RITCHIE,  J.  R.  B.  1995.  Tourism:  principles,  pracKces,  philosophies,  New  York,   Wiley.   •  MICHAEL,  E.  J.  2007.  Micro-­‐clusters  and  networks:  the  growth  of  tourism,  Oxford,  Elsevier.   •  MTUR.  2010.  Ministério  do  Turismo  -­‐  Dados  e  Fatos  [Online].  Brasília:  Ministério  do  Turismo  -­‐  Governo  da  República   FederaKva  do  Brasil.  Available:  hYp://www.dadosefatos.turismo.gov.br/dadosefatos/home.html  [Accessed   09/09/2010].  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES  
  31. 31. 31 References  (cont.)   •  MTUR.  2011.  Ministério  do  Turismo  -­‐  Desembarques  Internacionais  [Online].  Brasília.  Available:  hYp:// www.dadosefatos.turismo.gov.br/dadosefatos/estaKsKcas_indicadores/desembarques_internacionais/.   •  NOLD,  C.  2010.  BioMapping  /  EmoKon  Mapping  [Online].  London.  Available:  hYp://www.biomapping.net/  [Accessed   18/06/2010].   •  PATTON,  M.  Q.  2002.  QualitaKve  research  and  evaluaKon  methods,  Thousand  Oaks,  California,  Sage  PublicaKons.   •  PINE,  B.  J.  &  GILMORE,  J.  H.  1999.  The  experience  economy:  work  is  theatre  &  every  business  a  stage,  Boston,   Harvard  Business  School  Press.   •  PLOG,  S.  2001.  Why  DesKnaKon  Areas  Rise  and  Fall  in  Popularity:  An  Update  of  a  Cornell  Quarterly  Classic.  Cornell   Hotel  and  Restaurant  AdministraKon  Quarterly,  42,  13-­‐24.   •  PORTER,  M.  E.  1998.  On  compeKKon,  Boston,  MA,  Harvard  Businesss  School  Publishing.   •  PORTER,  M.  E.  2004.  CompeKKve  strategy:  techniques  for  analyzing  industries  and  compeKtors,  New  York  ;  London,   Free.   •  SÃO  PAULO  TURISMO.  2009.  Mapa  das  Sensações  [Online].  São  Paulo:  São  Paulo  Turismo.  Available:  hYp:// www.mapadassensacoes.com.br/  [Accessed  09/06/2010].   •  STANKEY,  G.  H.,  COLE,  D.  N.,  LUCAS,  R.  C.,  PETERSEN,  M.  E.  &  FRISSELL,  S.  S.  1985.  The  limits  of  acceptable  change   (LAC)  system  for  wilderness  planning.  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture  -­‐  Forest  Service.  Ogden,  UT.   •  TOURISM  AUSTRALIA.  2011.  Tourist  Arrivals  Data  [Online].  Sydney:  Tourism  Australia.  Available:  hYp:// www.tourism.australia.com/en-­‐au/research/default_3935.aspx  [Accessed  26/07/2011].   •  UNESCO  1972.  ConvenKon  Concerning  the  ProtecKon  of  the  World  Cultural  and  Natural  Heritage.  In:  NATIONS,  U.   (ed.).  Paris:  UNESCO.   •  UNESCO  WORLD  HERITAGE  CENTRE.  2008.  World  Heritage  InformaKon  Kit  [Online].  Paris:  UNESCO  World  Heritage   Centre.  Available:  hYp://whc.unesco.org/en/acKviKes/567/acKvity-­‐567-­‐1.pdf.   •  UNWTO  2004.  Indicators  of  sustainable  development  for  tourism  desKnaKons:  a  guidebook,  Madrid,  Spain,  United   NaKons  World  Tourism  OrganizaKon.   •  US  DEPARTMENT  OF  INTERIOR.  1997.  The  Visitor  Experience  and  Resource  ProtecKon  (VERP)  framework:  a   handbook  for  planners  and  managers  [Online].  Denver:  NaKonal  Park  Service.  Available:  hYp:// catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/3849348  [Accessed  30/08/2010].   •  VEJLGAARD,  H.  2008.  Anatomy  of  a  trend,  New  York,  McGraw-­‐Hill.   •  WALDROP,  M.  M.  1992.  Complexity:  the  emerging  science  at  the  edge  of  order  and  chaos,  New  York,  Simon  &   Schuster.   •  WEARING,  S.  &  NEIL,  J.  1999.  Ecotourism:  impacts,  potenKals,  and  possibiliKes,  Oxford  ;  Boston,  BuYerworth-­‐ Heinemann.   •  WTTC  2011.  Travel  &  Tourism  Economic  Impact  2011:  Australia.  World  Travel  &  Tourism  Council.  London.   •  WTTC  2011.  Travel  &  Tourism  Economic  Impact  2011:  Brazil.  World  Travel  &  Tourism  Council.  London.   •  WTTC  2011.  Travel  &  Tourism  Economic  Impact  2011:  World.  World  Travel  &  Tourism  Council.  London.   •  YIN,  R.  K.  2009.  Case  study  research:  design  and  methods,  Thousand  Oaks,  Calif.,  SAGE.  LEONARDO  NOGUEIRA  DE  MORAES