2012: The Grand Challenges in Natural Computing Research


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Talk presented at the Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems (BRACIS 2012), Curitiba, PR, Brazil, October 2012.

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2012: The Grand Challenges in Natural Computing Research

  1. 1. The Grand Challenges inNatural Computing Research Leandro Nunes de Castro Lnunes@mackenzie.br @lndecastro Computing and Informatics Faculty & Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering Natural Computing Laboratory (LCoN) www.mackenzie.br/lcon.html 1BRACIS 2012: Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems, Curitiba, Brazil, October, 2012
  2. 2. Natural Computing An Overview** de Castro, L. N. (2007), “Fundamentals of Natural Computing: An Overview”, Physics of Life Reviews, 4(1), pp. 1-36. 2
  3. 3. Computing: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow* • 1940s: Study of automatic computing; • 1950s: Study of information processing; • 1960s: Study of phenomena surrounding computers; • 1970s: Study of what can be automated; • 1980s: Study of computation; • 2000s: Study of information processes, both natural and artificial.* Denning, P. (2008), “Computing Field: Structure”, In B. Wah (Ed.), Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science andEngineering, Wiley Interscience. 3
  4. 4. From the early days of computer science, by the 1940s, researchers have been interested in tracing parallels and designing computational models andabstractions of natural phenomena. 4
  5. 5. [τ ij ( t )] .[η ij ] k k if j Jip (t ) ij k [τ il ( t )] .[η il ] l Ji 0 outros casos k k k Q / L (t ) if ( i , j ) T (t ) τ (t ) ij 0 outros casos ij(t) (1 ) ij(t) + ij(t)
  6. 6. Separation Alignment Cohesion 8
  7. 7. UL A U E R L A E R Mix Ā Ō Ē R Anneal Ā Ē R Ō Extensão de Polimerase U LigaçãoL A E R U Desnaturação L A E RL Mix com L L Ā Ē RL Ā Ē R Anneal Ō Ō Extensão de Polimerase Destruição da molécula originalL A O E RL Ā Ō Ē R
  8. 8. Natural Computing: The Old View Bioinspiration Theoretical WorksMathematical Natural Computational Synthesis of Natural Models Computing Phenomena Empirical Works Computing with Natural Materials
  9. 9. Natural Computing: The New Perspective Computer Natural Modeling of Nature computing is a science concerned with the Computing Natural Nature- investigation with New Inspired Materials Computing Computing and design of information processing in natural and Computer computational Synthesis of Natural systems. Phenomena
  10. 10. Natural Computing The Grand Challenges** de Castro, L. N.; Xavier, R. S.; Pasti, R.; Maia, R. D.; Szabo, A.; Ferrari, D. G. (2012), "The Grand Challenges in NaturalComputing Research: The Quest for a New Science", Int. J. Nat. Comp. Res., 2(4), p. 16. 13
  11. 11. The Grand Challenges (GCs) The GCs aim at defining research questions that tend to be important in the long term, identifying and characterizing potential grand research problems. These may allow the formulation of projects capable of producing major scientific advancements, with practical applications for society and technology. Emphasis is in advancing science, a vision beyond specific projects, a clear and objective success evaluation and a great ambition.** www.sbc.org.br 14
  12. 12. Biology MultidisciplinarityComputer Natural Physics Science Computing Biology Chemistry Computer Natural Physics Science Computing Interdisciplinarity Chemistry 15
  13. 13. How to transpose Natural Computing into a Biology transdisciplinary context?Computer Natural Physics Science Computing ChemistryGC 1: Transforming Natural Computing into a transdisciplinary discipline 16
  14. 14. “Computer science differs from physics in that it is not actually a science. It does not study natural objects. Neither is it mathematics. It’s like engineering – about getting to do something, rather than dealing with abstractions”.* “Biology is today an information science”*** Feynman, R. P. (1996), “The Feynman Lectures on Computation”, In A. J. G. Hey and R. W. Allen (Ed.), (Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley).** Denning, P. J., (2001) (Ed.), The Invisible Future: The Seamless Integration of Technology in Everyday Life, McGraw- 17Hill.
  15. 15. What is the Natural Computing role in this Informational Natural Sciences Era?Overcoming this challenge will bring twoimportant benefits to Computing and Nature:• A Rethinking (and probably Redesign) ofComputing• A New Form of Interacting With and UsingNature GC 2: Unveiling and harnessinginformation processing in natural systems 18
  16. 16. Natural systems are open systems that communicate with the environment presenting a complex and emergentbehavior. Complex biological systems must be modeled as self-referential, self- organizing, and auto-generative systems whose computational behavior goes farbeyond the TM/VN paradigm. The systemrestructures itself in a hardware-softwarenon-dissociable interaction: the hardware defines the software, and the software defines the hardware. 19
  17. 17. Are there standards to design naturalcomputing systems?* To what degree defining standards for the engineering of Natural Computing systems is a limiting factor for the creative development of the field?GC 3: Engineering Natural Computing Systems. * Brueckner, S. A.; Serugendo, G. D. M.; Karageorgos, A.; Nagpal, R., (2005), Engineering Self-Organizing Systems, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 3464, Springer. * de Castro, L. N. (2001), Immune Engineering: Development and Application of Computational Tools Inspired by Artificial Immune Systems, Ph. D. Thesis presented at the Computer and Electrical Engineering School, Unicamp, Brazil. * Fernandez-Marquez, J. L.; Serugendo, G. D. M.; Montagna, S.; Viroli M.; Arcos J. L (2012), “Description and Composition of Bio-Inspired Design Patterns: A Complete Overview”, Natural Computing, Online, DOI 10.1007/s11047-012-9324-y. * Nagpal, R.; Mamei, M. (2004), “Engineering Amorphous Computing Systems”, Multiagent Systems, Artificial Societies, and Simulated Organizations, 11, Part V, pp. 303-320. 20
  18. 18. The Grand Challenges in Natural Computing Research• The field needs to advance in a more consistent and formal way.• Transforming Natural Computing into a Transdisciplinary Discipline.• Unveiling and Harnessing Information Processing in Natural Systems.• Engineering Natural Computing Systems. 21
  19. 19. Discussion Natural Computing:The Past, Present and Future 22
  20. 20. The Past and Present • Focus on: – Designing novel nature-inspired algorithms. – Synthesizing natural phenomena. – Using natural materials for computing. • Real-world applications are unquestionable, but the field seems to be stuck on the same types of algorithms. • Researchers are taking efforts to look at and formalize information processing in natural and computational systems.** Zenil, H. (2012) (Ed.), A Computable Universe: Understanding Computation & Exploring Nature asComputation, World Scientific. 23
  21. 21. And the Future?• Grand Challenges for the field: – Transforming Natural Computing into a Transdisciplinary Discipline. – Unveiling and Harnessing Information Processing in Natural Systems. – Engineering Natural Computing Systems. 24
  22. 22. Thank You!Questions? Comments? Leandro Nunes de Castro Lnunes@mackenzie.br http://slideshare.net/lndecastro @lndecastro www.mackenzie.br/lcon.html www.computacaonatural.com.br 25