An introduction to the geology behind Carbon
 Capture & Storage and Enhanced Geothermal




                          Loga...
   Three types of rocks
    ◦ 1. Sedimentary – sandstone, limestone, shale

    ◦ 2. Igneous – granite, basalt

    ◦ 3. ...
The Earth’s Layers   Plate Tectonics
Source: IPCC, 2005
   What do with the CO2?
    ◦ Not up
    ◦ Not in the oceans
    ◦ How about the subsurface
   So what does the subsurface look like?




                        ?
Realistically, sometimes
Idealized Subsurface
                       complicated
   For the purposes of CCS, we are interested
    sedimentary basins, depressions in the earth’s crust
    into which sed...
   Three main zones for CO2 injection:
    ◦ Oil and Gas Reservoirs
    ◦ Deep Saline Aquifers
    ◦ Coal Beds
   CO2 is...
   Subsurface accumulations of oil and gas that are contained in
    porous rock layers and trapped by an impermeable for...
   An aquifer is a body of permeable rock in which considerable amounts of
    water can be stored and through which grou...
   More unknown option
   Due to the nature of the coal, CO2 will typically adsorb onto external
    pockets along coal ...
   1. Stratigraphic Trapping
    ◦ A good caprock should be:
       Laterally extensive
       Will prevent vertical mi...
   Stratigraphic Trapping
   Structural Trapping
    ◦ Heterogeneities
    ◦ Not only caprock blocks CO2




           ...
   Stratigraphic Trapping
   Structural Trapping
   Residual Trapping
    ◦ Stuck in the pore space




               ...
   Stratigraphic Trapping
   Structural Trapping
   Residual Trapping
   Solubility Trapping
    ◦ CO2 dissolves into ...
   Stratigraphic Trapping
   Structural Trapping
   Residual Trapping
   Solubility Trapping
   Mineralization
    ◦ ...
Storage Mechanisms   Storage Risks

Source: WRI, 2008
   Key Parameters:
    ◦ Capacity  Can it hold all the CO2?
       Factors: size of reservoir, volume of pore space, CO...
   Economics
   Conflict of interest (minerals, petroleum, water)
   Protected areas
   Population
   Etc.




      ...
   Thorough Site Selection and Characterization

   Monitoring plan
    ◦ Start prior to injection
    ◦ Continue decade...
   Similar anthropogenic projects or natural formations
       ◦ Acid gas (H2S) underground injection
       ◦ Liquid was...
   CO2 in heavy concentrations (>7-10% air
    composition can lead to human death)
    ◦ Is denser than air so can accum...
Emissions for Storage
Storage Prospectivity
                        Regions

                                           So...
   NRDC:


              Source: http://www.nrdc.org/international/chinaccs/default.asp




 PNNL:  China may have 2,300...
     Storage in China faces several challenges
        ◦    Geological Complexity
        ◦    Local Capacity Issues for ...
• Further analysis doesn’t necessarily support theoretical estimates

     Storage capacity
      ◦ oil fields: from 10 t...
   Continue In-depth investigation to achieve
    more realistic capacity estimates and identify
    exact storage sites
...
ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL
SYSTEMS (EGS)
WHAT DOES GEOTHERMAL MEAN?
   The Earth’s core is ~5,500C.
      Convection, Conduction, and Radiation transport
      ...
HOW DO WE USE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY?
      Direct Use: Heat Pumps, Bathing, Space
       Heating, etc
            2000  75,...
WHAT ARE ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL
SYSTEMS (EGS)?
   Hydrothermal Energy: natural hot springs
     Shallow: < 3km depth
     ...
BEST EGS REGIONS
   Looking for High Heat Flow and/or High
    Temperature Gradients
     Plate Boundaries – Geologicall...
USA GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES




Source: MIT Future of Geothermal Energy, 2006
Simplified cartoon rendering of EGS plant (left) and schematic of Geothermal Binary Power Plant (right): http://www.geothe...
KEYS FOR SUCCESS
   Most important factor is Flow Rate
     Combination of permeability, volume of fractured
      rock,...
POTENTIAL FOR EGS
           USA Recoverable Resource :                                         1



               In t...
ADVANTAGES OF EGS
 Renewable
 Energy Security
     Limits demand for fossil fuels
     Every Nation possesses some geo...
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF EGS
          Near Zero Emissions*
Environmental                           Carbon Dioxide      ...
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
         Induced Seismicity
           Hydrofracturing rocks by nature sets of micro-
            ear...
WHAT STAGE IS EGS DEVELOPMENT AT?
      Successes :            1




          Pilot projects can create reservoirs, gen...
GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF CHINA:
HEAT FLOW




 Source: Hu et. al., 2001
GEOTHERMAL REGIONS OF CHINA

   High Grade                                                           Medium to Low Grade

...
CHINA, GEOTHERMAL, & EGS
        China is the world leader in total Direct Use
         geothermal energy                ...
POTENTIAL NEXT STEPS FOR CHINA
   Conduct full Geothermal resource assessment
       Already has plans for new hydrother...
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 Tsinghua-BP Center
 World Resources Institute

 National Resources Defense Council

 Princeton In Asi...
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LW BEER 1.6.10

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Slides from my presentation on CCS and Geothermal Energy to BEER on 6 Jan 2010 at the Bookworm

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LW BEER 1.6.10

  1. 1. An introduction to the geology behind Carbon Capture & Storage and Enhanced Geothermal Logan West Beijing Energy Network 6 Jan. 2010
  2. 2.  Three types of rocks ◦ 1. Sedimentary – sandstone, limestone, shale ◦ 2. Igneous – granite, basalt ◦ 3. Metamorphic – marble, quartzite
  3. 3. The Earth’s Layers Plate Tectonics
  4. 4. Source: IPCC, 2005
  5. 5.  What do with the CO2? ◦ Not up ◦ Not in the oceans ◦ How about the subsurface
  6. 6.  So what does the subsurface look like? ?
  7. 7. Realistically, sometimes Idealized Subsurface complicated
  8. 8.  For the purposes of CCS, we are interested sedimentary basins, depressions in the earth’s crust into which sediments accumulate. They often have a bowl shape.
  9. 9.  Three main zones for CO2 injection: ◦ Oil and Gas Reservoirs ◦ Deep Saline Aquifers ◦ Coal Beds  CO2 is injected in a supercritical state (31.1° degrees C, >7.39MPa) so C it behaves like a gas but with a density of a liquid ◦ Doesn’t float away as quickly or easily
  10. 10.  Subsurface accumulations of oil and gas that are contained in porous rock layers and trapped by an impermeable formation above (caprock)  Common Reservoir Rock: sandstone, limestone, and dolomite  Common Caprock: shale, evaporite, or mudstone  With respect to CCS, they can be used for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Enhanced Gas Recovery Source: IPCC, 2005
  11. 11.  An aquifer is a body of permeable rock in which considerable amounts of water can be stored and through which groundwater flows  Geologically, it is essentially the same as an oil or gas reservoir. The greatest difference is that the fluid contained in aquifers is majority water rather than hydrocarbons.  Shallow aquifers are often used for drinking, the depth and high salinity of these aquifers make them undesirable for drinking, agriculture or industry Source: CO2 capture project
  12. 12.  More unknown option  Due to the nature of the coal, CO2 will typically adsorb onto external pockets along coal deposits and overtime is absorbed into the coal  A driving factor for Coal bed storage is the opportunity for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery (ECBM) in which CO2 replaces Methane (CH4) on the
  13. 13.  1. Stratigraphic Trapping ◦ A good caprock should be:  Laterally extensive  Will prevent vertical migration (low permeability, high capillary entry pressure, hydrocarbon trapping)  Expectations that present faults and fractures will seal  Adequate Rheological Properties Info Source: WRI CCS Guidelines, 2008 Images Source: http://www.co2captureproject.org/
  14. 14.  Stratigraphic Trapping  Structural Trapping ◦ Heterogeneities ◦ Not only caprock blocks CO2 Source: http://www.co2captureproject.org/(left);
  15. 15.  Stratigraphic Trapping  Structural Trapping  Residual Trapping ◦ Stuck in the pore space Source: http://www.co2captureproject.org/
  16. 16.  Stratigraphic Trapping  Structural Trapping  Residual Trapping  Solubility Trapping ◦ CO2 dissolves into water ◦ No longer buoyant  Hydraulic Trapping CO2 (g) + H20  H2CO3  HCO3- + H+  CO32- + 2H+ Source: http://www.co2captureproject.org
  17. 17.  Stratigraphic Trapping  Structural Trapping  Residual Trapping  Solubility Trapping  Mineralization ◦ Bicarbonate (HCO3) formation ◦ Once it’s in mineral (i.e. solid) form, it’s stuck for millions of years 3  KAlSi3O8   2H 2O  2CO2  KAl2  OH 2  AlSi3O10   6SiO2  2K   2HCO3  3  NaAlSi3O8  +2H 2O+2CO2  NaAl2  OH 2  AlSi3O10  +6SiO2 + 2Na + + 2HCO3 - 3  CaAl2Si 2O8  +4H 2O+4CO2  CaAl4  OH 4  AlSi3O10 2 + 2Ca(HCO3 ) 2
  18. 18. Storage Mechanisms Storage Risks Source: WRI, 2008
  19. 19.  Key Parameters: ◦ Capacity  Can it hold all the CO2?  Factors: size of reservoir, volume of pore space, CO2 density ◦ Containment  Will it stay there?  Factors: Caprock Integrity, effect of other storage mechanisms ◦ Injectivity  Can we pump it in as fast as it’s piped to the site?  Factors:Permeability  Basin Depth between 800–3000m – for supercritical state ◦ Behaves like a gas but dense like a fluid (keeps it from “floating” away quickly)
  20. 20.  Economics  Conflict of interest (minerals, petroleum, water)  Protected areas  Population  Etc. Image Source: The World Bank, The cost of pollution in China, 2007
  21. 21.  Thorough Site Selection and Characterization  Monitoring plan ◦ Start prior to injection ◦ Continue decades after injection  Reservoir Models ◦ Create as you learn about the geology ◦ Update with monitoring data ◦ Use to predict how CO2 will move overtime  Risk Analysis ◦ Identify known storage risks ◦ Create plans for how to protect against them ◦ Be prepared with plans if leakage does occur Seismic Monitoring Source: IPCC, 2005
  22. 22.  Similar anthropogenic projects or natural formations ◦ Acid gas (H2S) underground injection ◦ Liquid waste underground injection ◦ Natural CO2 reservoir  Thus far proven in CO2 Storage demonstrations In Salah, Algeria Sleipner, Norway Weyburn, Canada  IPCC Quote: “Observations from engineered and natural analogues as well as models suggest that the fraction retained in appropriately selected and managed geological reservoirs is very likely25 to exceed 99% over 100 years and is likely20 to exceed 99% over 1,000 years.” Source: IPCC, 2005
  23. 23.  CO2 in heavy concentrations (>7-10% air composition can lead to human death) ◦ Is denser than air so can accumulate in low lying areas until is dispersed by wind  Forms carbonic acid in water ◦ Render water non-potable, bad for agriculture ◦ Can leach heavy metals  Can lead to acidification of soil ◦ Bad for organisms ◦ Can leach heavy metals – worse for organisms  There are means of remediation to plug leaks and minimize impacts Source: IPCC, 2005
  24. 24. Emissions for Storage Storage Prospectivity Regions Source: APEC 2005
  25. 25.  NRDC: Source: http://www.nrdc.org/international/chinaccs/default.asp  PNNL: China may have 2,300 Gt (>100yr demand) of onshore CO2 storage capacity: • 2,290 Gt in deep saline formations • 12 Gt in coal seams • 4.6 Gt in oil fields • 4.3 Gt in gas fields Source: PNNL, Establishing China’s Potential for Large Scale, Cost Effective Deployment of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, October 2009, PNNL-SA-68786
  26. 26.  Storage in China faces several challenges ◦ Geological Complexity ◦ Local Capacity Issues for EOR ◦ Unmarked, poor quality wells – potential leakage sources ◦ Data Accessibility – overall lack of data, data that exists often proprietary to oil, gas, and mining companies Capacity Envelope - Data Geological Reservoir Pipeline Conflicts of Volume and Containment Injectivity Well Integrity Availability Complexity Availability Distance Interest Reservoir Quality Dagang Oilfield Province Shengli Oilfield Province Huimin Sag Saline Formations Kailuan Mining Area Low risk Medium risk High risk Image showing relative risk in possible storage fields in China’s Bohai Basin Source: Espie, T. COACH WP4: Recommendations and Guidelines for Implementation COACH-NZEC Conference, 28 Oct. 2009
  27. 27. • Further analysis doesn’t necessarily support theoretical estimates  Storage capacity ◦ oil fields: from 10 to 500MtCO2 ◦ Deep saline aquifers: ~ 20GtCO2 ◦ Coal mines: 500GtCO2 BUT availability and injectivity questionned due to extremely low permeability Source: Kalaydjian, F. Key findings from NZEC Phase I: COACH Overview Presented at NZEC-COACH Conference, Oct. 28, 2009
  28. 28.  Continue In-depth investigation to achieve more realistic capacity estimates and identify exact storage sites  Improve access to data  Begin storage demonstration projects  Continue to improve reservoir modeling and characterization technology  Define tools and best-practice for site characterization and monitoring
  29. 29. ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS (EGS)
  30. 30. WHAT DOES GEOTHERMAL MEAN?  The Earth’s core is ~5,500C.  Convection, Conduction, and Radiation transport heat to the crust  Geothermal Gradient  Average surface temperature is 15C  Temperature increases with depth at a rate ranging from 15 C/km to 50 C/km
  31. 31. HOW DO WE USE GEOTHERMAL ENERGY?  Direct Use: Heat Pumps, Bathing, Space Heating, etc  2000  75,000+ GWh worldwide usage  Electric Power Generation: via steam powered turbines  2003  56,000+ GWh worldwide usage Source:Glitner US Geothermal Energy Market Report 2007
  32. 32. WHAT ARE ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS (EGS)?  Hydrothermal Energy: natural hot springs  Shallow: < 3km depth  In situ, High Temp Water: > 150C  Limited Resources  Enhanced Geothermal  Deep: 3 – 10km depth  Hot Rocks: Temperatures ranging 150 to 400+C  No Natural Reservoir: Reservoir must be created and water pumped in  Vast Resources
  33. 33. BEST EGS REGIONS  Looking for High Heat Flow and/or High Temperature Gradients  Plate Boundaries – Geologically Active  Sedimentary Basins
  34. 34. USA GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES Source: MIT Future of Geothermal Energy, 2006
  35. 35. Simplified cartoon rendering of EGS plant (left) and schematic of Geothermal Binary Power Plant (right): http://www.geothermal-energy.org/geo/geoenergy.php
  36. 36. KEYS FOR SUCCESS  Most important factor is Flow Rate  Combination of permeability, volume of fractured rock, surface area of fractured rock  Need to have as little loss of water as possible
  37. 37. POTENTIAL FOR EGS  USA Recoverable Resource : 1  In the USA alone, 28.95 million Terrawatt hours  Could power the world for 590 years at 2007 consumption levels  Other countries beginning to do analyses  Predicted USA Development of EGS through the year 2050 (MWe) : 2 2015 2025 2050 1,000 10,000 130,000 1: Values from MIT Future of Geothermal Energy (2006) and BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2007 2: NREL Geothermal Resources Estimates for the US 2006
  38. 38. ADVANTAGES OF EGS  Renewable  Energy Security  Limits demand for fossil fuels  Every Nation possesses some geothermal resource  Baseload Power Source  Constant, non-fluctuating energy  Hydrothermal Plants operate at 95% capacity  Economically competitive  Cost currently estimated 8-14 cents/hr  Tremendous incentive for natural technology growth  Minimal Environmental Impact
  39. 39. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF EGS  Near Zero Emissions* Environmental Carbon Dioxide Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for U.S. (CO2) (Lbs/MWh) (NOx) Power Plants (Lbs/MWh) (Lbs/MWh) New Coal Plant** 2068 3.6 2.96 Old Coal Plant 2191 10.39 4.31 New Natural Gas Plant 850 0.018 0.31 Geothermal Flash 60 .35*** 0 Plant Geothermal Binary 0 0 0 Plant  Limited Plant Surface Area*  7x less than Nuclear; 35x less than Coal  Induced Seismicity comparable to oil, gas, and mining operations * Data from NREL Geothermal Report ** New = Coal Plants built in 1990s; natural gas combined cycle plants built in 2002 *** This is indirectly
  40. 40. POTENTIAL PROBLEMS  Induced Seismicity  Hydrofracturing rocks by nature sets of micro- earthquakes  Recorded magnitude 3.2 earthquake in Basel, Switzerland argued to be caused by local EGS plant  There are over 130,000 Magnitude 3-3.9 earthquakes in the world each year with minimal damage at most1  A magnitude 4.9 (almost 100x greater than Basel) occurred in Yunnan New Year’s Day 2010. It received no press.  Technological Difficulties 1: USGS
  41. 41. WHAT STAGE IS EGS DEVELOPMENT AT?  Successes : 1  Pilot projects can create reservoirs, generate power on the scale of a few megawatts  Power plants already capable of converting supercritical water (temp of 400 C) into electricity  Technological Obstacles:  Better control of reservoir creation  Drilling equipment withstand > 5km depth and 200C environment  Maintaining a commercially viable, production flow rate  Economic Obstacles : 2  Capital Intensive (drilling and plant construction)  Overcoming initial “Valley of Death” investment (est. US$3.5 million per MW) 1: Source – MIT Future of Geothermal Energy 2006 2: Glitner US Geothermal Energy Market Report 2007
  42. 42. GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF CHINA: HEAT FLOW Source: Hu et. al., 2001
  43. 43. GEOTHERMAL REGIONS OF CHINA High Grade Medium to Low Grade Source: Pang, 2009 http://english.iggcas.ac.cn/pangzhonghe/index.html
  44. 44. CHINA, GEOTHERMAL, & EGS  China is the world leader in total Direct Use geothermal energy 1  China only utilizes 5% of hydrothermal resources it deems economically exploitable 2  Southwest China (Tibet, Sichuan, and Yunnan) and the Southeast Pacific coast possess large high-grade geothermal resources 2  Sedimentary Basins (also a key source) cover 36% of China 3  Currently China has only one hydrothermal power plant in operation at Yangbajain (28 MW) providing ½ of Lhasa’s electricity 2  If China were to possess only 1/10th of the recoverable resources of the USA, it could still meet its 2008 primary energy demand for 333 years 4 1: Glitnir US Geothermal Energy Market Report 2007; 2: Ministry of Land and Resources; 3: Pang, Z. 2009; 4: Calculations from Data of MIT & BP Reports
  45. 45. POTENTIAL NEXT STEPS FOR CHINA  Conduct full Geothermal resource assessment  Already has plans for new hydrothermal resource assessment  Promote investment of deep drilling technology investment and other Geothermal Technologies  Further develop its hydrothermal resources  Plan for EGS pilot plants based on finding of geothermal resource assessment
  46. 46. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Tsinghua-BP Center  World Resources Institute  National Resources Defense Council  Princeton In Asia  Zhang Dongjie

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