Liver cancer

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Liver cancer

  1. 1. cells, tissues, and organsThe human body is a composition ofamong others that under typical conditions work in harmony topreserve health. However, there are specific instances when certaincells in the human body develop at an abnormal speed and as aconsequence a person could get sick with different ailments,including cancer. It is precisely the purpose of the following groupproject to inform the community about one of the most difficult typesof cancer to diagnose and take care of, the liver cancer. Throughoutthe pages of the following research manuscript, the reader will learnabout the most important details of liver cancer such as risk factors,symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. It is expected toeducate the community in order to facilitate them with the necessarytools that will lead the society into a healthy lifestyle, prevention ofdiseases, and if necessary the right course of action.
  2. 2.  Cancer is a disease of the cells. There are several common types of cancer because the cells become abnormal. These abnormal cells grow and destroy body tissue and can spread to other parts of the body. If these cells lose the ability to control their growth, they grow too quickly and without causing any order to create a large amount of tissue called a tumor. There are two types of tumor: • Benign-not cancerous • Malignant-is cancerous
  3. 3.  The liver is a large, meaty organ that sits on the right side of the belly. Weighing about 3 pounds, the liver is reddish- brown in color and feels rubbery to the touch. Normally you cant feel the liver, because its protected by the rib cage. The liver has two large sections, called the right and the left lobes. The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines. The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food. The livers main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. Also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. As it does so, the liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines. The liver makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
  4. 4. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is cancer that originates in the liver. Itis also called primary liver cancer or Hepatoma.This type of cancer is often caused by cirrhosis, a scarring of the liver,infection with the hepatitis B or C viruses, and hemochromatosis (toomuch iron in the liver).HCC is relatively uncommon in the United States, although its incidenceis rising, principally in relation to the spread of hepatitis C infection.Follow the links below to find WebMDs comprehensive coverage abouthow liver cancer/HCC is contracted, what it looks like, how to treat it, andmuch more.
  5. 5.  When you get a diagnosis of cancer, its natural to wonder what may have caused the disease. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of getting a disease. Studies have found the following risk factors for liver cancer: • Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) • Heavy alcohol use • Aflatoxin • Iron storage disease • Cirrhosis • Obesity and diabetes: Studies have shown that obesity and diabetes may be important risk factors for liver cancer. The more risk factors a person has, the greater the chance that liver cancer will develop. However, many people with known risk factors for liver cancer dont develop the disease.
  6. 6.  Preventing and treating viral hepatitis may help reduce your risk. Childhood vaccination against hepatitis B may reduce the risk of liver cancer in the future. Avoid drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. Certain patients may benefit from screening for hemochromatosis. If you have chronic hepatitis or known cirrhosis, periodic screening with liver ultrasound or measurement of blood alpha fetoprotein levels may help detect this cancer early. Practice safe sex Cover all cuts and open sores with bandage.
  7. 7.  Antioxidants  • Antioxidants protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that is associated with cancer • Laboratory and animal research have shown that antioxidants help prevent the free radical damage. However, results from recent studies in people are not consistent. • Antioxidants are provided by a healthy diet that includes a variety of fruits and vegetables. Vaccines • Cancer vaccines are designed to boost the body’s natural ability to protect itself, through the immune system. • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two types of vaccines to prevent cancer: vaccines against the hepatitis B virus, which can cause liver cancer, and vaccines against human papillomavirus, which can cause cervical cancer.
  8. 8.  Its important to meet your nutrition needs before, during, and after cancer treatment. You need the right amount of calories, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Getting the right nutrition can help you feel better and have more energy. You also may have side effects of treatment such as poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Your doctor, a registered dietitian, or another health care provider can advise you about ways to have a healthy diet. Liver cancer and its treatment may make it hard for you to digest food and maintain your weight. Your doctor will check you for weight loss, weakness, and lack of energy.
  9. 9.  When diagnosing liver disease, the doctor may order a liver biopsy, tests of liver function, ultrasound, CT scan and either a study of magnetic resonance imaging. Common symptoms of liver disease: • Portal hypertension (Abnormally high blood pressure in the portal vein, which gives the liver with blood from the intestine.) • Esophageal varices (Dilated blood vessels in the walls of the lower esophagus that are prone to bleeding.) • Ascites (Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity caused by the escape of fluid from the surface of the liver and intestine.) • Liver encephalopathy (Impairment of brain function due to accumulation in the blood of toxic substances that are normally removed by the liver.) • Liver failure (Severe impairment of liver function.)
  10. 10. • Cholestasis-Reduced or stopped bile flow.• Loss of appetite and weight• Jaundice (Yellow discoloration of eyes and skin)• Swelling of the abdomen• Pain in the abdomen.• Enlarged liver
  11. 11.  Liver cancer is very common  in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia in comparison to the United States; as a matter of fact, it is the most common type of cancer in those countries. More than 700,000 people are diagnosed with this cancer each year throughout the world and it is the leading cause of cancer deaths’ worldwide, accounting for more than 600,000 deaths each year.
  12. 12.  To make a diagnosis of liver cancer, the doctor notes the medical history, a physical examination and order some analysis. Blood tests are used to learn how the liver is working and check for tumor markers. Radiographs of the chest and abdomen, angiograms, the CT scans and MRI can all be part of the diagnostic process. The presence of liver cancer is confirmed with a biopsy, through a needle or during surgery that show. The doctor may also look at the liver with an instrument called a laparoscope. For this procedure, an incision in the abdomen to insert the laparoscope. The doctor may remove a small piece of tissue for a pathologist examine the tissue under a microscope to see if cancer cells are present.
  13. 13.  Liver cancer is difficult to control unless the cancer is found when very small. However, treatment can relieve symptoms and improve quality of life of patients. Treatment depends on the stage of disease, the condition of the liver and the age and general health of the patient. Your doctor may recommend surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy or a combination of these methods of treatment.
  14. 14. In brief, preventing and treating viral hepatitis may helpreduce the risk of developing liver cancer; furthermorechildhood vaccination against hepatitis B may reducethe risks of it. In any given case when a patient isdiagnosed with the disease it is recommended to lookfor all the different avenues that could help the patienteither to heal or to live a comfortable life. Your body isyour temple and needs proper nutrition, rest and healthyhabits; free from drugs and alcohol, that is probably thekey to a healthy society.
  15. 15. Características comunes de enfermedades Hepáticas. (2012) Retrieved from The University of Chicago Medicine,http://www.uchospitals.edu/online-library/content=S03757Digestive Disorders Health Center. (2012) Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/picture-of-the-liverEl cáncer de hígado: preguntas y respuestas. (2011, October 23) Retrieved from Instituto Nacional del Cáncer delos Institutos Nacionales de la Salud de EE.UU., http://www.cancer.gov/espanol/recursos/hojas-informativas/tipos/higado-respuestasHepatocellular Carcinoma (Liver Cancer). (2012) Retrieved fromhttp://www.medicinenet.com/liver_cancer/article.htmMayo Clinic. (2012) Liver cancer. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/liver-cancer/DS00399

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