Sefer Shemos-Perek 1                             By Rabbi Joshua CohenGrade Level: High SchoolDescription:A comprehensive ...
zeny xtq                                               zeny zyxt                                                 ` wxtoFrn...
connecting vuv (see question #1). He also points out that this exile doesn’ end                                           ...
l`paxa` explains that the weqt is teaching us new idea as to how awri and his family             arrived in mixvn. The weq...
qqnrx.         B. balx- explains that "Evx§W¦I«e©" refers to quick pregnancies, "E¬ x¦Ie©" to number and "Envr«©e©"       ...
:s«¥                        qFiÎz` r† iÎ`«l x¬¤ ` m¦ ®¨vnÎlr W†gÎK¤ n mwI © g                             ¤ c¨ Ÿ W£ ix § ¦...
1. The word "EP«¤ n" modifies the word "mEv¨ ". This means that the ia were                                    O¦         ...
that they were also building cities for the store of the ixvn grain as it was fitting                       that they fulf...
D. l`paxa`- explains that the mixvn feared two things. Firstly, they feared that the ia          would join the enemies of...
C. epxetq- explains that the tax collectors were foremen to supervise the construction of            storage cities. Unlik...
B. l`paxa`- explains that the more ia were daxn the less the mixvn were able to control            them. ia were constantl...
were willing to debase themselves by building for drxt to enable them to remain in            mixvn. This lack of "dvr" wa...
raised an ixar child as royalty?                  2.   l`paxa` explains that this was another mechanization to slow the po...
m¦ ®¨vn K¤ ´¤ o† l` x¬¤ C x²¤ `«© EU¨ `´le§ midŸ `´¨ ` ÆzŸNin«© ¨o`³¤ Y© fi    ix § ¦ ln di¥ £ A ¦ W£ M ½ r Ÿ             ...
d¨d zF´igÎi«¦ zŸx¦ar«¨ zŸx¦vOd mi²¦ Pk `¯ i´¦ dŸx§RÎl` ÆzŸNin«© ¨ox³© Y © hi  P¥   ½     ¨ M ® § ¦ d I† § ¦ © W¨ © Ÿ M r ©...
Hashem’ “            s good” toward the midwives? What does the midwives’fear of God have to do    with making houses? If ...
children when they heard the sounds of birth and "Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d". He explains                                        ...
C. mialn- explains that at this point drxt was left with no option but to publicly decree           the murder as all of h...
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Perek alef

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Perek alef

  1. 1. Sefer Shemos-Perek 1 By Rabbi Joshua CohenGrade Level: High SchoolDescription:A comprehensive treatment of the first perek in Sefer Shemos. The information isorganized in question and answer format with footnotes that add relevant and importantinformation. Some of the meforshim which are dealt with are the Ibn Ezra, Ralbag,Rashbam, Ramban, Seforno, Malbim and Abarbanel, among others. This outline willgive the students a feel for the different styles of the meforshim and will give them athorough analysis of the perek.Goals/Objectives:Students will analyze the various meforshim on the perek and will compare theirapproaches to the pesukim.Instructions:1. Attempt to get the students to generate the questions.2. Point out the difference between pshat and drash using Rashi when he brings examples of drash when applicable.
  2. 2. zeny xtq zeny zyxt ` wxtoFrnW o´¥ § a :E`«A Fzi¥ E Wi¬¦ aŸ r«© z´¥ dn§i®¨vn mi† Ad ia ÆzFnW d¤ ` § ` ½ § ¦ aE` ¨ † a ` w£ i ` ¨ x § ¦ `¨ © ½ ¦ § N¥ Ài¬¥ vŸ W¤²¤Îl¨ id§i © d :x«¥ `e§ c¬¨ ilYt©e§ o¬¨ c :on¨paE o† f§ x¬¨ UV¦ b :dcEdi«e¦ i†¥ ` § i« tp M À¦ W¨ B † ¨ § p¦ «¦ i § ¦ lEa k ¨ ª «¨ e¦lxFCd lŸe§ eig`Îl¨ e§ ÆsqFi z¨³¨ © e :m¦ixvna did s† e§ W¤®¨ mi´¦ aW aŸ r«©ÎKx«¤ ¬© k ¨¤ k ¥ † ½ nI «¨ § ¦ § ¬¨ ¨ qFi tp r § ¦ w£ i ¤ i ¥ † :`Edd «©1. Why does zeny xtq begin with a xeagd "e" (a connecting vuv)? A. oanx- explains that this is similar in nature to the `xfr mixtq and dingp as dingp continues the narrative of `xfr. Here too zeny xtq continues the narrative of xtq ziy`xa. (See question #2) B. `xfr oa`- explains that the beginning of zeny xtq is demonstrating that unlike sqei the mihay in ziy`xa xtq had few descendants. (See question #2) C. l`paxa`- explains that the stories here are connected to the previous stories.2. Why does zeny xtq begin with listing the names of the those who descended with awri? A. m"ayx- explains that scripture wishes to emphasize the extant that Hashem had them cŸ n cŸ nA Envr«©e© E¬ x¦Ie© Evx§W¦I«e© Ex¨ as when they entered mixvn they were only 70 ` § ` § ¦ †§ © I A § ² § ® ´ ¯R descendants of awri. B. `xfr oa`- explains on bk p ziy`xa that the verse states exclusively by sqei that `§³© © xI mi®¦ NW ipA m¦ixt`§l ÆsqFi so the `xwn in zeny picked up with the children at the other W¥ ¦ † § ½© § ¤ ¥ ¥ mihay in order to demonstrate that they also had descendants. C. oanx- 1. first explains that ziy`xa xtq is a fnx1 to all that will happen to the children of the zea` in the future. After the book of dxivi (formation- ziy`xa xtq) is complete now we can begin to focus on the events that were generated from the previous book. Therefore we reiterate the names of the tribes as the beginning of the exile is a whole new beginning. This is why the zeny xtq opens with a1. Be sure to review the idea of fnx (from the introduction to jpz), specifically "mipal oniq zea`l dxiry dn lk".
  3. 3. connecting vuv (see question #1). He also points out that this exile doesn’ end t until l`xyi mr reaches the heights of their forefathers, and concludes with the okyn wherein the Divine Presence dwells among l`xyi mr, as it did amongst the zea`. 2. He also comments on the opinion of `xfr oa` and states simply that it is eppi`" "oekp. l`paxa` gives three reasons to explain why oanx rejects `xfr oa`: a. In ziy`xa xtq the `xwn details all of the offspring of the other mihay and we would never think that they did not have descendants; b. here in zeny zyxt the `xwn states explicitly, Envr«©e© E¬ x¦Ie© Evx§W¦I«e© Ex¨ iaE f †§ © I A § ² § ¯R :m«zŸ ux† d `lOY© cŸ n cŸ nA. Thus it is very clear that they have many ¨ ` ¤ ` ¨ ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e ` § ` § ¦ ¨ ® ´ descendants; and c. `xfr oa` contradicts his own explanation as sqei is mentioned here with the rest of the mihay. 3. Lastly, he quotes iyx’ explanation that it “ s demonstrates Hashem’ love”and s he notes that though the idea is true it is "dcb` ixac" and the plain reason is as he stated.2 D. epxetq- explains that all who are mentioned in d-` miweqt embody and teach ezxev" ziiyi`d”(the true form of humanity) as their generation never strayed from the d jxc unlike the generations that followed. E. l`paxa`- first rejects the opinion of oanx for three reasons: 1. If this was the intention the proper place to connect zeny xtq to would be zyxt ybie as the entry into mixvn would be directly juxtaposed to exile in mixvn; 2. One can not compare to separation of two zeiyxt in the dxez (even if they are in different “ books” to other books in jp as dingp ,`xfr ,minid ixac are ) individual works and do not have an inherent connection to each other. For example ilyn and zldw are not inherently connected though they are both authored by jlnd dnely. Whereas, yneg is by its’unique authorship inherently connected; lastly 3. The manner the miweqt present the information is different. In ziy`xa xtq the names of the mihay and all their children are mentioned whereas in zeny xtq only the mihay are mentioned. If the `xwn is teaching us that the two stories are connected why is the presentation changed? If the focus is to connect the stories by writing the same “ headline”it should not be abridged.2. The words of the oanx beautifully illustrate the coexistence of qcxt: enk `ed e"`ea mxeage miweqtd xeyw la` ,xicz mzeny lteke oaagn d"awdy aeagd oipra zn` ly mixac mde ,dcb` ixac el`e" ":izyxity
  4. 4. l`paxa` explains that the weqt is teaching us new idea as to how awri and his family arrived in mixvn. The weqt states "dn§ ®¨vn mi`¨ d ia ÆzFnW d¤ `e" and l`paxa` explains ¨ ix § ¦ ¦ A© § N¥ § À that a catalyst for going to mixvn was the urging of the mihay. "mi`¨ d" is to be ¦ A© understood as “ brought” He supports this translation by noting that the weqt says, z´¥ . `" "aŸ r«© instead of "awri mr".3 "z`" serves grammatically as an indicator of a direct object. w£ i ½ l`paxa` explains that the mihay brought (through their urging)... aŸ r«© z´¥ w£ i `. ½ F. mialn- explains the description in ybie zyxt describes three traits of importance that the ia possessed when they entered mixvn ux` whereas here in zeny zyxt these these traits dissolved and allowed for the slavery to begin. 1. "mnvr cvn zeaiyg" (they where inherently important)- in ybie zyxt the `xwn states ...ei¨aE aŸ r«© dn§ x©vn mi¬¦ Ad ia zFnW d¤ `e g en . In ybie zyxt initially they ®p ¨ w£ i ¨ i† § ¦ `¨ © ´ ¯ § N¸ §¥ were aeyg as a single house (tribe) under the name of awri. Then their importance increased as each of the mihay became their own house (tribe) as the `xwn sates E`«A FziaE Wi¬¦ This importance dissolved when "sqFi z¨³¨e ¨ †¥ `. Æ ¥ nI © `Edd xFCd lke§ eig`Îl¨ e"; « © ¬© ¨ ¤ k§ ½ 2. They were also very important as "mi«¦ aW dn§ x©vn d`¬¨ d aŸ r«©Îzi¥ l W¤¯¤dÎl¨ ", r § ¦ ¨ i† § ¦ ¨ A © w£ i a§ tP © M ² demonstrating they were few and precious. This status dissolved as EvxW¦ «e E¯ R" ² § § I© x ¨ "E¬ x¦ e and "m«¨ ` u¤ `d `¬¥OY©" making ia common; lastly A § I© ¨ ¨ l¨ ¦ e 3. "m¦ixvna did s† «¨ § ¦ § ¬¨ ¨ qFi"- sqei was the viceroy of drxt and this brought them great ¥ honor and importance. This ended when c¨Î`«l x¬¤ ` m¦ixvnÎl© WcgÎK¤ n mw¬¨e ©i W£ ®¨ § ¦ r ¨ ¨ l «¤ ¨ I © sqFiÎz`. «¥ ¤3. Who specifically are "`Edd xFCd lŸ « © ¬ © k"? † A. `xfr oa`- explains that the `xwn is referring to the people of mixvn as "`Edd xFCd lŸ « © ¬ © k". † This explains how they did not remember the greatness of sqei. B. mayx/epxetq- say it refers to the "ytp miray". epxetq adds xenb lewlw (complete [spiritual] deterioration) did not occur until after that generation. :m«zŸ u¤† d `lOY© cŸ n cŸ nA Envr«©e© E¬ x¦ e© Evx§W¦ «© Ex¨ iaE f ¨ ` x` ¨ ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e ` § ` § ¦ †§ © I A §I ² § Ie ¯R ¨ ® ´4. Why does the `xwn need to tell us “ `n cŸ nA Envr«©e© E¬ x¦Ie© Evx§W¦I«e© Ex¨ iaE" as in the end of zyxt cŸ § ` § ¦ †§ © I A § ² § ® ´ ¯R ybie we were already told "cŸ n EAx¦Ie© Ext¦Ie© Da E´ g`¥e© oW® ux´¤ A m¦ix©vn ux¬¤ A l²¥ xU¦i aWIe©" fk fn? ` § †§ ¬ § « ¨ f £ «¨ I ¤ B ¤ ` § † § ¦ ¤ ` § ` ¨ § ¤¯¥ ½ A. `xfr oa`- explains "Evx§W¦I«e©" teaches that woman gave birth to no less than twins and ² § doctors explain that it is possible for one woman to carry seven children. "E¬ x¦Ie©" refers A§ to none of them being stillborn. "Envr«©e©" refers to the strong constitution of the †§ © I offspring. "ux† d `lOY©" refers to oyeb ux`. He also notes that oyeb ux` is also called ¤ ` ¨ ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e ¨3. `xfr oa` translates z` as mr and l`paxa` provides examples that this is not the case.
  5. 5. qqnrx. B. balx- explains that "Evx§W¦I«e©" refers to quick pregnancies, "E¬ x¦Ie©" to number and "Envr«©e©" ² § A§ †§ © I to the strong constitution of the offspring. He explains that "Envr«©e© E¬ x¦Ie©" mentioned †§ © I A § together are of great significance as naturally when many are born they tend to be weaker. Here we see "myd zkxa zewac wfeg" in that they were many and mighty. He also notes that "ux† d `lOY©" refers to oyeb ux`. Here balx mentions his first zlrez ¤ ` ¨ ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e ¨ (benefit/lesson) and that is that we see that Hashem kept his promise to awri5 4 despite the best attempts of the people of mixvn to stop it. C. mayx- explains that "Ex¨ " refers specifically to conception. "Evx§W¦I«e©" refers to giving ¯R ² § birth and that woman never stopped conceiving. "E¬ x¦Ie©" refers to none of them dying as A§ children. "Envr«©e©" refers to the strong constitution of the offspring and therefore `lOY©" †§ © I ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e "m«zŸ ux† d.6 ¨ ` ¤` ¨ ¨ D. epxetq- explain that after the ytp miray died out the ia reproduced in a uxy (swarm) like manner. E. l`paxa`- explains the reiteration is necessary to tell us that the blessing of EAx¦Ie© Ext¦Ie©" †§ ¬ § "cŸ n from the time of awri didn’ cease. He also quotes lfg who state zclei dy`d" `§ « t "cg` qxka dyy. He also explains the necessity of four expressions: 1. "Ex¨ "- teaches us that there were no barren woman and they had children in a ¯R tree like fashion- every year they conceived and gave birth; 2. "Evx§W¦I«e©"- teaches us that always had multiple births and as lfg say qxka dyy ² § "cg`; 3. E¬ x¦Ie©"- teaches that none of them died while they were babies. l`paxa` explains A§ that it is common that children generated from multiple births are weak for in the womb they share limited resources; 4. "Envr«©e©" - teaches us that despite being generated from multiple births they all †§ © I grew with strong constitutions. As a result of the above traits "m«zŸ ux† d `lOY©". ¨ ` ¤ ` ¨ ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e ¨ F. mialn- noted in question #2 that this was an important thing to mention for it ushered in the slavery. Initially the ia were few in number and were precious because of their rarity. Now the `xwn informs us now that "E¬ x¦Ie© Evx§W¦I«e© Ex¨ and "m«zŸ ux† d `lOY©" they A§ ² § ¯R" ¨ ` ¤ ` ¨ ¬¥ ¨ ¦ e ¨ were no longer precious. mialn also explains "Envr«©e© E¬ x¦Ie© Evx§W¦I«e© Ex¨ as l`paxa` (see †§ © I A § ² § ¯R" above).4. balx at the end of every grouping of narrative he lists the lessons learnt from the narrative.5. :m«¨ LniU£ lFc¨ iF¬ lÎi«¦ dn§ixvn d´¨x«¥ Æ`xiYÎl` Li®¦ ` i´¥ l` l† d i¬¦ p` xn`Ÿ© b en W ¬ § «¦ ` † b§ M ¨ ½© § ¦ c §n ¨ ¦ © a ¨ dŸ ¡ ` ¨ kŸ«¨ ¤ ¾ B ¥ I6. According to mayx the yecig is only within the words "Evx§W¦I«©" and "E¬ x¦Ie©". ² § e A§
  6. 6. :s«¥ qFiÎz` r† iÎ`«l x¬¤ ` m¦ ®¨vnÎlr W†gÎK¤ n mwI © g ¤ c¨ Ÿ W£ ix § ¦ © c ¨ l «¤ ¨¬¨ © ¨5. How is it that the "W†gÎK¤ n" didn’ know sqei? c ¨ l «¤ ¨ t A. `xfr oa`- explains that that the word "mwIe©" is extra and it indicates that this king didn’ ¨¬¨ t come from the old dynasty. 7 B. balx- states that “ didn’ recognize sqei”. he t C. epxetq- explains that there was certainly a record of sqei in the chronicles of the Egypt as there was the law set up by sqei in ziy`xa that sates m¬¤ z§ E zŸ YA Æd¨de" ck fn Y © p `Ea § © i ¨ § ½ :"m«kRh§l lŸ¡«¤ e§ m† iY«aA x¬¤ `«© e§ m²¤ lk`§lE« d¯¤Vd rx¸¤l Ámk¨ did¦i zŸId r´© x§`e§ dŸx§t§l zi† n£ . This ¤ § © ¬ `l k ¥ ¨ § W£ l k§ § ¨ k ¤ c ¨ © ©f§ ¤ l ´¤ § c¨ © A © r © ¿ ® Wi ¦ g ¦ drxt did believe that sqei was a member of this nation. D. l`paxa`- first cites the opinion of `xfr oa` that the new drxt was of a new dynasty. As noted earlier, `xfr oa` came to this conclusion based on the seemingly additional word "mwIe©". l`paxa` explains that every time there is a new king the "mw" is used to ¨¬¨ describe his ascent to power and does not inherently mean a new dynasty. l`paxa` explains that it is possible that after three or four kings they didn’ recall the ministers t of the past. l`paxa` also points out that this weqt begins a new focus on how the mixvn began to plot against ia, and is not connected to the previously stated death of the generation of the mihay. :EP«¤ n mEv¨ e§ a¬© ia m©µ dÀ d FOrÎl` xn`Ÿ© h O¦ † x r r ¥ ¦ ® © ¤ ¤ I† P6. Why is the `xwn detailing all the evil of mixvn? A. mialn- explains that the all the scheming of drxt and mixvn are present in the `xwn to demonstrate how evil they were. This is necessary as one could ask why should the mixvn be punished as this was Hashem’ will as zecar ,zelb and iepr were all s prophesied to mdxa` during the mixzad oia zixa?7. How could drxt say that the ia were "EP«¤ n mEv¨ e§ a¬© and i weqt say "dAx¦iÎoR" as "EP«¤ n mEv¨ e§ a¬© O ¦ † x"r ¤ § ¤ À O ¦ † x"r implies that they were out-numbered the mixvn? A. balx- explains that in terms of strength and rate of reproduction ia were greater than the mixvn. B. l`paxa`- gives to possible explanations:7. Perhaps this means he didn’ recognize the significance of sqei or of sqei’ achievements. t s
  7. 7. 1. The word "EP«¤ n" modifies the word "mEv¨ ". This means that the ia were O¦ †r physically stronger that the mixvn and not greater in quantity8; and 2. the ia were a group of great number from "EP«¤ n" (the mixvn themselves). This is O¦ a fitting thing for the mixvn to worry about as the ia were their slaves. C. mialn- explains when the drxt said "EP«¤ n mEv¨ e§ a¬© he meant relative to the rate that O¦ † x" r the mixvn were having children. drxt was, therefore, afraid "dAx¦iÎoR" and outnumber ¤ § ¤ À the mixvn.9 Æ`EdÎm© s³© e§ Ædng§ln d¨`³¤wzÎi«¦ dºde§ dAx¦ ÎoR F® d† Mgz«P d¨¬¨ i B qFp ¨ ¨ ¦ p x § ¦ M ¨ ¨ ¤ §i ¤ l n § © § ¦ a i À ¨ :ux«¨ dÎon dlre§ Ep† Îmg§lpe§ Epi`§Ÿ r ¤` ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ A © ¦ ¨ ¥ pUÎl © ½ ´8. What is meant by "F® d† Mgz«P"? l n§ © § ¦ ¨ A. mayx- explains that drxt was searching for a means to slow down the population growth of ia. B. oanx- explains that drxt and his advisers chose not kill ia by the sword for that would be huge betrayal. ia entered mixvn by kings decree and to kill them for no reason would be a clear injustice not to be tolerated by the people of mixvn. Also, If they were to wage open war on ia it would be a huge and costly war as ia were a¬© x" "mEv¨ e. So drxt and his advisers sought a surreptitious way to deal with ia so the †§r mixvn and the ia would not object. A qn (tax- sometimes labor as well as money)10 was not something anyone would find objectionable as this was the normal procedure for kings. After the qn was set up drxt tried to quietly kill ia through the midwives by having them claim all the boys were still born. Lastly, drxt specially stated o´¥dÎl¨ " A© M "Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d cFN¦Id to general population and not to the military. This allowed for a ª § © ¨` © À © ½ ¸ measure of plausible denialability, as drxt, after such an event, would send his officers to “ investigate”when ia complained. While “ investigating” they would look for more children and pass the word onto the general population, so the drxt would not get his hands dirty. C. l`paxa`- explains that the intention of drxt was burden them to stop them from reproducing. This was done in gradual stages: 1. m®¨ laqA FzŸr or¬© l miQn i´¥U Æei¨ r Eni³¦ Ie©- This was setting up the qn (in grain) and zŸ § ¦ § †P © © n§ ½¦ ¦ x ¨ l ¨ U¨ appointing collectors; 2. q«¥ nrxÎz`e§ mŸ RÎz` dŸx§t§l ÆzFpMqn i³¥r o¤ Ie©- This was hard labor for they had to q § © «© ¤ z ¦ ¤ r © † ½ § § ¦ x¨ a¹ ¦ build cities to store the grain that they gave. l`paxa` explains that it follows8. Similar to balx.9. Similar to balx.10.As with jlnd dnly and the building of the ycwnd zia (`k h ` mikln).
  8. 8. that they were also building cities for the store of the ixvn grain as it was fitting that they fulfilled the law of sqei11; 3. FzŸ E´ r§ - drxt made ia essentially xwtd for any ixvn to use. This was the most ½ ` P ©i degrading. All the time that they were used for slaves they were kept from their wives. Despite these tactics Hashem saw that as the affliction grew so did, miraculously, the population of ia. D. epxetq- explains that the mixvn will be devious with the ia and encourage them to leave of their own accord by various means of oppression. They were motivated to do this because "Ep† Îmg§lpe§ Epi`§Ÿ r Æ`EdÎm© s³© e§ Ædng§ln d¨`³¤wzÎi«¦ as they were a A © ¦ ¨ ¥ pUÎl © ½ ´ B qFp ¨ ¨ ¦ p x § ¦ M" separate nation in their beliefs, language, and eating customs (they couldn’ eat t with the mixvn.)9. It appears that drxt’ concerns are contradictory. At first the concern seems to be that ia will s join with an invading power and conquer mixvn as the weqt states d¨`³¤wzÎi«¦ dºde§ dAx¦iÎoR p x § ¦ M ¨¨ ¤ § ¤ i À Ep† Îmg§lpe§ Epi`§Ÿ r Æ`EdÎm© s³© e§ Ædng§ln. Then the concern that follows is ia leaving mixvn as the A © ¦ ¨ ¥ pUÎl © ½ ´ B qFp ¨ ¨ ¦ verse states ux«¨ dÎon dlre. What did the mixvn fear? ¤` ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ § A. mayx- explains that the mixvn feared that the midst of a war the ia would join their enemies and go back to orpk ux` and they would lose their slaves. B. oanx- first brings the opinion of iyx who quotes lfg. iyx first states "ux«¨ dÎon dlre" ¤` ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ § is against the will of the mixvn. Then he brings lfg who state "ux«¨ dÎon dlre" is like ¤` ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ § someone “ who curses himself and puts the curse on others”12 oanx says this can not . be correct according to the hyt13, for if this were so the `xwn should say lr dlre" "ux`d. As "ux`d lr" in Hebrew indicates coming to make war. 14 oanx does suggest that perhaps iyx means that the ia will be mixvn ux`d lr oyeb ux` on dlr. C. epxetq- explains that the mixvn were afraid that the ia would act as a fifth column in the event that mixvn ux` was attacked. They had this fear as the ia practiced dlin and would not eat with the mixvn. "ux«¨ dÎon dlre”was not a fear as this was their hope.15 ¤` ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ §11.The law set up by sqei in ziy`xa that sates d¯¤Vd rx¸¤l Ámk¨ did¦i zŸId r´© x§`e§ dŸx§t§l zi† n£ m¬¤ z§ E zŸ YA Æd¨de" ck fn c ¨ © ©f§ ¤ l ´¤ § c¨ © A © r © ¿ ® Wi ¦ g Y © p `Ea § © i ¨ § ¦ ½ :"m«kRh§l lŸ¡«¤ e§ m† iY«aA x¬¤ `«© e§ m²¤ lk`§lE. ¤ § © ¬ `l k ¥ ¨ § W£ l k§ § ¨ « k ¤12.The individual in question speaks of a potential personal tragedy and in case his words have some binding power he speaks of the tragedy only in reference to someone else.13.oanx believes that intention of iyx is to explain "ux«`dÎon dlre" as a synonym for making war against the mixvn ¤ ¨ ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ § and not actually speaking about leaving mixvn ux`. In l`eny iwenp the attack of oanx is dismissed as clearly this was not iyx’ intent as indicated by the words “ s against there will” as all invaders come against the will of their , target.14.As :m«¥ Rz¦Ie© zFx† Ad d²¨ i i¯¥rÎl¨ l´©ÆxEX`ÎK¤ n aixg§ q dºr dÀIwf§g K¤ ´¤ l d¹W d¸¥Ur ÁrAx§`aE bi hi ` mikln and i´¥ A id§i © ` U§ § v § © cEd§ x¨ M r ª © l «¤ ³¦ ¥ p © ¨ ¨ ¨ ¦ ¦ lO© ¨ ¨ x § ¤ © © § l p ni ¦ ¿¦ :di«¤ r m¬¥ Nd§l lŸi `¬le§ di¤ r d† g§lO© m©½ WEx§iÆl`xU¦iÎK¤ n EdilnxÎo¤ gw¸ mx`ÂÎK¤ n oi´¦ x§ dlr dcEd§i K¤ ´¤ Ed¹GªÎo¤ m¸ A fg`. ¨ l ¨ g¨ ¦ k¨ Ÿ ¨ ®l ¨ n ¨ ¦ l l ¨ ´ ¥ ¨ § l «¤ ³¨§ © § A © tE ¨£ l «¤ v ´¨ ¨ À¨ † ¨ ¤ ln ¨ ¦r A zFiÎo¤ ¨ ¨Â I ¨15. See epxetq #8, D.
  9. 9. D. l`paxa`- explains that the mixvn feared two things. Firstly, they feared that the ia would join the enemies of mixvn in a time of war. The mixvn didn’ fear the ia taking t over the land as it was tactically impossible. The main fear was that ia would leave of their own accord. E. mialn- explains as l`paxa` and adds that ia were trapped there by decree of drxt as we saw special permission needed to leave mixvn ux` and to bury awri. mialn also adds that the `xwn demonstrates the root of drxt’ fear. The weqt states "ia m©µ dÀ d", s r ¥¦ P indicating that they remain completely separate and didn’ intermarry with the mixvn. t As noted (in #6 A) these miweqt demonstrate the evil of the mixvn and why they deserved to be punished. mialn notes three points of evil that are present here: 1. "dAx¦iÎoR" - at this point ia were not yet a threat as they were not daxn; ¤ § ¤ À 2. "Ædng§ln d¨`³¤wzÎi«¦ the "dxwn" denotes an occurrence that goes against the ¨ ¨ ¦ p x § ¦ M"- normal flow of probability. mixvn was the superpower of its’time and any defensive war was highly improbable; lastly 3. "ux«¨ dÎon dlre"- if the ia had been daxn and mixvn, however improbably, found ¤` ¨ ¦ ¬¨ ¨ § themselves fighting a defensive war the only thing goal ia had was to return to orpk. Based on these three points we see the the mixvn were very evil. They imprisoned a nation within their borders and employed various machinations to keep ia imprisoned. ÆzFpMqn i³¥r oa¹e© m®¨ laqA FzŸr or¬© l miQn i´¥U Æei¨ r Eni³¦ I © `i § § ¦ x¨ ¤ I zŸ § ¦ § †P © © n§ ¦ ½¦ ¦ x ¨ l ¨ U¨ :q«¥ nrxÎz`e§ mŸ RÎz` dŸx§t§l q § © «© ¤ z ¦ ¤ r © † ½10. How are "miQn i´¥U" (explained by `xfr oa`, iyx, balx, mayx as tax collectors) connect to ½¦ ¦ x ¨ "m®¨ laqA FzŸr or¬© l"? zŸ § ¦ § †P © © n§ A. `xfr oa`- explains that the purpose was to work the men until they were no longer fertile. B. oanx- explains that the qn was initially men selected to work for the king to build storage cities on some days and then they would return to their homes. Then it became clear that his qn was not causing ia any harm so it was expanded so that every citizen of mixvn could use them for labor. The decree was then expanded to make the building of the storage cities more difficult for initially they were given bricks and then they were only given straw and they had to make their own bricks. As the decree to build the storage cities became more difficult there other responsibilities were not removed. They still had to do field work, dig holes, remove waste, etc. oanx also notes that ia were considered to be the kings slaves. drxt gave them a small amount of bread, permission to catch fish, and permission to take from gardens cucumber and melon.
  10. 10. C. epxetq- explains that the tax collectors were foremen to supervise the construction of storage cities. Unlike all other miyxtn he explain the goal was to drive the ia out of mixvn with the qn of building storage cities. D. l`paxa`- explains that the "miQn i´¥U" are actual tax collectors that collected weekly ½¦ ¦ x ¨ and monthly taxes. The iepr was the burden of having the fruits of their labor taken away. C. mialn- explains that the "miQn i´¥U" are another example of the evil of the mixvn. ia ½¦ ¦ x ¨ paid a qn to the mixvn since they arrived there. This is why the `xwn says "miQn i´¥U" ½¦ ¦ x ¨ were appointed and not a qn as it was the norm for aliens to pay a qn. Now drxt appointed ministers to force taxes through torture. Since ia were already willingly paying taxes the "miQn i´¥U" were only a pretext for torture. mialn cites lfg who ½¦ ¦ x ¨ maintain that the sites selected for storehouses were purposely chosen for their inability to support a structure. This would cause ia to constantly need to rebuild the structure. :ia ipRn Evw¨e© uŸt¦ o´¥e§ d† x¦ o¬¥ FzŸ E´ r§i ÆxW£ «© § ai † § ¦ ¾ I x § i k A §i M ½ ` P © ¤ `k ¥ ª ® ¤11. What is meant by the use of a double expression to describe the growth of ia? A. `xfr oa`- explains that each word refers to a different aspect of the miraculous growth of ia: 1. "d† x¦i"- they maintained their pace of reproduction as it was before the iepr; and A§ ¤ 2. "uŸt¦i"- they broke the normal barriers of reproduction, as x†B u¬¥tE" i g zldw x§ ® c¨ xŸ ¥ "W«g¨ EP¬¤ X¦i. ¨p k §12. The word "Evw¨e©" does not appropriately describe how the mixvn felt about ia. cgt and d`xi ª ¾I describe a feeling off dread whereas xrv and dwevn are used to describe a present and actual discomfort. A. balx- explains that now seeing that their plans to curtail the growth of ia backfired they came to despise ia? Here balx mentions his second zlrez (benefit/lesson)16. We see the poor character of the mixvn as they expressed jealousy and cruelty in response to the good fortune of ia’ constitution and fertility. The poor character s of the mixvn brought them to do all manner of atrocities mentioned in the narrative.16.balx at the end of every grouping of narrative he lists the lessons learnt from the narrative.
  11. 11. B. l`paxa`- explains that the more ia were daxn the less the mixvn were able to control them. ia were constantly trespassing through fields and stealing cucumber, melon, and fish. So ia i¥Rn Evw¨e© for their fields and ponds were being plundered. In the weqt †§ ¦ ¾I p ª the word "uŸt¦i" could also be referring to boundaries of private property, as i g zldw x§ ® "W«g¨ EP¬¤ X¦i x†B u¬¥tE". ¨ p k § c¨ xŸ¥ C. mialn- explains that initially the mixvn did not hate ia as they only wished to keep them from leaving. Now the ia were truly disgusting in the eyes of the mixvn. ÆxnŸ A dWw d´¨a£ A mdi¥gÎz` E¸ x«¨ i © ci :Kx«tA iaÎz` m¦ xvn Ec¯¦ r«© © bi ¤ g § ¨ ¨ cŸr«© ¤ I © ¤ x £n§ ¸ À ¹ ¤¨ § ¤ i ²© § ¦ a£ I :Kx«tA m† a Eca«rÎxW£ mzcŸ£ Îl¨ z` d®¤VA d†a£ Îl¨ aE mi½¦ alaE ¤¨ § d¨ ¬ § ¨ ¤ ` ¨ ¨ar M ¥µ c ¨ © cŸr k § p ¥ § ¦ ¤ ½ ´ ¨13. In bi weqt we are told that the ia served the mixvn with jxt and then ci weqt tells us, again, that the ia served the mixvn with jxt. Why is the `xwn being redundant? A. `xfr oa`- explains that after the initial ixvn plan of building storage cities failed the mixvn expanded the scope of the qn. They then permitted all mixvn to utilize the ia for all types of labor. The permission went beyond ia being normal micar. Permission was given for ia to be jxt icaer- meaning all mixvn were permitted to use ia beyond the scope of normative servitude. B. balx- cites `xfr oa` and says that the 17miqn ixy were permitted to expand the scope of their labor. balx explains "Kx«tA" as referring to impossible quotas and "dWw d´¨ar" as ¤¨ § ¨ ¨ cŸ£ À harder physical labor (“ cVA d†a£Îl¨ aE mi½¦ alaE ÆxnŸ A” So according to balx, it would d®¤ ¨ © cŸr k § p ¥ § ¦ ¤ g § ). ¨ ¸ appear, bi weqt is the llk and ci weqt contains the mihxt. C. oanx- as noted in question #10 ("ezepr ornl miqn ixy" dc) explains in a manner similar to `xfr oa`. He explains that the decrees of drxt escalated as they failed.18 D. l`paxa`- differs as to why drxt escalated the decrees, as noted in question #10. He understands the escalation as clandestine way slow down the population growth of ia.19 E. epxetq- seemingly attributes all jxt to Divine retribution.20 As noted earlier (question #10) the mixvn tried motivating the ia to leave with the qn. The mixvn saw that the ia17.It appears balx either had a different version of `xfr oa` or understood him differently. Our version states ozp" "micard wgn xzei mciardl mdixyle mixvnl zeyx, implying that the scope was expanded beyond the miqn ixy.18.It is fair to assume that mentioning jxt twice refers to both the mixy and the people of mixvn. oanx does not say this explicitly.19.As Hitler (feyni) did. Also as with oanx, though he doesn’ address it, it is fair to assume that mentioning jxt t twice refers to both the mixy and the people of mixvn.20.Again it would not be unfair to assume that mentioning jxt twice refers to both the mixy and the people of mixvn.
  12. 12. were willing to debase themselves by building for drxt to enable them to remain in mixvn. This lack of "dvr" was a hg that caused the mixvn to take the ia as slaves. epxetq goes on to explain the the ia continued to sin in deeds and ideas enabling the mixvn to become harsher oppressors. F. mialn- also explains that the servitude of ia was expanded from drxt to the common citizens. He describes ia as "lkl xwtd eide micarl micar"21. He explains jxt zecear, as lfg, to mean pointless work. He uses these miweqt to demonstrate why the people of mixvn were fit for punishment as drxt was. The people of mixvn were not just interested in stopping the population growth of ia, rather the work that was forced was specifically to “make their lives bitter.” zi†Xd m¬¥ e§ dxtWÆzg`«¨ m³¥ x¸ ` zŸx¦ar«¨ zŸNin«© m¦ xvn K¤ ´¤ Æxn`¸I© eh p ¥ © W ½¨ § ¦ © © d W W£ ® § ¦ d c§ © § l i ½© § ¦ ln ¤ Ÿ ¦ ¤ I †o´¤ n£«©Æ`Ed o¬¥ ` m¦i¨a`«¨ r o† `xE zF½Ix¦ar´¨ ` Æo¤ c¤ iA xn`Ÿ© fh :d«rER Y ¦ de AÎm ¦ ®p § ¨ dÎl © zi ¦ § ¤ § ¦ dÎz ¤ k § N© § ¤ ÀI ¨ :d¨g¨ `e† z¬© `e§ FzŸ i «¨ e d AÎm ¦ ½ ` ¦14. If the objective of drxt was genocide why use two midwives and why only the males? A. `xfr oa`- explains that these two woman were the chief midwives who represented and collected taxes from the midwives. He also explains that drxt’ objective was to s secretly cause the population to decline as the murder of a nation was overt qng. This made gradual murder through the midwives, who would claim the baby as stillborn, a perfect machination. B. balx- explains as `xfr oa` regarding the gradual genocide22 but he doesn’ address t why there were only two midwives. C. oanx- in "el dnkgzp dad" dc explains that this was part of the larger clandestine plan ("el dnkgzp dad") to curb the population of ia as the officers gave council that people of mixvn would not tolerate outright slaughter. D. epxetq- explains that there were certainly more than two midwives for all of ia. In this verse drxt began his plan with the two most trusted in the capital city. E. l`paxa`- makes six points: 1. in his questions dismisses the approach of lfg as hyt. lfg explain that through astrology it was foretold that a son would be born to redeem the ia. l`paxa` asks that if this was so why was there no protest when drxt’ daughter s21. And again it would not be unfair to assume that mentioning jxt twice refers to both the mixy and the people of mixvn.22.Oddly he doesn’ cite `xfr oa`. t
  13. 13. raised an ixar child as royalty? 2. l`paxa` explains that this was another mechanization to slow the population growth of ia. Outright slaughter of ia would be a disgrace whereas choking the boys and claiming they were stillborn would cause population decline, not outrage. 3. He further explains that the females would be left to be absorbed in the ixvn population, were not firm in their ixar natures, and they did not pose a military danger to the mixvn as woman didn’ fight in wars. t 4. He accepts that it is impossible that there were only two midwives for all of ia. He also rejects the premise that these were the chief midwives as then they should have been called "zeclind zexy", as with the "miwynd xy", "mite`d xy", and the "migahd xy". He explains that the names dxty and dret were two roles that comprised a midwife “ team” The dxty’ job was was to make the child . s look nice (clid z` xityl) and the dret’ job was was to assist and give strength s to the birthing mother.23 5. According to l`paxa` there were many teams and each team of midwives was instructed separately. 6. Lastly, l`paxa` maintains that it is not conceivable that these midwives were zeixar for how could he trust or consider that they would follow through with his scheme? So he reads the verse as if it states zŸx¦ar«¨ z` zŸ† ©n«© , making the ® § ¦d I c§Ni § l zŸx¦ar«¨ the direct object. ® § ¦d I F. mialn- makes four points: 1. He accepts that there could not be only two midwives for all ia. He explains midwifery was a team effort. One to remove assist with labor on the birthing stone and the other to cut the cord and tend to the newborn’ needs. s 2. He cites `xfr oa` and l`paxa` and explains that these were the chief midwives or midwife teams. 3. He also explains that the midwives were zixvn and reads the verse as if it states zŸx¦ar«¨ z` zŸN©n«© , making the zŸx¦ar«¨ the direct object. ® § ¦d I c§ i § l † ® § ¦d I 4. He notes the peculiarity of the double expression of "xn`ie" in verses eh and fh. He explains the the weqt very careful to note that this is an "dxin`" and not a "ieev". As noted earlier drxt’ schemes were clandestine so as to avoid s outrage. drxt, here, advised them to kill the boys as part of the overall scheme. Had this been a "ieev" the midwives would have been sentenced to death for disobeying a royal decree.23.As in cg«¨ s† W`e§ mŸ ` drt` d´¨lF« M w®¨ `z` Wi†g` m¨½ Fr«¥ ÆiziW¡ ¤ ci an diryi (I have long time held my peace; I © i ` § ¤ X ¤ ¤ § ¤ c¥ I © R © § ¤ x£ «© l n ¦ ¸ g © ¬ ½ ¦ ¥ have kept still, and refrained myself; now will I cry like a woman in labor; I will gasp and pant together.) The crying referred to here is the prayer and the encouragement of the dret.
  14. 14. m¦ ®¨vn K¤ ´¤ o† l` x¬¤ C x²¤ `«© EU¨ `´le§ midŸ `´¨ ` ÆzŸNin«© ¨o`³¤ Y© fi ix § ¦ ln di¥ £ A ¦ W£ M ½ r Ÿ ¤ ½¦ l¡ dÎz ¤ c§ © § d xi ¦ :mic¨ idÎz` ¨oi¤gY© «¦ l § © ¤ † © § e I15. Why does the `xwn need to say both "o† l` x¬¤ C x²¤ `«M EU¨ `´le" and "mic¨ i§ dÎz` ¨oi¤gY©"? di¥ £ A ¦ W£ © ½ r Ÿ § ¤ «¦ l © ¤ † © § e I A. `xfr oa`- explains that they kept the boys alive with all their might. B. balx- explains as that they made an effort to keep the boys alive. Here balx mentions his third zlrez (benefit/lesson)24 regarding the character of the midwives. We learn from them that we must fear God most of all, and disregard orders that are evil. For God is the “ruler of rulers.” C. mialn- explains as this was not jlnd zevn the punishment for murder would be entirely on their account "m¦i®¨vn K¤ ´¤ o† l` x¬¤ C x²¤ `«M EU¨ `´le". So they feared God and x § ¦ ln di¥ £ A ¦ W£ © ½ r Ÿ § ¤ they, as lfg state, supplied the boys with food and water "mic¨ i§ dÎz` ¨oi¤gY©". «¦ l © ¤ † © § e I oi¤gY© d®¤d x´¨ Cd o† U£ rECn od¨ xn`Ÿe© zŸNin«© Æm¦ xvnÎK¤ n `³¨w¦ © gi † © § e G © a ¨ © zi ¦ r © ¬ © ¤ l ¤ ´I c§ © § l i¸© § ¦ l «¤ x § I I ¤ ½ ½ :mic¨ idÎz` «¦ l § © ¤16. What was drxt’ intention when he spoke to the midwives? s A. `xfr oa`- explains that he intended to execute them as they violated his decree. B. epxetq- explains that drxt was firstly upset with the betrayal of the midwives as they didn’ refuse his order. Secondly, he was upset by their actions for they counseled the t mothers how to properly care for the newborns. C. l`paxa`- explains in a similar manner to epxetq. He explains that drxt was as upset by their actions for they counseled the mothers how to properly care for the newborns. He also notes that drxt’ comments to the midwives were in keeping with the s secretive nature of his command as he said "d®¤d x´¨ Cd o† U£ rECn" without specifying G © a ¨ © zi ¦ r © ¬ © ¤ "d®¤d x´¨ Cd". G © a¨© D. mialn- concurs with the l`paxa` about the secretive nature (see #14) of drxt’ dvr s (see #14). He explains "d®¤d x´¨ Cd o† U£ rECn" as referring to "mic¨ i§ dÎz` ¨oi¤gY©" as this G © a ¨ © zi ¦ r © ¬ © ¤ «¦ l © ¤ † © § e I was an active disregard of drxt’ wish. The midwives not following the advice of s drxt was a minor issue. The midwives openly flouting the will of drxt was something that drxt thought to be inexcusable.24.balx at the end of every grouping of narrative he lists the lessons learnt from the narrative.
  15. 15. d¨d zF´igÎi«¦ zŸx¦ar«¨ zŸx¦vOd mi²¦ Pk `¯ i´¦ dŸx§RÎl` ÆzŸNin«© ¨ox³© Y © hi P¥ ½ ¨ M ® § ¦ d I† § ¦ © W¨ © Ÿ M r © ¤ c§ © § d § n`Ÿ I l ½ :Ec«¨ ¨e§ z¤† in«© o²¤ l` `FaY mx¸ A li c¤ © § d d¥ £ ¯ ¨ ¤h § N ¤17. When the midwives responded to drxt what was meant by o²¤ l` `FaY mx¸ A d¨d zF´igÎi«¦ d¥ £ ¯ ¨ ¤h § P ¥ ¤ ½ ¨ M" "Ec«¨ ¨e§ z¤† in«© li c¤ © § d? N A. `xfr oa`- explains that the midwives claimed that the woman of ia were of exceptional strength ("zF´ig") and when they arrived the children were already born. ¨ B. balx- explains as `xfr oa` but doesn’ cite him. Here balx mentions his fourth t 25 zlrez (benefit/lesson) regarding the character of the midwives. We learn from them that one should not rely on a miracle to be saved. Though they acted correctly because they feared God the created alibis for drxt. C. mayx- explains as `xfr oa` but he adds that they were "zegwt".26 D. epxetq- explains that the midwives claimed that the woman of ia were expert midwives. Any attempt at sabotage would have been discovered and they no longer would be called for births. E. l`paxa`- explains: 1. that "zF´ig" refers to expertise in infant care;27 or ¨ 2. as like a dig they are able to handle the birthing process by themselves. F. mialn- explains that they explained that "zŸx¦ar«¨ zŸx¦vOd mi²¦ Pk `¯ " for they were ® § ¦ d I† § ¦ © W¨ © Ÿ I l experts in midwifery. The midwives also added that the couldn’ murder the children t on the birthing stones because "Ec«¨ ¨e§ z¤†N©n«© o²¤ l` `FaY mx¸ A” li c¤ i § d d¥ £ ¯ ¨ ¤h § . ¤ zŸNin«© E¬ x«¨Îi«¦ id§i © `k :cŸ n Envr«©e© m²¨d a¤¯¦ e© zŸNin«© mi† l¡ ahi¥ © k c§ © § d ` § i M ¾¦ † ` § †§ © I r ¨ xI c§ © § l dŸ ` ¤ ¬I « ® ¦ :miY¨ m† l U©¬©e© mi®¦ l¡ dÎz` «¦ A d¨ rI dŸ ` «¨ ¤ ¤18. In what way was Hashem “good”to the midwives? How does the increase of ia connect to25.balx at the end of every grouping of narrative he lists the lessons learnt from the narrative.26.Likely meaning that they were bright and trained in midwifery.27.He explains the etymology as similar to z´¥ dMd `E´ l®¥ vaTn mi¦lrRÎa© [l¦ g] igÎWi`Îo¤ r¯¨iFd§iÎo¤ Ed¸¨¨aE" k bk a l`eny ` ¨ ¦ d `§ § © ¦ À ¨ § x i ²© ¦ ²© «¦ A c¨ « a ip § ":b¤ Xd mF¬iA x`Ÿd KF¬ A [ix£ d] dix£ dÎz«` d¯¨ de§ cºi `Ede§Â a`FnÆl`x£ ipW ((K) And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, the son l «¨ © § A © z § ²¦` «¨ † ²¦` «¨ ¤ M ¦ x¨ © ¨ ½ ¥ ¦` ³¥ § of a brave man,of Kabzeel, who had done many acts, he slew two lion hearted men of Moab; he went down also and slew a lion in the midst of a pit in a time of snow;). The ixw is "l¦i²© and the aizk is "¦i²© l`paxa`, seemingly, g" g". merges the two together to create a meaning of alacrity and competence in midwifery. "l¦i²© would be the alacrity g" and competence. "¦i²© would be the midwifery, as in keeping the newborn alive. g"
  16. 16. Hashem’ “ s good” toward the midwives? What does the midwives’fear of God have to do with making houses? If the houses are for the midwives why does the verse say "m† l" and not d¨ ¤ "odl"? A. `xfr oa`- explains that since the midwives feared Hashem and not drxt Hashem was good to them. B. mayx- explains that the houses were to keep the midwives from assisting with any births. C. balx- explains that Hashem made royal houses come from them. This was fitting as the role of a king is to enforce justice and, despite the decree of their king, they maintained the just path. Here balx mentions his fifth zlrez (benefit/lesson)28 regarding Hashem’ reward to the midwives. We learn that Hashem s appropriately rewards those who fear him. D. l`paxa`- offers a number of explanations: 1. He address the juxtaposition of "zŸN©n«© mi† l¡ ahi¥ © " and "cŸ n Envr«©e© m²¨d a¤¯¦Ie©". c§ i § l dŸ ` ¤ ¬I ® ¦ ` § †§ © I r ¨ x « Hashem was good to the midwives for ia paid them double as they were aware that they violated the decree of the king, allowing the ia to grow. 2. He explains that, perhaps, Hashem was good to the midwives through divine intervention. By their nature they were wicked29 and Hashem assisted them in overcoming their wicked traits. 3. He suggests that "miY¨ m† l U©¬©e©" is another reward for their fearing Him. He «¦ A d¨ rI ¤ explains that the use of the word "zia" is a fnx to wealth, honor, children, etc. as with cec the verse states l`xU¦i i´¦ rÎlr ÆmihtŸ izi³¦v x¸¤ ` mFÀIdÎon§lE" `i a l`eny ¥ ¨§ O© © ½ ¦ § W ¦ E ¦ W£ « © ¦ ":d«eŸ i§ LNÎdU£«© z¦i† M d½eŸ i§ ÆL§l ci³¦ de§ Li®ai§Ÿ Mn Ll izŸ i¦ d«e©. ¨d ¬ § ¤ ri aÎi ¦ ¨d © B ¦ ¤ `Îl¨ ¦ †§ ¦ g p £ « ¬ 4. He then suggests a completely different approach noting the use of "mdl" instead of the gender appropriate "odl". He explains that the houses were the houses of ia as they filled with children, as a result of the midwives disobedience. 5. He explains "miY¨ m† l U©¬©e©" as having no connection to either “ «¦ A d¨ rI ¤ good” that Hashem granted the midwives or the sustained birth rate of ia. He explains that "miY¨ m† l U©¬©e©" serves as a lead in to "Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d cFN¦Id o´¥dÎl¨ ". drxt, in «¦ A d¨ rI ¤ ª § © ¨` © À © A © M ½ ¸ response to the midwives claim that the woman often handled the delivery before they arrived, set up birthing houses where mothers would go to the midwives. Outside these homes drxt posted guards who would grab the28.balx at the end of every grouping of narrative he lists the lessons learnt from the narrative.29.l`paxa` may be referring to their predispositions. The `xwn describes ixvn as a "adx", as ExŸr© wi†e l¤¬¤ m¦ixvnE" f l f § i x¨ ad ¾© § ¦ ® ¦ ":z¤ W m† ad¬© z`Ÿl iz`´¨wÆo¥¨ (For the Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose; therefore have I called this a «¨ d © x f¨ ¦ x ¨ kl ¥ ½ people, Rahab who sits still.). "ad¬© translated by iyx as "gexd iqb" (haughty/proud). All people begin with © x" certain predispositions and often have the ability to overcome them. Here as a reward for acting justly Hashem, perhaps, removed their predisposition to be “ Rahab” .
  17. 17. children when they heard the sounds of birth and "Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d". He explains ª § © ¨` © ½ ¸ that this explanation sheds light on why the decree of "Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d" begins ª § © ¨` © ½ ¸ "mzq" (without any introduction or explanation) as "miY¨ m† l U©¬©e©" served as «¦ A d¨ rI ¤ an introduction. 6. l`paxa` also cites the narratives of the dnegpz yxcn and xfril` iaxc iwxt.30 E. mialn- explains that drxt understood that the excuse of the midwives was a lie, and wished to cause them harm. Nevertheless, "zŸN©n«© mi† l¡ ahi¥ © " and drxt was unable c§ i § l dŸ ` ¤ ¬I ® ¦ retaliate. In addition to Hashem making them “ untouchable” he was also "ahi¥e©" in ¤ ¬I terms of earthly reward as the ia were "cŸ n Envr«©e© m²¨d a¤¯¦Ie©", allowing the midwives a ` § †§ © I r ¨ x « huge source of income. mialn explains that "cŸ n Envr«©e© m²¨d a¤¯¦Ie©" serves a dual purpose ` § †§ © I r ¨ x « as it sets up the next verse. drxt saw, despite his plans, "cŸ n Envr«©e© m²¨d a¤¯¦Ie©". He ` § †§ © I r ¨ x « realized that covert means of population control were not effective, so he overtly decreed "Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d cFN¦Id o´¥dÎl¨ ". mialn cites l`paxa`’ explanation of m† l U©¬©e©" ª § © ¨` © À © A © M ½ ¸ s d¨ rI ¤ "miY¨ , as drxt’ intent was to have guarded houses as the only places where the «¦ A s midwives could work. When the guard heard the sound of birth ÆdxŸ i§ d cFN¦Id o´¥dÎl¨ " ¨` © À © A © M ¸ "Edki¦lWY. ª §© ½ z† dÎl¨ e§ Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ id cFN¦ d o´¥dÎl¨ xŸ l FOrÎl¨ l 31dŸx§R e´© i © ak A © k ª § © ¨` § © À I © A © M n`¥ †© k§ © ½ ¸ ® r © v§ ½ t :oE« gY I© §19. Why does drxt now choose to give an overt order that demonstrates his desire to stifle the ixar population growth? A. balx- explains that since all else failed drxt was forced into overt action. He also cites lfg who say that drxt’ astrologers predicted a redeemer would be born during s this time period and it was only for a year, a month, or a day.32 B. oanx- explains ("el dnkgzp dad" dc) that there was still a covert element within this decree. drxt didn’ order his officers to carry out this act, rather he quietly spread the t decree only amongst the mixvn. When a ixvn carried out the decree drxt would send someone to “ investigate” This open neglect allowed the mixvn to freely search the . homes of the ia for children, thus with dyn the `xwn states "FpitSd cFr dlk«¨Î`Ÿ e" . ¦ § © » ´¨ § i l §30.They involve the astrologers and the sorcerers predicting a redeemer and Hebrew and Egyptian children both being thrown in the river. Two interesting points stand out from xfril` iaxc iwxt: an “ hour” of Hashem’ is s eighty-three and a third years (this was how long l`xyi ipa worked for the mixvn), and the decree of ÆdxŸ id" ¨` § © ¸ "Edki¦lWY was three and a third years. ª § © ½31.`xfr oa` notes here that drxt is a generic title for the king of mixvn and also notes for proof that in jp the title of drxt is often followed by the name of the drxt.32.balx does mention that the prediction was a "zil`xyi oa" would be the redeemer. This contradicts the miyxcn that write that drxt even killed the ixvn boys because of the decree.
  18. 18. C. mialn- explains that at this point drxt was left with no option but to publicly decree the murder as all of his clandestine machinations failed.20. Why didn’ drxt decree Edki¦lWY ÆdxŸ i§ d mixarl cFN¦Id o´¥dÎl¨ ? t ª § © ¨` © ½ ¸ À © A© M A. l`paxa`- first rejects lfg’ approach to this question.33 He claims their approach is s 34 "miaezkd ihytn `ed wegx" and if it were so the verse should have mentioned that the decree was one day only. l`paxa` explains that it didn’ need to be stated as it was t juxtaposed next to the decree of "miY¨ m† l U©¬©e©". As noted earlier the objective of «¦ A d¨ rI ¤ these houses was to ensure that woman didn’ give birth before the midwives arrived t and have guards at the ready to dispose of the boys. B. mialn- explains as l`paxa`.33.See note #31.34.Perhaps it is "miaezkd ihytn `ed wegx" as all plans until this verse are focused on decreasing the population of l`xyi ipa and such a universal decree is not in keeping with drxt’ objective. s

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