Chapter 5 Greek

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Chapter 5 Greek

  1. 1. Chapter 5 - Greek Art-
  2. 2. Early Greek World 2300BCE
  3. 3. Later Greek Colonies
  4. 5. Greek Origins <ul><li>Aegean and European traits </li></ul><ul><li>Formed Independent city states or Poleis </li></ul><ul><li>Political rule was first by Kings –then by  Tyrants </li></ul><ul><li>Tyrants overthrown in Athens 2500 years ago. Democracy established </li></ul><ul><li>Olympics – 776 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks regarded themselves as Hellas, rather than Barbarians ( which surrounded the boundaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Western colonies in Italy = Best preserved temples </li></ul>
  5. 6. Greek Humanism <ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Art, History, Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Western culture = taken from the Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>Religion- Like divinities of the Near East, the gods assumed human form and were immortal </li></ul><ul><li>“ Humans, are the measure of all things” from Philosopher Protagoras </li></ul><ul><li>Athens - HUGE symbol of Greek Culture </li></ul><ul><li>- Great Plays held there, Market places, Gymnasiums </li></ul><ul><li>Socrates and Plato= encouraged philosophy and Plato formulated his idea for the best government </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks loved exercise, education and daily life </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks borrowed from Egypt and Near east – owed debts to them </li></ul>
  6. 7. Greek Civilization <ul><li>Slavery was natural </li></ul><ul><li>Greek women were not equal with men </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy – dominated by white males based on military thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Greek men – educated with Homer’s Hero’s </li></ul><ul><li>War- among the city states was atrocious & fell into Rome’s Imperialism </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Geometric and Orientalzing Periods <ul><li>Reading and writing lost, frescos sculpting </li></ul><ul><li>Disappearance of Kings led to loss of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Trade began </li></ul><ul><li>Homer’s stories memorized </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic games start </li></ul>
  8. 9. Geometric Krater – Athens 740 BCE angular motifs, key/meander patterns = Geometric Style
  9. 10. Hero and Centaur <ul><li>Centaur – Greek Invention </li></ul>
  10. 11. Orientalizing Art Mantiklos Apollo Bronze, 700-800 BCE Thebes, Greece <ul><li>Statue made for a god for a favor in return </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics - </li></ul>
  11. 12. Corinthian black figure amphora with animal friezes 625-600 BCE <ul><li>Organized bands </li></ul><ul><li>What influence? </li></ul>
  12. 13. Stone Temples 625 BCE <ul><li>Trading with Egypt the Greeks saw the monumental sculpture of the Egyptians </li></ul><ul><li>Temple A for unknown deity </li></ul>
  13. 14. Lady of Auxerre – 650 BCE <ul><li>Statue of a goddess of Kore </li></ul><ul><li>Gesture of Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Daedalic </li></ul>
  14. 15. Kouros – 600 BCE <ul><li>Like Egyptian sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Funerary sculpture– stood over grave </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Egyptian however very different </li></ul><ul><li>Liberated from stone block </li></ul><ul><li>Nude </li></ul>
  15. 16. Calf Bearer- Greece 560 BCE <ul><li>Offering </li></ul><ul><li>Left foot forward – trait of Kouri </li></ul><ul><li>Archaic Statue Smile </li></ul><ul><li>V shape body </li></ul><ul><li>Thin Cloak </li></ul>
  16. 17. Krisos Boy – Greece 530 BCE <ul><li>Died a Hero’s death </li></ul><ul><li>Skin left natural color </li></ul><ul><li>Polished (eyes, lips, drapery were painted encaustic) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Peplos Kore – 530 BCE <ul><li>What shape is the Peplos Kore? </li></ul><ul><li>Kore and other sculptures had been knocked over by the Persians during their sack of the acropolis in 480bce </li></ul><ul><li>Not sure if figure is goddess or Maiden </li></ul>
  18. 19. Kore from the Acropolis, Athens 520-510BCE
  19. 20. Early Greek Arch. <ul><li>Early Greek arch. did not survive due to the use of mudbrick </li></ul><ul><li>Oak columns were replaced with Marble </li></ul><ul><li>Their temples influenced western world </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Temple shrines – the altar lay outside the temple – at the east end facing the rising sun (cult sculpture outside of temple) </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks used proportion in their temple plans </li></ul><ul><li>Classical temples are longer </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony and music was in proportion </li></ul>
  20. 21. Doric and Ionic Temples
  21. 22. Doric and Ionic Temples
  22. 23. <ul><li>Greek Arch. ( Balance and Clarity) 550BCE Used columns for load bearing not like Egyptians Temple of Hera I Cella is split in middle Doric Capitals </li></ul>
  23. 25. West Pediment from the Temple of Artemis – 600-580 BCE <ul><li>Pediment </li></ul><ul><li>What is the problem with Pediments? </li></ul><ul><li>Arm bent ( pinwheel) </li></ul><ul><li>Gorgon Medusa, Chrysaor and pegasus – Medusa’s Children --- </li></ul>
  24. 26. Reconstruction of the Siphnian Treasury – Delphi, Greece 530 BCE <ul><li>Set up for storage of offerings and votives </li></ul><ul><li>Caryatid- A female figure that supports a column </li></ul><ul><li>Frieze on all 4 sides </li></ul>
  25. 27. Gigantomachy- From Siphnian Treasury– Delphi 530 BCE <ul><li>-Gigantomachy – battle of gods and giants ( popular theme) </li></ul><ul><li>-Apollo and Artemis attacking the giants </li></ul>
  26. 28. Francois Vase – 570BCE <ul><li>Archaic painted vases </li></ul><ul><li>Black figure painting </li></ul><ul><li>Volute with handles </li></ul><ul><li>By Kleitias and Ergotimos </li></ul><ul><li>200 Figures in 6 registers </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are all from Greek Mythology </li></ul>
  27. 30. Exekias - Achilles and Ajax Blk figure ptg 540BCE <ul><li>No horizontal bands </li></ul><ul><li>Amphora – a jar to hold wine or water </li></ul>
  28. 31. Exekias- Achllies and Ajax playing dice game – Bilingual Painting
  29. 32. Euphronios – Herkales wrestling Antaios – 510BCE <ul><li>Thinner glaze for giant </li></ul><ul><li>Compositional human figure not correct </li></ul>
  30. 33. Euthymides – 3 Revelers 510BCE
  31. 34. Onesimos – Girl Preparing to Bathe
  32. 35. Temple of Aphaia- Greece 500-490 BCE <ul><li>Doric columns, displaced </li></ul><ul><li>Local goddess worship </li></ul><ul><li>Statue added – placed on central axis </li></ul>
  33. 36. Temple plan of Aphaia <ul><li>Three aisles dividing up space </li></ul><ul><li>Three rooms rooms </li></ul>
  34. 37. Dying Warrior from the East Pediment of the Temple of Aphaia – 490-480BCE
  35. 38. Dying Warrior from the West Pediment – 500-490 BCE
  36. 39. Temple of Hera II – 460 BCE
  37. 40. Temple of Zeus – Greece 470-456BCE
  38. 42. The Seer 470-456BCE
  39. 43. Athena, Herakles and Atlas – with the apples of Hesperides – 470-456BCE <ul><li>Metopes </li></ul>
  40. 44. Kritios Boy – 480 BCE <ul><li>Contrapposto (counterbalance) </li></ul>
  41. 45. Discus Thrower ( Roman Copy) 450 BCE <ul><li>Tension in body </li></ul>
  42. 46. Polykleitos -Doryphorus – 450-440BCE <ul><li>Perfect image of man </li></ul><ul><li>Well balanced </li></ul><ul><li>Lost in Pompeii </li></ul>
  43. 47. The Athenian Acropolis <ul><li>Reconstruction of the Acropolis after the Persian sack of 480BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks unite – Delian Unite </li></ul>
  44. 48. Iktinos and KALLIKRATES - PARTHENON
  45. 49. Parthenon Architects -Iktinos and Kallikrates <ul><li>X = 2y+1 </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonious Design and mathematical precision </li></ul><ul><li>Strict guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing doric and ionic </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular shape </li></ul><ul><li>Athena Statue </li></ul>
  46. 50. Phidias <ul><li>Athenia Parthenos in the cella of the Parthenon </li></ul>
  47. 51. Lapith vs. Centaurs <ul><li>Almost fully in the round </li></ul><ul><li>Metopes ( best preserved) </li></ul><ul><li>Greeks have the upper hand </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Body </li></ul>
  48. 52. East Pediment of Parthenon Helios, Horses and Dionysos ( Herkales) 438 BCE <ul><li>Who did the Pediment celebrate? </li></ul><ul><li>East pediment damaged when the apse was added to the Partheon </li></ul><ul><li>Helios emerging </li></ul><ul><li>Herkales </li></ul>
  49. 53. The Three Graces <ul><li>Figures related to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Clinging </li></ul><ul><li>Drapery </li></ul><ul><li>Pose </li></ul>
  50. 54. Inner Frieze - Panathenaic Festival Procession –every 4 years in Athens <ul><li>Roles of Deities </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite, left hand to draw her son Eros’s to the Athenians </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration </li></ul>
  51. 55. Propylaia – Acropolis – 437BCE <ul><li>Two orders mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Acropolis Gateway </li></ul>
  52. 57. Erechtheion– Acropolis 437BCE <ul><li>Ionic roof supported columns </li></ul><ul><li>Doric order was ext. </li></ul><ul><li>Caryatids(Porch of Maidens) </li></ul><ul><li>Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Honored Athenia </li></ul>
  53. 58. Temple of Athena Nike -427Bce <ul><li>Monumental, gateway </li></ul><ul><li>No decoration </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic Order </li></ul><ul><li>Amphiprostyle with 4 columns </li></ul><ul><li>in the front </li></ul>
  54. 59. Nike , adjusting her sandal 410 BCE <ul><li>Graceful </li></ul><ul><li>Delicate incised drapery, revealing body </li></ul>
  55. 60. Grave stele of Hegeso, Athens 400BCE
  56. 61. Lekythhoi – Perfumed oil flask <ul><li>White ground technique </li></ul><ul><li>Offerings for deceased </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of colors, meant that the owner did not use it as a eveyday object </li></ul>
  57. 62. The Late Classical Period <ul><li>Peloponnesian War – 431 BCE- defeat of Athens – Greece drained of stength. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparta was the victor </li></ul><ul><li>Greek cities united – Philip II came into power took over, he was then assassinated in 336 and Alexander the Great ( His son) succeeded him. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander overthrew Persian Empire, Egypt and reached India </li></ul>
  58. 63. Art in Greek Late Classical Period <ul><li>Contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>Idealization of forms </li></ul><ul><li>Polykleitos – canon of proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Praxiteles, - great sculpture of his avg., 1/8 of the body heads, and “s” curve frames </li></ul>
  59. 64. Praxiteles – Aphrodite of Knidos <ul><li>Sensual </li></ul><ul><li>She is admired </li></ul><ul><li>She is taking a cloak off a water jar </li></ul><ul><li>S curve </li></ul>
  60. 65. Hermes and Infant Dionysos – 340BCE <ul><li>S curve </li></ul><ul><li>Dangle grapes to Hermes </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction between a child and a adult </li></ul><ul><li>Delicate </li></ul>
  61. 66. Grave Stele of a young hunter – 340BCE
  62. 67. Lysippos - Late Classical Sculptor <ul><li>Alexander the Great – selected him for official portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Heads are roughly 1/8 of the body More slender then Polykleitos </li></ul><ul><li>Apoxyomenos ( Scraper) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in weight, </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks out of box </li></ul><ul><li>Scraping oil off </li></ul><ul><li>Far away look </li></ul>
  63. 68. Lysippos - Herkales <ul><li>Weary Herkales </li></ul><ul><li>Overly muscular </li></ul><ul><li>prop to hold him up </li></ul>
  64. 69. Alexander the Great <ul><li>He believed Lysippos could only capture his portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Macedonian Court is where he ruled </li></ul>
  65. 70. Battle of Issus – 310 BC – Philoxenos of Eretria
  66. 72. Polykleitos the Younger – Greece 350BCE Theater, Greece 350 BCE
  67. 73. Polykleitos The Younger – 350 BCE <ul><li>Corinthian Capital </li></ul>
  68. 74. Hellenistic Period Temple of Apollo <ul><li>Dipteral plan </li></ul>
  69. 75. Stoa of Attalos II Agora Athens, Greece 150 BCE <ul><li>Stores </li></ul><ul><li>21 shops </li></ul><ul><li>More common in Hellenistic </li></ul><ul><li>More widely spaced then temple arch. </li></ul>
  70. 76. Altar of Zeus – 175 BCE , Turkey Pergamon ( Alexander’s Empire)
  71. 77. Athena battling Alkyoneos – Gigantomachy Frieze - 175 BCE <ul><li>Grabs hair of Alkyoneos </li></ul><ul><li>Nike crowns </li></ul><ul><li>Athena </li></ul><ul><li>Drapery </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus throws thunderbolts </li></ul><ul><li>Battle </li></ul>
  72. 78. Epigonos – Gallic Chieftain 230bce
  73. 79. Dying Gaul – 230 BCE
  74. 80. Nike, 190 BCE
  75. 81. Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander – Venus de Milo aka Aphrodite
  76. 82. Aphrodite, Eros and Pan – 100BCE
  77. 83. Seated Boxer – 100-50 BCE
  78. 84. Old Market Woman – 150-100 BCE
  79. 85. Demosthenes – 280 BCE
  80. 86. Laocoon and his Sons- early first century CE

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